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Article
Publication date: 10 January 2023

Bijoy Rakshit and Samaresh Bardhan

The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of bank competition on SMEs' access to finance in selected Indian states. Using 9,281 firm-level…

Abstract

Purpose

The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of bank competition on SMEs' access to finance in selected Indian states. Using 9,281 firm-level observations from World Bank Enterprises Survey (WBES), this study tests the market power hypothesis versus the information hypothesis to determine whether bank competition promotes access to finance for financially constrained firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors measure state-level bank competition using two structural indicators: the Herfindahl Hirschman Index (HHI) and three bank concentration ratios (CR3). The authors apply simple probit regression, probit model with sample selection (PSS) and two-stage least squares (2SLS) to examine the effects of bank competition on firms' financing constraints.

Findings

The results obtained through PSS and 2SLS indicate that bank competition alleviates firm's financing constraints and positively impacts its need for a bank loan and the decision to apply for bank credit. However, the prevalence of bank competition in promoting access to finance is more pronounced for small and medium-sized firms than for large firms. Higher bank competition also alleviates the credit constraints faced by female entrepreneurs.

Practical implications

Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and other government stakeholders should ensure bank competition without hampering the agenda of bank consolidation to facilitate access to credit for SMEs. Regulators should also identify and monitor the financial institutions that make an insignificant contribution to promoting competitiveness in the financial system.

Originality/value

Previous studies primarily investigate the effect of bank competition on a firm's access to finance from advanced and cross-country perspectives. This study contributes to the literature on bank competition by examining its role in promoting access to finance from an emerging economy standpoint. Measurement of bank competition indicators at the state level is an additional contribution.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 June 2019

Bijoy Rakshit and Samaresh Bardhan

Bank competition and financial stability are often cited as important drivers of economic growth. Bank competition plays a very significant role in enhancing the…

Abstract

Purpose

Bank competition and financial stability are often cited as important drivers of economic growth. Bank competition plays a very significant role in enhancing the efficiency and determining the stability of a financial system. However, a question of interest is whether bank competition enhances or hindrances the economic growth of a country. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of bank competition and financial stability on economic growth for selected South Asian economies over the period 1997–2016.

Design/methodology/approach

To investigate whether bank competition enhances or hinders economic growth, the author applies a two-step estimation technique. First, the author estimates bank competition using the Lerner index and adjusted Lerner index and, second, examines the joint effect of bank competition and financial stability on economic growth applying both panel regression model and system GMM techniques.

Findings

Empirical findings reveal that the banking sector in South Asian economies is competitive as indicated by the estimated values of Lerner and adjusted Lerner index. Moreover, the joint effect defined by the interaction between banking competition and banking stability also reveals a positive and significant impact on economic growth. This finding implies that both banking competition and banking stability are significant long-term determinants of economic growth in South Asian economies.

Practical implications

This paper suggests flexible banking regulation policies such as low net interest rate margins, lesser activity restrictions and entry of foreign banks along with few contestability measures to increase bank competition in South Asian countries. This is because as higher the competition, greater is the chance for efficient allocation of resources and hence economic growth.

Originality/value

This paper is the first of its kind that considers the joint role of bank competition and financial stability on economic growth. The application of a semi-parametric approach in the estimation of marginal cost is also a unique contribution to empirical literature.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 July 2020

Bijoy Rakshit and Samaresh Bardhan

The paper measures the degree of bank competition in Indian banking over the period 1996–2016. Using bank-level annual data, we revisit the case of banking competitiveness…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper measures the degree of bank competition in Indian banking over the period 1996–2016. Using bank-level annual data, we revisit the case of banking competitiveness during the prefinancial and postfinancial crisis and examine whether the global financial crisis alters the level of bank competition in India. Additionally, this paper addresses the misspecification issues associated with the widely used Panzar–Rosse model in Indian banking context.

Design/methodology/approach

We apply Panzar and Rosse (1987) H-statistic and evaluate the degree of bank competition by estimating the extent to which changes in input prices are reflected in revenues earned by banks. Subsequently, we link this measure of competitiveness to a number of structural indicators (HHI and CRn) to examine the structure-conduct-performance hypothesis, which assumes that a concentrated banking system can impair competition. The simple panel regression model was used to handle the empirical estimations.

Findings

findings reveal that the Indian banking system operates under competitive conditions and earns revenues as if under the monopolistic competition. We also find evidence that Indian banks are competitive, even under a concentrated market structure. This observation runs, in contrary, to the prediction of the structure–conduct–performance hypothesis. The findings also indicate the differences in the estimated H-statistic value after considering the misspecifications of the P–R model.

Practical implications

From policy perspectives, policymakers should focus more on maintaining an optimal level of bank competition by mitigating entry restrictions, exercising less consolidation and withdrawing overregulation from banking activities. A competitive banking industry ensures both efficiency and stability.

Social implications

A competitive banking sector by lowering interest rates margin provides easier access to finance to both households and small and medium enterprises (SMEs).

Originality/value

This is the only study that addresses the misspecification of the P–R model while assessing competition in Indian banking and provides a thorough understanding of the role of concentration on bank competition.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 46 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

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