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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2018

Maria Rispoli and Samantha Organ

Concerns about climate change and the availability of energy has resulted in countries setting targets to improve energy efficiency and reduce carbon emissions. A large…

Abstract

Purpose

Concerns about climate change and the availability of energy has resulted in countries setting targets to improve energy efficiency and reduce carbon emissions. A large proportion of energy is consumed by existing housing. Europe has a large proportion of historic housing, some of which also represent significant value in relation to historical, cultural and/or architectural importance. Upgrading their energy efficiency whilst retaining their significance is crucial for the sustainability of heritage buildings. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the challenges and barriers to improving the energy efficiency of listed pre-1919 housing.

Design/methodology/approach

The research utilised semi-structured interviews to explore the debates surrounding sustainability and conservation, identifying the key drivers and barriers to achieving a balance between these concepts.

Findings

Concern about climate change and the desire to preserve a heritage asset were the main drivers to balancing sustainability with conservation through energy efficiency improvements. The main challenges included the risk of detrimentally affecting the significance of the building, the lack of communication and collaboration between stakeholders, the availability of adequately skilled professionals and the lack of appropriate energy efficiency solutions for heritage buildings. The cost of improvements was found to be both a barrier and driver.

Originality/value

Heritage buildings perform differently to their modern counterparts and therefore the measures the authors apply to these historic properties must be done with sufficient understanding of this difference. Such measures must be compatible with these buildings in line with conservation principles. Further, the discussion of developing an alternative version of energy calculation for these buildings should be entered into.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 October 2019

Derek Worthing and Samantha Organ

The purpose of this paper is to identify factors that contribute to the development of an effective conservation management plan (CMP).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify factors that contribute to the development of an effective conservation management plan (CMP).

Design/methodology/approach

The approach was based on a literature review from which key issues and concerns were identified. This was followed by in-depth interviews with a number of creators and users of CMPs.

Findings

CMPs have developed as an identifiable process with the key stages having a logic and synergy with each other. The research found that undue emphasis was placed on some stages at the expense of others which lead to ineffective management tools often being produced. The reasons for this are related to the interests and background of the creators and a lack of interaction with organisational culture and processes – and importantly a failure to engage with frontline staff. In addition, there were also resource and skill constraints within the client organisation.

Research limitations/implications

Interviews were conducted with six creators (consultants) and seven users. These were mostly from national heritage organisations and specialist heritage consultants. A wider range of user organisations and consultants could be identified for follow-up research. Also those who actually deliver CMPs “on the ground” and day to day could form an important part of the development of this research.

Practical implications

CMPs should be practical working management tools which have to be used by the heritage organisation in order to be effective. This research will hopefully help practitioners focus on what needs to be done in order to produce an effective plan.

Social implications

The conservation of built heritage is essentially concerned with the protection of a social good. CMPs have the potential to provide effective protection of that which is seen as valuable and significant to individuals, groups and society at large.

Originality/value

The management of heritage is an area that is generally under-researched. This work will hopefully be engaged with by academics and practitioners in order to help establish and promote a wider interest in the field.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 June 2019

Samantha Organ

Heritage tourism has become increasingly popular, and improving the sustainability of such sites is essential both nationally and internationally. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Heritage tourism has become increasingly popular, and improving the sustainability of such sites is essential both nationally and internationally. The purpose of this paper is to explore the opportunities and challenges of improving the condition and sustainability of a chapel at a busy international heritage tourist attraction.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study approach was adopted. This utilised interviews with four of the primary building professionals involved with the refurbishment project. Documentary analysis and observations were also used.

Findings

The present case study presents the opportunities and challenges faced by a tourist heritage attraction. Improvements to the condition and sustainability of such assets are essential to ensure their sustained and enhanced use, and the protection of heritage buildings. Such projects create opportunities to increase knowledge and understanding about these assets as well as enhancing opportunities for meaning making for visitors. The paper highlights the importance of a strong leader and a balanced team working towards common objectives. Further, whilst synergies between conservation and sustainability exist, there are also tensions and compromises.

Research limitations/implications

This case study highlights the opportunities and challenges of improving the condition and sustainability of built cultural heritage at a tourist attraction. Opportunities included increased knowledge and understanding about the heritage asset; enhancement of values for present and future generations; improved condition, increased usability; and increased sustainability. Challenges were: team turnover; delays resulting from archaeological findings; previous work resulting in building defects; the existing building condition; and unfamiliarity and the uncertainty regarding particular measures.

Practical implications

The practical implications of this case study include ensuring clear project objectives and a balanced project team are in place. These should be enhanced by a good system of information recording throughout the project to limit the impact of staff absence. Good communication within the team and with external members such as manufacturers will reduce the impact of unfamiliar products and aid in decision making. Future research should explore whether these findings are applicable to other heritage tourist attractions, and whether visitors’ narrative encounters with the asset change following a sustainability improvement project.

Originality/value

Limited research has been previously performed on improving the sustainability of built cultural heritage at tourist attractions. This research investigates the opportunities and challenges facing building professionals in improving such heritage assets. The improvement of heritage tourist attractions requires careful consideration. Whilst they need to be conserved for future generations, increasing the sustainability of such assets is essential to ensure their continued usability.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 October 2020

Samantha Organ

Climate change is one of the most significant challenges of our time. The existing housing stock is a crucial component in achieving international and national climate…

Abstract

Purpose

Climate change is one of the most significant challenges of our time. The existing housing stock is a crucial component in achieving international and national climate change targets through energy efficiency improvements. The private rental sector incorporates some of the worst performing housing. To address this, the UK has implemented the minimum energy efficiency standard, based on the energy performance certificate rating. However, the energy performance certificate has a number of criticisms in the UK and across the EU. This viewpoints paper discusses the primary criticisms of the EPC and whether these undermine the minimum energy efficiency standard.

Design/methodology/approach

This viewpoint paper draws on the recent work across academic, government and professional literature to develop a critique of the energy performance certificate and its underlying methodology as a basis on which to form the minimum energy efficiency standard.

Findings

The paper concludes that based on the current form of the energy performance certificate in the UK, the minimum energy efficiency standard is likely to unfairly advantage some landlords and penalise others. This has implications for landlords, tenants and the wider housing stock.

Originality/value

This paper presents a discussion of the new minimum energy efficiency standard based on the limitations of the energy performance certificate. It has implications for policymakers, researchers and practitioners in the private rental sector.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 May 2013

Samantha Organ, David Proverbs and Graham Squires

The existing housing stock needs substantial adaptation to meet national and international carbon reduction targets. The largest proportion of housing is owner‐occupied…

2076

Abstract

Purpose

The existing housing stock needs substantial adaptation to meet national and international carbon reduction targets. The largest proportion of housing is owner‐occupied, and will require improvement works which go beyond those measures provided through the Green Deal and similar programmes. Therefore, the motivation of owner‐occupiers to perform more substantial energy efficiency refurbishments is essential to facilitate greater action. This paper aims to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A synthesis of the extant literature from a range of disciplines reveals the role of motivation and the factors influencing motivation and pro‐environmental action in the context of the home. Based on this synthesis of the literature, a new motivation model for energy efficiency refurbishment in the owner‐occupied housing stock is then described.

Findings

The study has found that multiple factors affect motivation to refurbish in the owner‐occupied housing stock. Key motivations for energy efficient refurbishment can be categorized into the broad themes of economic, social, and environmental motivations. These motivations will be affected by a wide number of interrelated internal and external factors and mediated by the emotions of the individual. The model presented demonstrates the relationship between the multiple factors that affect energy efficiency refurbishment in relation to specific contexts.

Originality/value

The study represents a potential addition to motivational theory and concepts for use within the field of energy efficient refurbishment of the owner‐occupied housing stock. Implications for future government policy and towards raising the motivation of owner‐occupiers are identified: it can be used to shape national and local policy and information campaigns to motivate energy efficiency refurbishment in the owner‐occupied housing stock. To be successful, this should take differing internal factors and contexts into consideration and the dynamic nature of owner‐occupier motivation. The model can also be used by industry professionals to better understand the owner‐occupier customer motivations for energy efficiency refurbishment and therein provide a better service.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Daniel O'Neill and Samantha Organ

The purpose of this paper is to explore academic papers and reports and present a chronology of the evolution of British low-rise prefabricated housing. The paper provides…

3260

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore academic papers and reports and present a chronology of the evolution of British low-rise prefabricated housing. The paper provides chronological information for construction and surveying researchers undertaking research in associated areas.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a qualitative literature review, providing an exploration and analysis of academic papers and reports on low-rise prefabricated housing.

Findings

A substantial literature was discovered. However, there are gaps in the available literature. The history of British construction technology is a rich research area but is under-researched. Prefabricated housing has a long history dating back to the eleventh century. Stigmatised from the failures of housing in the twentieth century, it is being increasingly used again in the twenty-first century when considering mass housing supply.

Research limitations/implications

This paper provides researchers with an overview of the history of low-rise prefabricated housing in Britain. It is not a comprehensive in-depth study; such would require numerous larger individual studies.

Originality/value

From reviewing literature it was evident that there was a broad literature, but there was no single journal publication exploring the evolution of British low-rise prefabricated housing. The research provides an overview, exploration and analysis of the literature while providing a chronology. The evolution of prefabricated housing is chronologically presented. Areas for further research are also recommended.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Graham Squires, Norman Hutchison, Alastair Adair, Jim Berry, Stanley McGreal and Samantha Organ

– This research aims to provide an insight into large-scale real estate projects in Europe and how they are using a more innovative blend of finance.

7722

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to provide an insight into large-scale real estate projects in Europe and how they are using a more innovative blend of finance.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology involved a mix of desk-based study, interviews and case studies. Interviews were held with financiers, policymakers, developers, investors, fund managers and academics. The specific case projects were Battersea Power Station Development in London; Leipziger Platz site in Berlin; and the Lammenschans site in the city of Leiden, The Netherlands.

Findings

The research found that there is growth in the blend of financial products used in real estate development within large-scale mixed-use projects. This new blend is set with greater equity financing, often from domestic and foreign consortiums generating institutional funds – alongside private debt financing – that utilise a mix of large-scale multi-bank finance.

Practical implications

The scale of the challenge in financing real estate development allied with capital budget constraints has meant that the appetite for innovative finance mechanisms has gained considerable momentum in practice and policy. This research investigates current examples in development finance and provides a discussion of the opinion of key multi-stakeholder participants in the individual cases, and trends more strategically at a broader level.

Originality/value

This detailed study of three major development sites and at a more broader strategic level is significant, in that it provides a better understanding of the differing blends of finance that are being used.

Details

Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-4387

Keywords

Abstract

Details

American Life Writing and the Medical Humanities: Writing Contagion
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-673-0

Abstract

Purpose

This paper describes studies of the ICAN Intervention and their implications.

Design/methodology/approach

We adapted the ICAN intervention to support the science interest and learning of at-risk, middle-school-age youth, who were participants in entry-level, out-of-school, inquiry-informed, science workshops. The intervention is a brief ungraded writing assignment that is integrated into science activities on a daily basis in order to encourage workshop participants to reflect on science: what participants understand, the skills they have acquired, and what they still want to figure out.

Findings

Findings indicate that the use of the ICAN Intervention in science inquiry supports the development of science interest and science problem solving that is sustained 5 weeks following the workshop. Moreover, participants who write more responses to the ICAN probes are more likely to evidence changes in science learning, regardless of their initial level of interest in science. Participants with less-developed and with more-developed science interest at the beginning of the workshop all progress. The findings further suggest that when the intervention is coupled with an inquiry-informed integrated science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (iSTEM) curriculum, it provides an additional boost for the development of science interest and learning.

Originality/value

The ICAN Intervention as adapted provides a solution to questions raised about whether inquiry-based instruction can promote learning. Our findings indicate that it can. Our findings also demonstrate that when undertaken in a concept and idea-rich environment, the structure of a motivation-based intervention is open-ended enough that all participants will progress, continuing to develop their interest and their learning of disciplinary content.

Details

Motivational Interventions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-555-5

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1985

Vicki Sweda

One of my responsibilities as an OCLC secretary is creating, editing, and filing various types and styles of “paper” documents. This routinely involves handling the work…

Abstract

One of my responsibilities as an OCLC secretary is creating, editing, and filing various types and styles of “paper” documents. This routinely involves handling the work of up to ten people. At OCLC, computers are used to create, edit, and file these documents. In time—sometimes just a few weeks, depending on the work load—just retrieving a single document after it has been filed can be a time‐consuming task. Even given the speed at which the computer works, finding files in an automated system can be as difficult as it ever was in the old‐fashioned metal filing cabinet—unless your files are as organized as they were in that cabinet. (They were, weren't they?)

Details

OCLC Micro, vol. 1 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 8756-5196

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