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This study compares parallel philosophies of the work of American educator John Dewey in Art as Experience and the arts infused educational approach of the Reggio Emilia…
This study compares parallel philosophies of the work of American educator John Dewey in Art as Experience and the arts infused educational approach of the Reggio Emilia Schools of Italy.
This historical and contemporary comparative, cross-cultural analysis explores educational approaches that incorporate the arts in the process of learning and the use of democratic processes in collaborative learning approaches. Data sources include primary source historical documents, field observations, interviews, and primary source educational materials.
Similarities are identified across cultures and time in the examples analyzed for commonalities including arts creation as central to the processes of learning, democratic processes in collaborative project learning experiences, community involvement as an integral part of the learning processes, and imagination and communication as consistent elements in the experiences of the school. This study provides a historical and contemporary context for the cross-cultural analysis of the use of art in the learning processes as described by American educator John Dewey and the educators in the Reggio Emilia schools of Italy.
Determining the proper sample size and frequency of sampling such that quality is assured while financial losses are not unnecessarily incurred is critical to an effective…
Determining the proper sample size and frequency of sampling such that quality is assured while financial losses are not unnecessarily incurred is critical to an effective quality program. The main purpose of the present work is to design a fuzzy controller to adjust sample sizes and frequency of sampling according to potential fuzzy benefit/loss. A set of fuzzy rules is given where, depending on the antecedents, the sample size and/or sampling frequency may be decreased, remain static or be increased. At any given moment the proportion of defects in the sample determines the firing strength of the rules suggesting an appropriate sample size and sampling frequency. The firing strength is then modified to include an analysis of the decision maker’s belief that as sampling takes place and adjustments are being considered benefit or loss would be incorporated prior to any action or adjustment to sample size and/or frequency.
Man has been seeking an ideal existence for a very long time. In this existence, justice, love, and peace are no longer words, but actual experiences. How ever, with the American preemptive invasion and occupation of Afghanistan and Iraq and the subsequent prisoner abuse, such an existence seems to be farther and farther away from reality. The purpose of this work is to stop this dangerous trend by promoting justice, love, and peace through a change of the paradigm that is inconsistent with justice, love, and peace. The strong paradigm that created the strong nation like the U.S. and the strong man like George W. Bush have been the culprit, rather than the contributor, of the above three universal ideals. Thus, rather than justice, love, and peace, the strong paradigm resulted in in justice, hatred, and violence. In order to remove these three and related evils, what the world needs in the beginning of the third millenium is the weak paradigm. Through the acceptance of the latter paradigm, the golden mean or middle paradigm can be formulated, which is a synergy of the weak and the strong paradigm. In order to understand properly the meaning of these paradigms, however, some digression appears necessary.
In this article, the fifth in a series on microcomputer software for information storage and retrieval, test results of seven programs are presented and various properties…
In this article, the fifth in a series on microcomputer software for information storage and retrieval, test results of seven programs are presented and various properties and qualities of these programs are discussed. In this instalment of the series we discuss programs for information storage and retrieval which are primarily characterised by the properties of personal information managers (PIMs), hypertext programs, or best match and ranking retrieval systems. The programs reviewed in this issue are the personal information managers 3by5/RediReference, askSam, Dayflo Tracker, and Ize; Personal Librarian uses best match and ranking; the hypertext programs are Folio Views and the HyperKRS/HyperCard combination (askSam, Ize and Personal Librarian boast hypertext features as well). HyperKRS/HyperCard is only available for the Apple Macintosh. All other programs run under MS‐DOS; versions of Personal Librarian also run under Windows and some other systems. For each of the seven programs about 100 facts and test results are tabulated. The programs are also discussed individually.
Gives an in depth view of the strategies pursued by the world’s leading chief executive officers in an attempt to provide guidance to new chief executives of today…
Gives an in depth view of the strategies pursued by the world’s leading chief executive officers in an attempt to provide guidance to new chief executives of today. Considers the marketing strategies employed, together with the organizational structures used and looks at the universal concepts that can be applied to any product. Uses anecdotal evidence to formulate a number of theories which can be used to compare your company with the best in the world. Presents initial survival strategies and then looks at ways companies can broaden their boundaries through manipulation and choice. Covers a huge variety of case studies and examples together with a substantial question and answer section.
Cu/Cu diffusion bonding is characterised by high electrical and thermal conductivity, as well as the mechanical strength of the interconnects. But despite a number of…
Cu/Cu diffusion bonding is characterised by high electrical and thermal conductivity, as well as the mechanical strength of the interconnects. But despite a number of advantages, Cu oxidises readily upon exposure to air. To break through the adsorbed oxide-layer high temperature and pressure, long bonding time and inert gas atmosphere are required during the bonding process. This paper aims to present the implementation of an organic self-assembled monolayer (SAM) as a temporary protective coating that inhibits Cu oxidation.
Information concerning elemental composition of the Cu surface has been yielded by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Two types of substrates (electroplated and sputtered Cu) are prepared for thermocompression bonding in two different ways. In the first case, Cu is cleaned with dilute sulphuric acid to remove native copper oxide. In the second case, passivation with SAM followed the cleaning step with dilute sulphuric acid. Shear strength, fracture surface, microstructure of the received Cu/Cu interconnects are investigated after the bonding procedure.
The XPS method revealed that SAM can retard Cu from oxidation on air for at least 12 h. SAM passivation on the substrates with sputtered Cu appears to have better quality than on the electroplated ones. This derives from the results of the shear strength tests and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging of Cu/Cu interconnects cross sections. SAM passivation improved the bonding quality of the interconnects with sputtered Cu in comparison to the cleaned samples without passivation.
The Cu/Cu bonding procedure was optimised by a novel preparation method using SAMs which enables storage and bonding of Si-dies with Cu microbumps at air conditions while remaining a good-quality interconnect. The passivation revealed to be advantageous for the smooth surfaces. SEM and shear strength tests showed improved bonding quality for the passivated bottom dies with sputtered Cu in comparison to the samples without SAM.
For those who manage products with “brand” names, either consumer or B2B, it's a struggle to dilute manage‐ment theory and strategy lessons down to typical tasks faced day‐to‐day.