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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2019

Bashar S. Gammoh, Anthony C. Koh and Sam C. Okoroafo

This study aims to extend current research efforts by utilizing the institutional theory to propose cross-cultural-based asymmetrical moderating effects of ethnocentrism…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to extend current research efforts by utilizing the institutional theory to propose cross-cultural-based asymmetrical moderating effects of ethnocentrism and cultural openness on the effectiveness of global, foreign and local consumer culture brand positioning strategies of high-tech products.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used an experimental design in the USA (developed country) and India (developing country). Print advertisements across the two countries were used to explore the proposed moderating effects of ethnocentrism and cultural openness on consumer brand evaluations of a high-tech product under the three different consumer culture brand positioning strategies.

Findings

Overall, this study provided empirical evidence in support of the proposed cross-cultural asymmetrical effects. The study findings indicate that consumer ethnocentrism seems to be more important in influencing a subject’s brand evaluations across the positioning strategies in a developed country like the USA, while consumer cultural openness will be more important in influencing a subject’s brand evaluations across the positioning strategies in a developing country like India.

Originality/value

Despite existing research efforts on the potential benefits of positioning brands using global, foreign or local consumer cultures, there is a lack of empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of these positioning strategies across different cultures. Theoretically, this research draws on the institutional theory to investigate the asymmetrical cross-cultural moderating effects of ethnocentrism and cultural openness on the effectiveness of the three-consumer culture brand positioning strategies. Managerially, this study provides empirically based suggestions for brand managers attempting to position their brands with different segments of consumers while highlighting the importance of cultural differences between developed and developing markets.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1992

Sam C. Okoroafo

As the use of countertrade increases and countertrade researchproliferates, it is necessary to integrate the knowledge to documentwhat has been done and identify gaps for…

Abstract

As the use of countertrade increases and countertrade research proliferates, it is necessary to integrate the knowledge to document what has been done and identify gaps for future research. Proposes Bagozzi′s exchange framework as a model for integrating research and identifying situational contingencies, characteristics of social actors and third parties, and social influence between actors as the determinants of exchange. Managerial implications are also identified.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1992

Sam C. Okoroafo

Highlights economic reform policies recently instituted in a numberof sub‐Sahara African countries. The reforms have drasticallytransformed these economies: import…

Abstract

Highlights economic reform policies recently instituted in a number of sub‐Sahara African countries. The reforms have drastically transformed these economies: import restrictions have been removed; currencies′ values are now determined by supply and demand; state‐owned firms are on the auction block. For international firms, there has never been a better time to invest. However, the old rules for analysing foreign markets still apply. Caution is still the watchword.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 30 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1988

Sam C. Okoroafo

The increased use of government imposed countertrade (mandated countertrade) by developing nations (LDCs) to meet their economic goals has been of particular concern to…

Abstract

The increased use of government imposed countertrade (mandated countertrade) by developing nations (LDCs) to meet their economic goals has been of particular concern to international executives. Frequently, countertrade can be mandated by LDCs on transactions even with their long‐time trading partners. Firms therefore need to anticipate actions of their LDC trading partners to be competitive in the global market place. Inadequate preparation can result in repercussions such as exclusion from specific deals, to exclusion from a particular country‐market.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1997

Sam C. Okoroafo

Investigates the determinants, decision process, and performance of mode of entry substitution patterns used by multinational firms. Based on past research, two paths…

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1006

Abstract

Investigates the determinants, decision process, and performance of mode of entry substitution patterns used by multinational firms. Based on past research, two paths (incremental and non‐incremental/zigzag) for adopting entry modes in foreign product markets were conceptualized. Responses primarily via mail survey from executives of 77 Canadian and 108 US manufacturing firms verified usage of the conceptualized paths. Further, it was found that executives do preconceptualize their substitution pattern and that such preconceptualization is useful in strategic planning. Also, the executives identified choice variables critical to each pattern choice and some significant path discriminators. Finally, executives are satisfied with the performance of their chosen substitution paths.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

Sam C. Okoroafo

The patterns used by international firms to substitute modes of entry in foreign product markets could be incremental in the chain from exporting to investment…

Abstract

The patterns used by international firms to substitute modes of entry in foreign product markets could be incremental in the chain from exporting to investment (incremental pattern) or could be haphazard and unpredictable (non‐incremental pattern). This study develops models representing the substitution patterns then tests them using data on exporting, licensing and investments flows of U.S. manufacturing firms to Western Europe during the 1980–88 period. The findings suggest that U.S. manufacturing firms at the aggregate level used the non‐incremental pattern.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 2 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1992

Sam C. Okoroafo

In the 1980s many countries paid for imports using countertradebecause of limited foreign exchange reserves. However, recently the samenations have been implementing…

Abstract

In the 1980s many countries paid for imports using countertrade because of limited foreign exchange reserves. However, recently the same nations have been implementing reform programmes. Part of the initiatives of the reform programmes involve floating of their currencies and increased use of monetized transactions. What does this mean for countertrade? Provides a prognosis for international executives and suggests a model to execute countertrade deals.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Nicholas C. Williamson, Grace Kissling, Nancy Cassill and Dmitriy Odinokov

Two hypotheses concerning two variables that potentially influence the “add/drop” foreignmarket decisions of U.S. exporters of sewing machines are developed and…

Abstract

Two hypotheses concerning two variables that potentially influence the “add/drop” foreign market decisions of U.S. exporters of sewing machines are developed and empirically tested. The variables are import market potential, and a surrogate measure of import market competitiveness. A third variable, concerning a developing country’s “trade regime” – Import Substituting, Export Promoting (Bhagwati, 1978) – is employed as a control variable in the tests. The two hypotheses are confirmed, and the results shed light on how U.S. exporters of sewing machines should analyze data on the three variables en route to adjusting their respective portfolios of export markets in a context of making add/drop foreign market decisions. The results of the research potentially contribute to three different literatures: the international marketing literature, the competitiveness literature and the “trade regime” literature in international economics.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1993

Sam Okoroafo and Lloyd C. Russow

Examines the impact and significance of marketing strategyvariables on performance in a developing country which has institutedmarket reform measures. Changes in marketing…

Abstract

Examines the impact and significance of marketing strategy variables on performance in a developing country which has instituted market reform measures. Changes in marketing strategy and performance were expected. Results were obtained from a survey of chief executive officers of the top 200 manufacturing companies in Nigeria. The findings suggest that customer service and reinvestment of profits had a significant positive effect on market performance. However, reduction of subsidiaries and employee were negatively related to performance.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2011

Bashar S. Gammoh, Anthony C. Koh and Sam C. Okoroafo

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of global consumer culture positioning (GCCP) in comparison to local consumer culture positioning (LCCP) strategies on…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of global consumer culture positioning (GCCP) in comparison to local consumer culture positioning (LCCP) strategies on consumer evaluations of a new unknown brand.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an experimental method in the USA and India, the paper examines if the use of such positioning strategies in a print advertisement stimuli influence consumer evaluations of a fictitious brand.

Findings

The results support the effectiveness of such strategies as demonstrated by overall improvement in subjects' attitudinal evaluations of the fictitious brand when GCCP is used relative to the use of LCCP. Furthermore, our results show a moderation effect for subjects' level of belief in global citizenship on the effectiveness of the GCCP strategy. These results were observed across the two samples.

Research limitations/implications

This study provides valuable managerial insights into the potential value of GCCP strategy and offers specific strategic positioning guides to brand managers competing in the global marketplace.

Originality/value

With the emergence of global market segments, it is important to assist brand managers seeking to strengthen their brand's equity in a competitive global marketplace. This paper contributes to the literature on international brand positioning by empirically investigating the usefulness of GCCP as a strategic positioning guide for global marketing managers.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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