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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2019

Sukhdeep Kaur and Kiran Bains

The importance of nutraceuticals and functional foods has been a topic of interest in nutrition research for many years. This review aims to summarize the findings on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The importance of nutraceuticals and functional foods has been a topic of interest in nutrition research for many years. This review aims to summarize the findings on the nutritive value and health benefits of chia, as well as its use as a food fortificant.

Design/methodology/approach

Published literature on the nutritive value and therapeutic properties of chia has been reviewed.

Findings

Chia, an ancient grain, belongs to the mint family (Lamiaceae) and was cultivated in Mexico and Guatemala by the Mayas and Aztecs of a pre-Columbian era. In addition to being gluten-free, chia seeds are concentrated source of omega-3 fatty acids (mainly α-linolenic acid), fiber (insoluble) and polyphenolic compounds (myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, chlorogenic and caffeic acids), which were found to be comparatively higher than many other grains, cereals and oily seeds. Chia supplementation has potential to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease, obesity, hypertension, cancer, diabetes, pruritus and celiac disease. Because of its nutraceutical and physiochemical properties, chia has been widely used as a whole seed, flour, seed mucilage, gel and oil for developing various enriched food products, such as bread, pasta, cakes, cookies, chips, cheese, yoghurt, meat, fish and poultry.

Originality/value

With advancement in nutrition research, chia would have a great future perspective as feed, food and medicine. However, further research is needed to validate the potential therapeutic effect of chia supplementation on human health.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2020

Vishakha Sharma, Renu Mogra and Azad Mordia

Study on chia seeds is receiving increasing interest because of their nutritional and health-promoting properties that have been recognized by their high content of…

Abstract

Purpose

Study on chia seeds is receiving increasing interest because of their nutritional and health-promoting properties that have been recognized by their high content of antioxidants, proteins, minerals and dietary fibers. Hence, the purpose of this study is to develop a value-added food product using chia seeds and to assess the nutritional properties, shelf life and consumer acceptability of the developed product.

Design/methodology/approach

Six different formulations of muffin mix were prepared by incorporating chia seeds with wheat flour in various ratios and evaluated for sensory characteristics. The nutritional components and shelf lives of the developed products were also evaluated. The developed product was stored for three months to assess the shelf life.

Findings

Results indicated that muffins made with chia seeds can be added up to 20% in wheat flour without affecting the sensory scores (p = 0.0014). Regarding nutritional evaluation, the results revealed that 20% incorporation of chia seeds significantly increased the total antioxidant activity (p = 0.001), increased the crude protein (p = 0.0001), fat (p = 0.0001) and crude fiber (p = 0.001) contents and lowered the carbohydrate (p = 0.0001) content when compared to the control sample. Muffin mix made with chia seeds had significantly higher mineral content (calcium, phosphorus, zinc and iron) than did the control. The developed product had a shelf-life stability of three months in terms of moisture content, peroxide value and total bacterial count and was well accepted by consumers.

Originality/value

Intrinsic characteristics of chia seeds can improve the quality of muffins and bring health benefits to the consumers.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2019

Katira da Mota Huerta, Caroline Pagnossim Boeira, Marcela Bromberger Soquetta, Jamila dos Santos Alves, Ernesto Hashime Kubota and Claudia Severo da Rosa

The preparation of gluten-free bread is a challenge because the gluten in wheat is the main ingredient responsible for the retention of the gases which cause the bread to…

Abstract

Purpose

The preparation of gluten-free bread is a challenge because the gluten in wheat is the main ingredient responsible for the retention of the gases which cause the bread to rise. This paper aims to develop breads without gluten and fat, and to evaluate the effect of the use of chia (Salvia hispanic L.) flour on the physical, nutritional and sensory properties of the breads that were developed.

Design/methodology/approach

Three formulations were developed with different proportions of chia flour (2.5, 5 and 7.5%), fat-free. Physiochemical, sensorial analyses were performed out in three repetitions (p-value = 0.05).

Findings

In the nutritional assessment, the results demonstrated that 7.5% chia showed higher levels of protein (15.1%), lipid (3.43%), total fiber (7.04%) and lower levels of carbohydrates (22.49%), with significant nutrient enrichment (p-value = 0.05). The specific volume and the elevation of the dough decreased with the addition of chia flour. In the sensorial analysis, the treatments with chia flour showed no significant difference regarding flavor and texture when compared to the standard. The addition of chia improved the nutritional and sensory properties (p-value = 0.05).

Originality/value

The chia flour improved the nutritional characteristics of the breads, in the reduction of carbohydrate content and the increase in the content of protein, minerals and fiber. It presented good acceptability and good nutritional characteristics, providing a healthy and differentiated variation in this segment.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

A.K. Larios-Galvez, J. Porcayo-Calderon, V.M. Salinas-Bravo, J.G. Chacon-Nava, Jose Gonzalo Gonzalez-Rodriguez and L. Martinez-Gomez

The purpose of this research paper was to investigate the use of methanolic extract of Salvia hispanica (S. hispanica) as a green corrosion inhibitor for bronze in a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research paper was to investigate the use of methanolic extract of Salvia hispanica (S. hispanica) as a green corrosion inhibitor for bronze in a simulated acid rain solution.

Design/methodology/approach

Extract of S. hispanica was used as a green corrosion inhibitor for bronze in simulated acid rain solution. Electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and electrochemical noise were used. Parameters such as polarization, charge transfer and noise resistance (Rp, Rct and Rn, respectively) were calculated.

Findings

Results showed that the extract acts as a good, anodic type of inhibitor. The inhibitor efficiency increased with increasing its concentration up to 400 ppm, decreasing beyond this concentration. Efficiency also increased with an increase in the immersion time. The inhibition was due to the adsorption of components found in the S. hispanica extract following a Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

Practical implications

S. hispanica extract can be used as a corrosion inhibitor for bronze in acid rain solution.

Originality/value

This study provides new information on the inhibition features of S. hispanica under specific conditions. This eco-friendly inhibitor could find applications to protect bronze exposed to polluted urban atmospheres.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 64 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 23 March 2020

Gabriela Souza, Suelen Siqueira dos Santos, Rita Bergamasco, Jessica Antigo and Grasiele Scaramal Madrona

The purpose of this study is to extract psyllium mucilage and evaluate its antioxidant compounds (in the best extraction condition) and its application in a chocolate drink.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to extract psyllium mucilage and evaluate its antioxidant compounds (in the best extraction condition) and its application in a chocolate drink.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the extraction by ultrasonic bath was evaluated, followed by water bath extraction, and as there was no difference between the methods, a water bath experimental design was carried out to evaluate the best extraction conditions for psyllium mucilage, having response variables, yield and emulsion stability. A chocolate drink with psyllium mucilage was produced and evaluated in the best extraction condition to compare with xanthan gum.

Findings

The best extraction conditions for psyllium mucilage were 60°C for 2 h and 1:80 ratio (seed:water). It can be verified that psyllium is rich in antioxidant compounds (0.71 mg GAE/g and 6.67 Mmol ET/g by 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonic acid-6), and 9.65 Mmol ET/g for ferric reducing antioxidant power), which can greatly contribute to its application in food products. The use of mucilage in chocolate drink is feasible, as among its several attributes there was no significant difference between samples, highlighting texture attributes in which mucilage samples did not differ from the control containing xanthan gum (being the grades approximated 6.84).

Originality/value

Psyllium presented several antioxidant compounds that are very desirable in food products. In the chocolate drink, psyllium mucilage showed potential use as a thickener, so it is important for further studies to improve the product’s development, but it is currently feasible to be produced in an industrial scale.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2021

Juan Carlos Lucas Aguirre, German Antonio Giraldo Giraldo and Misael Cortés Rodríguez

In order to understand interactions aw vs equilibrium moisture content (EMC) in fortified coconut powder, moisture sorption isotherms were constructed under different…

Abstract

Purpose

In order to understand interactions aw vs equilibrium moisture content (EMC) in fortified coconut powder, moisture sorption isotherms were constructed under different storage conditions in order to predict the changes in their physical, chemical and microbiological properties that occur during storage and processing, which are unique to each food.

Design/methodology/approach

For which the moisture sorption isotherms were determined at three different temperatures (15, 25 and 35 °C), in a range of water activity from 0.1 to 0.90. Nine models, namely, the GAB, BET, Oswin, Smith, Halsey, Henderson, Chung and Pfost, Peleg and Caurie equations, were fitted to the sorption data. Various statistical tests were adopted as criteria to evaluate the fit performance of the models.

Findings

Of the models tested, the Peleg model gave the best fit to experimental data (R2 = 0.997; RMSE = 0.276), across the full range of water activities and at different temperatures. Humidity of the monolayer (mo) was found between 2.54 and 2.34%, a fundamental parameter to define the storage and control conditions, given that it is considered the value at which the product is more stable. The net sorption isosteric heat (Qst) increased to maximum and then diminished with increased moisture content (Xw); maximum values were obtained in the Xw interval between 0.48 and 2.87% (db), being between 35.72 and 99.26 kJ/mol, where the maximum value indicates coverage of the strongest bond sites and higher adsorbate-adsorbent interaction.

Originality/value

These results provide reliable experimental data on water absorption isotherms of the CP + FAC important to determine optimal processing, storing and packaging conditions.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2019

Arun Kumar Verma, Vincentraju Rajkumar, M. Suman Kumar and Shiv Kumar Jayant

This paper aims to explore the application of drumstick (Moringa oleifera) flower (DF) as a functional antioxidative ingredient in goat meat product.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the application of drumstick (Moringa oleifera) flower (DF) as a functional antioxidative ingredient in goat meat product.

Design/methodology/approach

Dried DF was included in the product formulation at 1% (Treatment I) and 2% (Treatment II) levels. The physicochemical, colour, textural and sensory quality as well as storage stability of nuggets with DF were determined against control.

Findings

The dried DF was found to be rich source of protein and dietary fibre, possessing good antioxidant potential. Chromatographic analysis of DF extract showed presence of 14 active principles known to have antioxidative properties. Inclusion of dried DF decreased pH values of emulsion (p = 0.005) as well as nuggets (p < 0.001) and increased (p < 0.001) the ash, dietary fibre and phenolic contents. The added DF affected the product’s lightness (p = 0.017), yellowness (p < 0.001, hardness (p < 0.001), adhesiveness (p = 0.032), cohesiveness (p = 0.006), gumminess and chewiness (p < 0.001). Sensory characteristics of control and product with DF were statistically similar except low (p = 0.002) flavour score for Treatment II. DF inclusion lowered (p < 0.001) thiobarbituric acid reactive substances number and total plate count.

Research limitations/implications

DF can be used as a source of antioxidants and dietary fibre in goat meat nuggets to enhance their health value, functionality and storage stability.

Originality/value

Foods including goat meat nuggets enriched with goodness of functional ingredients like dietary fibre and natural antioxidants are gaining consumer’s preference globally. Inclusion of drumstick flower in goat meat nuggets significantly increases the dietary fibre and antioxidants making such products healthier and more stable. Consumption of goat meat nuggets added with drumstick flower is expected to improve consumer’s well-being as well.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2020

Barbara Krochmal-Marczak, Renata Tobiasz-Salach and Joanna Kaszuba

Flour from oat grain is characterised by a high content of protein and β-glucans, with a favourable amino acid composition and a substantial content of fat, including…

Abstract

Purpose

Flour from oat grain is characterised by a high content of protein and β-glucans, with a favourable amino acid composition and a substantial content of fat, including unsaturated fatty acids. Additives to bread that enrich its nutritional value can worsen physical properties. It is important to know how to develop recipes for healthy bread based on wheat flour, with the appropriate addition of oat flour. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence on the physical properties of bread made of wheat flour, following the addition of oat flour. The purpose was also to find a recipe for a new product with higher nutritional value, which would then be acceptable for consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

In addition to wheat flour, flour made of oat grains, obtained from the naked Nagus variety (hulless oat), was added. The flour was analysed for moisture, dry matter, proteins and β-glucans, as well as total dietary fibre − soluble and insoluble. The dough was made with wheat flour according to a recipe, which included yeast, salt and water as well as extra oat flour in various proportions − 15, 25 and 30%, respectively. The bread was baked using a direct single-phase method developed by the Baking Institute in Berlin. Both the physicochemical and sensory evaluation were carried out on the bread.

Findings

The recipe for wheat bread that included 15% proportion of oat flour supplement was found to be the most acceptable in both the sensory (n = 30) and qualitative evaluation and would be suitable to produce nutritious bread. The use of 25% and 30% additions of oat flour resulted in a reduction in bread weight, volume and yield, which ultimately lead to an increase in overall baking losses.

Originality/value

This study proved that 15% oat flour could be used as an optimum addition for the production of wheat-oat bread. This bread may lead to a new assortment of bakery products with pro-health properties.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2019

Dipika Agrahar-Murugkar and Preeti Dixit-Bajpai

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of calcium-rich ingredients such as sesame, skimmed milk powder, moringa leaves, cumin seeds and finger millet on flour…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of calcium-rich ingredients such as sesame, skimmed milk powder, moringa leaves, cumin seeds and finger millet on flour, dough and breads with the objective of developing bread with higher calcium content and to investigate whether it maintains quality traits that guarantee its acceptability by consumers by testing textural, scanning electron microscopy and nutritional and sensorial parameters.

Design/methodology/approach

Refined flour was fortified with skimmed milk powder (SMP), sesame, moringa leaves and cumin (T1), SMP, sesame and malted finger millet (T2) and SMP and sesame (T3). Refined flour dough and breads served as control (C). The physicochemical, textural, scanning electron microscopy, nutritional and sensory parameters of flour, dough and breads were evaluated.

Findings

Significantly (p < 0.01) higher stickiness values of dough were obtained by refined flour dough-C (50.3 N); refined flour dough fortified with SMP and sesame - T3 (42.2 N); Refined flour dough fortified with sesame, SMP and malted finger millet -T2 (38.4 N); and refined flour dough fortified with sesame, SMP, moringa leaves and cumin -T1 (33.5 N). Oven spring in breads was 1.4 in C and decreased significantly (p < 0.01) to T3-1.0, T1-0.9 and T2-0.8. Chewiness values of T3 (4.1) was similar to C bread, whereas T1 and T2 showed significantly (p < 0.01) lower values. Scanning electron microscopy images of bread microstructure showed fortification of bread resulted in intermittent but more prominent gluten structure in test breads than control. The highest calcium content was observed in T1 (268 mg/100 g), followed by T2 (231 mg/100 g) and T3 (211 mg/100 g). The incorporation of dried moringa leaves and cumin seeds enhanced the appearance, aroma, taste and flavor of T1.

Research limitations/implications

The study shows that texturally and sensorially acceptable nutritious breads can be produced through natural fortification. Nutrients from naturally fortified foods are better absorbed and assimilated by the body. Calcium-fortified breads, each with its own distinctive taste and texture, showed high values in the sensory evaluation test.

Originality/value

The incorporation of calcium and protein-rich ingredients such as SMP, moringa leaves, cumin, malted finger millet and sesame would yield calcium enriched breads superior to the commonly consumed plain refined wheat flour bread with respect to textural, nutritional, functional and sensory attributes and have high potential to alleviate calcium deficiency in vulnerable groups.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2020

Rehab F.M. Ali, Ayman M. El-Anany and Hassan M. Mousa

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of partial or total substitution of milk fat by various levels of jojoba oil on the nutritional, physicochemical and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of partial or total substitution of milk fat by various levels of jojoba oil on the nutritional, physicochemical and sensory properties of Domiati cheese during cold storage at 6°C for 45 days.

Design/methodology/approach

The fat percentage of milk used for cheese manufacture was standardized to 4% fat. Five formulas were produced by replacing milk fat with 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of jojoba oil, respectively. The physicochemical and sensory properties of cheese samples at 0, 15, 30 and 45th days of cold store were evaluated.

Findings

No significant differences in moisture, fat, protein and acidity values amongst the control samples and those samples supplemented with different concentrations of jojoba oil. Significant differences (p = 0.05) in total volatile fatty acids were detected amongst experimental cheese samples. The highest values were recorded for control sample containing 100% milk fat, while the lowest values were recorded for cheese sample containing 100% jojoba oil (p = 0.05). Total nitrogen (TN), water-soluble nitrogen (WSN) and trichloroacetic acid soluble nitrogen (TCA-SN) levels of experimental cheeses were nearly same as for control. The results of fatty acids profile showed that jojoba oil has a unique structure of straight monounsaturated alcohols. Significantly (p = 0.05), the highest cholesterol content was recorded for control sample containing 100% milk fat; however, the lowest (p = 0.05) value was recorded for cheese sample containing 100% jojoba oil. At the end time of storage period, control sample manufactured with 100% milk fat had the highest (p = 0.05) values of free fatty acids, peroxide and thiobarbituric acid, while the lowest values were recorded for cheese sample with 100% jojoba oil as a source of fat. The sensory evaluation results demonstrated that blending milk fat with jojoba oil improved the sensory properties of Domiati cheese.

Practical implications

It is concluded that substitution of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of milk fat by equal amounts of jojoba oil enhanced the nutritional and sensory characteristics of Domiati cheese.

Originality/value

It is concluded that Domiati cheese formulated with substitution of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of milk fat by equal amounts of jojoba oil enhanced the nutritional characteristics and improved the sensory properties of produced cheese.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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