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Article
Publication date: 22 January 2021

Moawiya A. Haddad, Sharaf S. Omar and Salvatore Parisi

The purpose of this study comes from the need of defining improved durability values and the realization of a good traceability management for selected vegan cheeses has…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study comes from the need of defining improved durability values and the realization of a good traceability management for selected vegan cheeses has suggested the comparison between a processed cheese and its analogous version without animal-origin raw materials. The durability should be studied at a well-defined temperature, probably agreed among the food producer and the food processor. In addition, the traceability system should consider many components and related suppliers.

Design/methodology/approach

A supply chain risk assessment analysis has been carried out with relation to two different products: an analogue cheese and a vegan cheese-like preparation. Raw materials and ingredients have been evaluated (production method and origin; geographical identification), with the aim of identifying simplified food.

Findings

An assessment of food supply networks has been carried out. In the first situation (analogue cheeses), the ingredient “cheeses” shows an important complexity: five suppliers with a related six-interconnection hub. On the other side, vegan cheeses are obtained from 11 ingredients (a challenging hub); four of them may be produced from 2–5 components of different origin (five total hubs). Tested processed cheeses are represented by means of a linear food supply network with two hubs (cheeses and “arrival” show degrees 6 and 9, respectively). Networks concerning vegan cheeses include five different hubs: four complex raw materials (degree: 2, 3, 4 and 5) and the “arrival” step (degree: 12).

Originality/value

The information load of vegan cheeses (two hubs, degrees >> average degree) appears high if compared with processed cheeses (two hubs), although the complexity of networks appears similar. Vegan cheeses may seem technologically simpler than processed cheeses and be sometimes questioned because of important traceability issues. Adequate traceability countermeasures in terms of preventive monitoring actions should be recommended when speaking of vegan cheeses. Anyway, a centralized manager would be always required.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Marina Bianchi, Valentino Parisi and Renato Salvatore

This paper aims to identify the specific contextual constraints that women might face in becoming entrepreneurs; to correlate these constraints with the motivations that…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify the specific contextual constraints that women might face in becoming entrepreneurs; to correlate these constraints with the motivations that have determined this choice; and to ascertain how strongly constraints and motivations are correlated with individual rewards in terms of personal satisfaction and economic payoffs.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical base is a survey that the authors conducted among female entrepreneurs in a Southern province of Italy in 2012. Data are analyzed through a correspondence and cluster analysis. The socio-economic context of the province within which these female-led firms operate is taken into account by means of a correspondence canonical analysis.

Findings

In terms of results: first, two-thirds of female entrepreneurs in the province are positively motivated, and this is a determining factor in their choice to become entrepreneurs. This translates into they also being satisfied with the choice they made. Second, contrary to the expectations, being positively motivated and satisfied holds both for firms operating in more dynamic and demanding sectors and for small firms using little financial or human capital.

Research limitations/implications

The chosen research approach has allowed to identify the most important decisional variables that affect female entrepreneurial choice. However, as most of the variables are categorical, the research’s results remain descriptive.

Practical implications

Positive motivations and personal rewards are clearly relevant for women making an entrepreneurial choice. However, they are not enough to stimulate fully the potential for growth of their enterprises: education and a social environment conducive to female creative expression are also necessary. To this end, the authors suggest that an important function of change could be played in particular by universities by fostering a culture of creativity and entrepreneurship.

Social implications

By stressing the connections between positive motivations and wellbeing, the authors suggest that the promotion of women’s entrepreneurial choices through networks and education generates more than purely economic benefits. It also has positive effects on their quality of life and on social welfare as well.

Originality/value

This paper responds to a need – not yet fulfilled in the literature – to better understand the relations between women’s motivation, satisfaction and the type of business selected.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 17 January 2022

Allan Villegas-Mateos

This chapter examines experts’ perceptions of the conditions of their entrepreneurial ecosystems to analyse women’s disadvantages, identify which conditions can improve in…

Abstract

This chapter examines experts’ perceptions of the conditions of their entrepreneurial ecosystems to analyse women’s disadvantages, identify which conditions can improve in comparison to men in Latin America, and if the level of development of their country affects the support women entrepreneurs have. The study is based on regional data collected in Chile and Mexico with one of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor surveys between 2015 and 2018. With a total sample of N = 2,230 male and female experts, the author uses principal component analysis and non-parametric statistics to compare means between genders and also women in different countries. First, male and female experts’ perceptions are compared at the macrolevel and then total women as a subsample are compared between the women experts’ perceptions by country at the mesolevel. At the macrolevel, the results show a clear perceived disadvantage for women entrepreneurs in all conditions except internal market dynamics. At the mesolevel, the findings show that support for women entrepreneurs is better in most conditions for Mexico, which is a less developed country, in comparison to Chile for this case. This chapter goes from studying the general to the particular issues causing gender gaps in entrepreneurial ecosystems in developing Latin American countries. The dataset used represents the biggest data-gathering project in the field of entrepreneurship for the region.

Book part
Publication date: 31 October 2014

Alexander I. Stingl

An inquiry into the constitution of the experience of patienthood. It understands “becoming a patient” as a production of a subjectivity, in other words as a process of…

Abstract

Purpose

An inquiry into the constitution of the experience of patienthood. It understands “becoming a patient” as a production of a subjectivity, in other words as a process of individuation and milieu that occurs through an ontology of production. This ontology of production can, of course, also be understood as a political ontology. Therefore, this is, first of all, an inquiry into a mode of production, and, secondly, an inquiry into its relation to the issue of social justice – because of effects of digital divisions. In these terms, it also reflects on how expert discourses, such as in medical sociology and science studies (STS), can (and do) articulate their problems.

Approach

An integrative mode of discourse analysis, strongly related to discursive institutionalism, called semantic agency theory: it considers those arrangements (institutions, informal organizations, networks, collectivities, etc.) and assemblages (intellectual equipment, vernacular epistemologies, etc.) that are constitutive of how the issue of “patient experience” can be articulated form its position within an ontology of production.

Findings

The aim not being the production of a finite result, what is needed is a shift in how “the construction of patient experience” is produced by expert discourses. While the inquiry is not primarily an empirical study and is also limited to “Western societies,” it emphasizes that there is a relation between political ontologies (including the issues of social justice) and the subjectivities that shape the experiences of people in contemporary health care systems, and, finally, that this relation is troubled by the effects of the digital divide(s).

Originality

A proposal “to interrogate and trouble” some innovative extensions and revisions – even though it will not be able to speculate about matters of degree – to contemporary theories of biomedicalization, patienthood, and managed care.

Details

Mediations of Social Life in the 21st Century
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-222-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 September 2022

Pouria Nouri

Escalation of commitment is one of the most influential decision-making biases in entrepreneurs which may incur substantial losses and result in failure by making…

Abstract

Purpose

Escalation of commitment is one of the most influential decision-making biases in entrepreneurs which may incur substantial losses and result in failure by making entrepreneurs allocate an increasing amount of resources to failing plans. Not only is escalation one of the less-researched biases in entrepreneurship but also most of the existing studies have been either limited to specific contexts or exclusively limited to men entrepreneurs. The purpose of this study is to explore the antecedents of escalation of commitment among a sample of Iranian women and men entrepreneurs to address these gaps.

Design/methodology/approach

By conducting a narrative inquiry, data were collected through semi-structured and in-depth interviews with nine women and 10 men Iranian entrepreneurs who were founder/owners of a small business and had introduced at least one product to the market.

Findings

According to the findings of this study, the fear of losing autonomy and fear of being blamed by one’s family were the main drivers of escalation of commitment among the women entrepreneurs, while overconfidence, sense of responsibility and hoping to gain more profits were the main antecedents of escalation among men entrepreneurs.

Originality/value

This study is a pioneer in studying the antecedents of the escalation of commitment among women and men entrepreneurs comparatively in the context of a developing country.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 July 2022

Victor Silva Corrêa, Marina de Almeida Cruz, Vânia Maria Jorge Nassif, Pedro Lucas de Resende Melo and Rosileine Mendonça de Lima

Embeddedness has gained prominence in entrepreneurship studies. However, the notion that the embeddedness metaphor relates to “market” structures prevails in studies in…

Abstract

Purpose

Embeddedness has gained prominence in entrepreneurship studies. However, the notion that the embeddedness metaphor relates to “market” structures prevails in studies in the area. Entrepreneurship scholars still know little about whether entrepreneurs are eventually embedded in other structures whose relationships go beyond the restricted dimension of the interested actor’s assumption. This study aims to propose investigating the social structures in which a specific type of entrepreneurship, the religious one, is embedded.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was qualitative, using interviews as an evidence collection instrument. A total of 17 entrepreneur-pastors responsible for business churches in Brazil and eight parishioners took part in the study.

Findings

Religious entrepreneurs are embedded in market structures, corroborating a perspective that associates embeddedness with the utilitarian notion. At the same time, entrepreneurs are embedded in two other social structures: reciprocity and redistribution.

Practical implications

This article emphasizes the relevance of going beyond the predominant perspective associated with the utilitarian and rationalized understanding of embeddedness in relationship networks.

Originality/value

This study makes essential contributions. Initially, it attests to the utilitarian perspective of Granovetter’s embeddedness while suggesting incorporating two other dimensions into the metaphor. By highlighting this, this article stresses the need to reinterpret the metaphor of embeddedness and how entrepreneurship scholars use it. Further, by emphasizing the need to consider embeddedness in networks beyond its still utilitarian perspective, this paper highlights unexplored opportunities for entrepreneurship scholars.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 December 2021

Victor Silva Corrêa, Fernanda Regina da Silva Brito, Rosileine Mendonça de Lima and Maciel M. Queiroz

Despite the increase in female entrepreneurship literature, very few studies exist that systematize the extant literature, especially in emerging and developing countries…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the increase in female entrepreneurship literature, very few studies exist that systematize the extant literature, especially in emerging and developing countries. This article fills part of this gap; it maps, categorizes and groups the objectives, theoretical approaches and research methods on female entrepreneurship conducted in one or more of the 155 emerging and developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic literature review (SLR) was conducted, using Scopus and Web of Science, over a 10-year timeframe (2010–2020). Out of 465 papers, 77 were selected for content analysis.

Findings

Most articles focus on understanding women entrepreneurs' challenges, the factors affecting their entrepreneurial performance and encouraging entrepreneurship. Qualitative research was found to be the predominant approach, while mixed studies appeared less frequently.

Practical implications

This paper sheds light on female entrepreneurship characteristics, including business competence, performance and entrepreneurial orientation. Further, it can help female entrepreneurs to recognize the most relevant aspects regarding performance, the essential driving factors and entrepreneurial motivations, among others.

Originality/value

First, this paper groups the objectives and the theoretical and methodological approaches that guide female entrepreneurship research. Second, it identifies distinct gaps, grouped and explored using unpublished thematic categories. Finally, the authors propose an extensive future research agenda regarding female entrepreneurship in emerging and developing countries.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 June 2020

Wei Deng, Qiaozhuan Liang, Jie Li and Wei Wang

This bibliometric review aims to display visually the intellectual communities (i.e. the cooperation networks among various countries, institutions, journals and…

1168

Abstract

Purpose

This bibliometric review aims to display visually the intellectual communities (i.e. the cooperation networks among various countries, institutions, journals and individuals), the intellectual structure (i.e. the status quo and development trajectory of the intellectual base) and emerging hot topics of the female entrepreneurship research in 1975-2018. Based on the comprehensive review of the state-of-the-science, this paper aims to identify significant research gaps in extant studies and develop potential future research agendas that may catalyse new streams of female entrepreneurship research.

Design/methodology/approach

Bibliometric analysis via science mapping provides in-depth analyzes, highlights the intellectual structure and identifies hot topics. Using CiteSpace, co-citation networks of contributing countries, institutions, cited journals and authors are mapped first. Second, co-citation network analysis helps to identify the key “nodes” in the intellectual structure. The landscape view identifies main clusters from an overall perspective, while a timeline view delineates the characteristics and evolution of focal clusters. Major clusters are interpreted in detail with the help of foam tree graph processed by Carrot. Finally, the co-occurrence network analysis is conducted by using VOSviewer to examine hot topics and research frontiers

Findings

The findings show that the publications of female entrepreneurship increase exponentially. The major driving force of female entrepreneurship research is from the USA and England. In terms of intellectual structure, key concepts behind different clusters represent the major milestones in relation to individual determinants of female entrepreneurship, the impact of cultural and contextual factors on female entrepreneurship and female entrepreneurship in non-OECD countries, as well as the impact of family, social and institutional factors on the survival and exit of male and female enterprises. Hot topics include financing sources, the embeddedness nature, the impact and environmental factors of female entrepreneurship.

Practical implications

This study presents important practical implications. The findings suggest that intellectual communities of the female entrepreneurship field are relatively loose. Close contact and cooperation among different countries, institutions and researchers are lacking. To promote the evolution of the field, researchers who belong to different institutions in different countries may need to strengthen contact and cooperation. Additionally, papers in journals from the business and management discipline are most cited in this field, preventing new knowledge from other disciplines flowing into the female entrepreneurship field. Accordingly, female entrepreneurship research journals may need to expand their focus and combine knowledge from various domains.

Originality/value

This bibliometric review provides a more comprehensive, systematic and objective review of the female entrepreneurship field. Previous qualitative reviews are typically based on personal judgement, while a few quantitative reviews only describe statistical data. This study is based on thousands of citation data rather than a small number of papers pre-selected by the researcher, thus, is more data-grounded and less biased than prior reviews. It expands previous reviews by transparently visualizing the underlying structure and evolution of the field. Moreover, it highlights significant gaps in extant studies and develops future research agendas to catalyse new streams of research.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 May 2012

Salvatore Coco, Antonino Laudani, Francesco Riganti Fulginei and Alessandro Salvini

The purpose of this paper is to apply a hybrid algorithm based on the combination of two heuristics inspired by artificial life to the solution of optimization problems.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to apply a hybrid algorithm based on the combination of two heuristics inspired by artificial life to the solution of optimization problems.

Design/methodology/approach

The flock‐of‐starlings optimization (FSO) and the bacterial chemotaxis algorithm (BCA) were adapted to implement a hybrid and parallel algorithm: the FSO has been powerfully employed for exploring the whole space of solutions, whereas the BCA has been used to refine the FSO‐found solutions, thanks to its better performances in local search.

Findings

A good solution of the 8‐th parameters version of the TEAM problem 22 is obtained by using a maximum 200 FSO steps combined with 20 BCA steps. Tests on an analytical function are presented in order to compare FSO, PSO and FSO+BCA algorithms.

Practical implications

The development of an efficient method for the solution of optimization problems, exploiting the different characteristic of the two heuristic approaches.

Originality/value

The paper shows the combination and the interaction of stochastic methods having different exploration properties, which allows new algorithms able to produce effective solutions of multimodal optimization problems, with an acceptable computational cost, to be defined.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 January 2020

Alexa Woodward and David Heesom

Heritage or historic building information modelling (BIM), often referred to as HBIM, is becoming an established feature in both research and practice. The advancement of…

Abstract

Purpose

Heritage or historic building information modelling (BIM), often referred to as HBIM, is becoming an established feature in both research and practice. The advancement of data capture technologies such as laser scanning and improved photogrammetry, along with the continued power of BIM authoring tools, has provided the ability to generate more accurate digital representations of heritage buildings which can then be used during renovation and refurbishment projects. Very often these representations of HBIM are developed to support the design process. What appears to be often overlooked is the issue of conservation and how this can be linked to the BIM process to support the conservation management plan for the building once it is given a new lease of life following the refurbishment process. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a review of the context of conservation and HBIM, and then subsequently presents two case studies of how HBIM was applied to high-profile renovation and conservation projects in the UK. In presenting the case studies, a range of issues is identified which support findings from the literature noting that HBIM is predominantly a tool for the geometric modelling of historic fabric with less regard for the actual process of renovation and conservation in historic buildings.

Findings

Lessons learnt from the case studies and from existing literature are distilled to develop a framework for the implementation of HBIM on heritage renovation projects to support the ongoing conservation of the building as an integral part of a BIM-based asset management strategy. Five key areas are identified in the framework including value, significance, recording, data management and asset management. Building on this framework, a conceptual overlay is proposed to the current Level 2 BIM process to support conservation heritage projects.

Originality/value

This paper addresses the issue of HBIM application to conservation heritage projects. Whilst previous work in the field has identified conservation as a key area, there is very little work focusing on the process of conservation in the HBIM context. This work provides a framework and overlay which could be used by practitioners and researchers to ensure that HBIM is fully exploited and a more standardised method is employed which could be used on conservation heritage renovation projects.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

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