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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1996

Alexander Weiss and Sally Freels

Reports on a field experiment in Dayton, Ohio, where the police department has no specialized traffic division, hence traffic enforcement is part of the routine…

6630

Abstract

Reports on a field experiment in Dayton, Ohio, where the police department has no specialized traffic division, hence traffic enforcement is part of the routine assignment. Aims to measure the effects of traffic law enforcement on crime, arrests and traffic accidents. Presents data covering all index arrests and special arrests involving weapons, drugs and offenders driving under influence, plus all reported traffic accidents. Contrary to other research, fails to detect a relationship between traffic enforcement and crime. Investigates possible reasons for this.

Details

American Journal of Police, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0735-8547

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 May 2012

Anahita Baregheh, Jennifer Rowley, Sally Sambrook and Daffyd Davies

This paper aims to present a profile of innovation in food sector SMEs in the UK, exploring specifically the degree and types of innovation employed, and engagement with…

8881

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a profile of innovation in food sector SMEs in the UK, exploring specifically the degree and types of innovation employed, and engagement with activities that support innovation orientation, or organisational innovativeness.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire‐based survey was conducted to gather data from food sector SMEs in the UK. The questionnaire design was informed by previous studies on degree and types of innovation, and the characteristics of innovativeness. Questionnaires were distributed and gathered by hand and online in order to optimise response. A total of 221 usable responses were received and analysed using SPSS.

Findings

Food sector SMEs are more focused on incremental innovation as opposed to radical innovation, and they are also more engaged in product and process innovations than in packaging, position and paradigm innovations. In terms of innovation characteristics, SMEs agree that they are usually committed to the majority of a wide range of factors that affect innovation orientation, but most important amongst these are a commitment to encouraging new ideas, and cultivating innovative employees.

Originality/value

Although the food and drink sector plays an important role within the UK economy, innovation in food sector SMEs has received little previous attention. This paper makes an important contribution by profiling innovation, according to type, and innovation characteristics in food sector SMEs in the UK. In addition, it demonstrates the importance of developing understanding of the management of innovation portfolios embracing a range of types and degrees of innovation.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 March 2021

Romana Dreyer and Christine Busch

The purpose of this paper is to understand how experienced copreneurs of small family business (SFB), as the smallest unit and heart of their family business (FB), may…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand how experienced copreneurs of small family business (SFB), as the smallest unit and heart of their family business (FB), may create work-life balance (WLB). Copreneurs evince highly intertwined life-domains and often struggle to respite while managing their high business demands.

Design/methodology/approach

In this couple interview study with 18 experienced copreneurial couples of SFBs (N = 36), we investigated strategies copreneurs use to create their WLB by merging a resource perspective (Hobfoll, 1989) with the concept of WLB crafting (Sturges, 2012).

Findings

A key strategy in copreneurial couples was the structural establishment of microdomains, such as periods of personal resource recreation within a macrodomain (e.g. work) via individual physical and cognitive WLB crafting. Copreneurs used relational WLB crafting with a strong emphasis on seeking support and mainly to protect their microdomains by relying on their spouses as boundary keepers. Women more often expressed the importance of health and time for respite, as cognitive WLB crafting, and they were more active in creating (joint) recovery opportunities. Dyadic WLB crafting strategies were used when goal congruency for work or private activities was high.

Originality/value

This research applies WLB crafting research to the smallest unit of SFBs, namely copreneurs. The study provides in-depth insights into the strategies copreneurs of SFB use to create a satisfying WLB.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 24 August 2011

Breda Kenny and John Fahy

The study this chapter reports focuses on how network theory contributes to the understanding of the internationalization process of SMEs and measures the effect of…

Abstract

The study this chapter reports focuses on how network theory contributes to the understanding of the internationalization process of SMEs and measures the effect of network capability on performance in international trade and has three research objectives.

The first objective of the study relates to providing new insights into the international market development activities through the application of a network perspective. The chapter reviews the international business literature to ascertain the development of thought, the research gaps, and the shortcomings. This review shows that the network perspective is a useful and popular theoretical domain that researchers can use to understand international activities, particularly of small, high technology, resource-constrained firms.

The second research objective is to gain a deeper understanding of network capability. This chapter presents a model for the impact of network capability on international performance by building on the emerging literature on the dynamic capabilities view of the firm. The model conceptualizes network capability in terms of network characteristics, network operation, and network resources. Network characteristics comprise strong and weak ties (operationalized as foreign-market entry modes), relational capability, and the level of trust between partners. Network operation focuses on network initiation, network coordination, and network learning capabilities. Network resources comprise network human-capital resources, synergy-sensitive resources (resource combinations within the network), and information sharing within the network.

The third research objective is to determine the impact of networking capability on the international performance of SMEs. The study analyzes 11 hypotheses through structural equations modeling using LISREL. The hypotheses relate to strong and weak ties, the relative strength of strong ties over weak ties, and each of the eight remaining constructs of networking capability in the study. The research conducts a cross-sectional study by using a sample of SMEs drawn from the telecommunications industry in Ireland.

The study supports the hypothesis that strong ties are more influential on international performance than weak ties. Similarly, network coordination and human-capital resources have a positive and significant association with international performance. Strong ties, weak ties, trust, network initiation, synergy-sensitive resources, relational capability, network learning, and information sharing do not have a significant association with international performance. The results of this study are strong (R2=0.63 for performance as the outcome) and provide a number of interesting insights into the relations between collaboration or networking capability and performance.

This study provides managers and policy makers with an improved understanding of the contingent effects of networks to highlight situations where networks might have limited, zero, or even negative effects on business outcomes. The study cautions against the tendency to interpret networks as universally beneficial to business development and performance outcomes.

Details

Interfirm Networks: Theory, Strategy, and Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-024-7

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2010

Alicia Rodríguez and María Jesús Nieto

Purpose – The main aim of this chapter is to analyse the implications of innovation and, directly and indirectly, of cooperation on the internationalisation of…

Abstract

Purpose – The main aim of this chapter is to analyse the implications of innovation and, directly and indirectly, of cooperation on the internationalisation of knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS). Specifically, we analyse the potential impact of innovation capability on the propensity of KIBS to internationalise. We also look at whether cooperation has any influence on the international growth of these firms or on their innovation results.

Methodology/approach – This is an empirical research. Empirical analyses are based on information provided by the Spanish Technological Innovation Panel data for the period 2003–2005. Tobit and probit models are estimated to test our hypotheses.

Findings – The empirical findings support all our theoretical hypotheses. A positive relationship between cooperation, innovation and internationalisation of KIBS is also found. Thus, the results confirm the relevance of innovation for internationalisation. KIBS that establish collaborative relationships find access to international markets easier and improve their innovation capability. In these terms, cooperation is found to be directly and indirectly related with internationalisation in KIBS.

Originality/value of paper – The services sector is the most important sector in Spain and Europe nowadays, and it is the sector that has experienced the fastest growth in recent years. However, the research efforts it has received have not been commensurate with its size and role in international commerce. In general, the literature has paid scant attention to the relationships between innovation and internationalisation in services sectors, and more specifically, among KIBS. This chapter sheds light on this topic.

Details

Reshaping the Boundaries of the Firm in an Era of Global Interdependence
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-088-0

Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Goudarz Azar and Rian Drogendijk

This paper aims to examine the relationship between cultural distance (both perceived and objective), innovation and firm export performance.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the relationship between cultural distance (both perceived and objective), innovation and firm export performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Hypotheses were tested here by structural equation modeling using data from 186 export ventures into 23 international markets by Swedish companies.

Findings

The results indicate that managers’ perceptions of substantial cultural differences as well as objective cultural differences (gauged using Hofstede’s (1980, 2001) scores for dimensions of national culture) and subsequent environmental uncertainty when expanding into culturally distant markets triggers strategies for interacting and integrating with the market environment. These include producing and adopting innovations to processes and products and to organizational strategy, structure and administrative procedures to cope with the new environment and overcome uncertainties. These innovations and the associated competitive advantages improve firm export performance.

Originality/value

Despite much research into the relationship between firm internationalization and innovation, little attention has been paid to the effect of the characteristics of the foreign markets (specifically cultural differences) on firm innovation strategies. Moreover, much research has been devoted to the effect of innovation on firm export performance, but such research has mainly focused on one type of innovation, i.e. technological innovation, while the influence of organizational innovation on firm export performance has been basically ignored. The present study validates the explanatory of cultural distance (both perceived and objective) in relation to innovation strategies (technological and organizational) and export performance.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

Keywords

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