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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1986

Michael J. Thomas

The conceptual problem associated with marketing productivity analysis is examined followed by an examination of currrent practice in marketing productivity in the…

Abstract

The conceptual problem associated with marketing productivity analysis is examined followed by an examination of currrent practice in marketing productivity in the following areas — on the product line, in advertising and promotional mix, in the salesforce, in distribution and in customer activity tracking. It provides UK companies with some guidance on how they can improve their performance measurement using marketing information systems and reorganising existing information for more effective marketing action. The research concentrates on 50 well‐known British companies in oil, chemicals, various engineering disciplines, food, pharmaceuticals, insurance, construction and chain‐store retailing. The findings are based on 28 viable responses, and a further 21 (different) responses from companies which were personally visited. Although the research techniques need to be refined they conclude that the management of resources invested in marketing activities can never be refined to the point where an incremental investment in any specific marketing application can be measured with great accuracy. Yet a great deal of measurement is possible and marketing managers can be well enough informed about the behaviour of marketing inputs so that allocation decisions in future periods will benefit.?

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

Bruce D. Keillor, R. Edward Bashaw and Charles E. Pettijohn

One of the primary characteristics of the sales environment of the next century will be the proliferation of technology as an important component of the sales process. The…

Abstract

One of the primary characteristics of the sales environment of the next century will be the proliferation of technology as an important component of the sales process. The successful salesperson of the future will be marked by an ability to incorporate and directly apply a wide range of technology in their interactions with customers. More than simple data access, sales technology is increasingly being used as a means by which the salesperson and customer interact. The overall objective of this study is to measure the attitude of salespeople toward the use of computer technology in a sales job and then ascertain the relationship between these attitudes and a salesperson’s job experience and productivity. The results of the study outline important managerial implications related to introducing and implementing new technology uses within a salesforce.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 12 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2013

Hannes Zacher and Nerina L. Jimmieson

Based on substitutes for leadership theory, the aim of this study is to examine followers' learning goal orientation as a moderator of relationships among transformational…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on substitutes for leadership theory, the aim of this study is to examine followers' learning goal orientation as a moderator of relationships among transformational leadership, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and sales productivity.

Design/methodology/approach

Data came from 61 food and beverage attendants of a casino, and were analyzed using regression analyses.

Findings

Transformational leadership was positively related to both OCB and sales productivity. Learning goal orientation moderated the relationship between transformational leadership and OCB, such that transformational leadership was more strongly related to OCB among followers with a low learning goal orientation than among followers with a high learning goal orientation.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of the study include the small sample size and cross‐sectional research design.

Practical implications

Organizations could train supervisors to practice a transformational leadership style and to take followers' learning goal orientation into account.

Originality/value

The findings of this study suggest that, with regard to OCB, a high learning goal orientation of followers may act as a “substitute” for low levels of leaders' transformational leadership.

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2002

John H. Humphreys

This research examined the relationship between the behaviors associated with transformational, transactional, and laissez‐faire leadership and followers’ success in…

Abstract

This research examined the relationship between the behaviors associated with transformational, transactional, and laissez‐faire leadership and followers’ success in marketing financial services in a proximal sales unit environment. Although transformational leadership has received significant support in non‐sales settings, empirical research investigating the transformational sales manager/sales follower dyad is limited. Recent research has suggested that a transactional style of sales management may be preferable when attempting to influence follower work outcomes. This examination reports results that support the notion that transformational sales leadership may be advantageous to services sales organizations in settings where sales managers and their followers are in close proximity.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1991

David W Cravens, Thomas N Ingram and Raymond W LaForge

Presents a portfolio model for multi‐sales channel effortdeployment. Shows how the approach can help sales management restructuresales channels. Notes that combining an…

Abstract

Presents a portfolio model for multi‐sales channel effort deployment. Shows how the approach can help sales management restructure sales channels. Notes that combining an organization′s selling effort into multiple sales channels can be facilitated through an analytical approach that considers variations in customer requirements, buying power and contact costs. Concludes that implementing a successful multiple sales channel strategy offers impressive productivity opportunities.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 6 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Michael Rodriguez and Kevin Trainor

Many organizations still struggle with sales force technology implementation because of low user adoption rates. The ubiquity of mobile computing devices, such as…

Abstract

Purpose

Many organizations still struggle with sales force technology implementation because of low user adoption rates. The ubiquity of mobile computing devices, such as smartphones and tablets, and the proliferation of mobile customer relationship management (mCRM) applications, may lead to increased CRM adoption and higher returns on CRM technology investments. The purpose of this study is to attempt to extend the current literature by developing a model of mCRM antecedents and outcomes by incorporating the idiosyncratic mCRM characteristics that have not yet been examined in the sales technology literature.

Design/methodology/approach

This research utilizes the technology acceptance model and the technology-to-performance chain as the foundation of a conceptual model of the drivers and outcomes of mCRM adoption.

Findings

This conceptual study provides several contributions to both the sales technology literature and to practitioners within sales organizations. The proposed conceptual model outlines the benefits of providing mCRM capabilities to sales professionals. These benefits include increased productivity, sales activity and collaboration among both internal stakeholders (management and peers) and external stakeholders (prospects and customers).

Originality/value

Despite the increased use of mobile applications in sales, research on this particular form of technology is limited, and sales researchers have yet to examine mCRM or its relationship to sales performance. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to forward a conceptual model that allows researchers to explore the drivers of mCRM use and how mCRM influences individual and organizational-level outcomes.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2000

Robert L. Engle and Michael L. Barnes

A 42‐question survey on usage and beliefs regarding sales force automation (SFA) was collected, along with actual sales performance data, on 1,641 sales representatives of…

Abstract

A 42‐question survey on usage and beliefs regarding sales force automation (SFA) was collected, along with actual sales performance data, on 1,641 sales representatives of a large international pharmaceutical company in Germany, England, and the United States. The relationships between beliefs and usage and individual sales performance were examined both within and across countries and a cost‐benefit analysis completed. Factor analysis identified five usage groupings including: Planning and territory management; Administration and external information exchange; Within company communication; Active sales tool; and Passive sales tool. Significant usage, belief, and performance differences between countries were found, with the use of SFA explaining 16.4 per cent of the variance in sales performance across countries. General findings indicated that management and representatives believed SFA to be useful. US$22.2 million in sales increases were found to be attributable to SFA usage. At the same time, non‐discounted cash flow payback periods were found to range from 6.2 to 7.4 years. Potential contributing factors and implications are discussed.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Stephan F. Gohmann, Robert M. Barker, David J. Faulds and Jian Guan

This paper examines how perceptions about salesforce automation (SFA) systems are influenced by the perceived accuracy of the information the system provides.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines how perceptions about salesforce automation (SFA) systems are influenced by the perceived accuracy of the information the system provides.

Design/methodology/approach

Three hypotheses are tested. They are as follows. Sales people who perceive that the information is inaccurate will be less likely to: have a positive perception of the system; think that their training was helpful; and think that the system improves their productivity. Chi‐square tests are used to test the association between the perceptions of information accuracy and the statements in the hypotheses.

Findings

Negative perceptions about the accuracy of information leads to negative perceptions about other aspects of the SFA system.

Research limitations/implications

This study examines the results for only one particular organization. The results may not be generalizable to other organizations. As similar data about other SFA systems become available, this study can be used as a basis for examining the effect of information accuracy on perceptions of SFA systems.

Originality/value

Since the company has some control over the accuracy of the information provided by the system, they should attempt to provide information that the salesforce finds useful. To enure that the proper information is provided, management must seek the user's input about what information should be provided. Additionally, the data should be cleansed and provide an indicator of the probability that a particular lead will result in a sale.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2006

Bin Jiang, Gregory V. Frazier and Edmund L. Prater

This research aims to empirically investigate the effect of outsourcing on firm level performance metrics, providing evidence about outsourcing influences on a firm's…

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to empirically investigate the effect of outsourcing on firm level performance metrics, providing evidence about outsourcing influences on a firm's cost‐efficiency, productivity and profitability.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is concerned with empirically examining the impact of outsourcing on a firm's performance. The results are based on a sample of 51 publicly traded firms that outsourced parts of their operations between 1990 and 2002. Publicly available accounting data are used to test for changes in operating performances that result from outsourcing decisions. Operating performances are examined over a four‐quarter period after the outsourcing announcement.

Findings

This research provides evidence that outsourcing can improve a firm's cost‐efficiency. While existing literature on outsourcing has also sought to draw anecdotal and conceptual evidence that highly visible companies have improved their productivity and profitability as well through outsourcing, the research reveals no evidence that outsourcing will improve a firm's productivity and profitability.

Research limitations/implications

This research is limited to what is available in public databases. Also, financial data pertain to the firm as a whole and not just to the outsourcing department or division, which would obscure the real outsourcing effects on the particular department or division.

Practical implications

This research makes two contributions to both practice and theory. First, this is the first empirical study to examine the link between outsourcing implementation and firm‐level performance metrics. Second, empirical evidence is provided of the difference between outsourcing firms' performance and their non‐outsourcing competitors'. Outsourcing firms have an obvious significant advantage in cost efficiency over their counterparts which do not outsource any activities at the same time. They also may obtain more available resources from outsourcing to invest in other productive capacities.

Originality/value

This research on outsourcing effects is the first to empirically test the relation between the outsourcing decision and the firm's productivity and profitability. Never before has outsourcing played such an important role in business, yet the overall impact of outsourcing on performance remains largely an unexplained puzzle. The research explores opportunities for further research to investigate the returns on outsourcing.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 26 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2021

David Bruce Audretsch and Maksim Belitski

This study aims to theoretically discuss and empirically investigate to what extent the interplay between the domains of knowledge complexity (managerial, strategic and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to theoretically discuss and empirically investigate to what extent the interplay between the domains of knowledge complexity (managerial, strategic and operational) facilitates firm performance and the role of organizational resilience in this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses primary data collected from 102 European small and medium-sized firms (SMEs) in Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Spain and the UK during 2012–2015 and 2010–2020. This study corrects for potential data disclosure and technology adoption bias in two survey ways.

Findings

First, compared to other acumens of knowledge complexity, managerial and operational acumens contribute most the most to a firm’s performance (sales and productivity). Firm resilience positively moderates managerial skills and negatively moderates inter-organizational collaborations. Taking SMEs and their inter-organizational relationships, skills and resilience in focus, considering that they are transitive organizations whose business model is based on innovation and productivity to outcompete larger counterparts it is found that resilience and agility in SMEs are important to leverage the effect of knowledge complexity on firm performance.

Research limitations/implications

One of the limitations of this study is that SMEs are expected to face more problems in achieving organizational ambidexterity with all three acumens, as they have restricted managerial expertise, less structured procedures and fewer resources than larger firms. In addition to regression analysis which is limited in answering “how” and “why” knowledge complexity is managed within and outside a firm, future research will consider a mixed-method approach of both interviews with high growth SMEs and online surveys. To unveil the role that firm resilience in SMEs and in the volatile environment, future research may focus specifically on firms that lack resources, skills and time, however, continue innovating, commercializing new knowledge and create new jobs.

Practical implications

One of the most important mechanisms which facilitate the managerial acumen was found to be information technology (IT) investment and management decision-making, exploitation of new information and communication technology trends and markets, innovating business models and driving change management, innovating new mobility and digital technologies, as well as use inter-disciplinary staff and knowledge to influence external stakeholders. The most relevant elements of the operational acumen of knowledge for performance in SMEs are various mechanisms and forms of inter-organizational collaboration such as collaboration on business and IT applications and infrastructure, administration and operations with data and information exchange, collaboration on data availability, accumulation and exchange.

Social implications

The findings call for innovation policy to account for the need for interactions between various elements of strategic, managerial and operational acumens of knowledge complexity in SMEs. Prime support should be focused on facilitating inter-organizational collaboration and providing “soft support” in the time of agility and adversity. This paper founds that lack of budget, skills and resources would significantly affect a firm’s resilience, potentially “locking in” within an organization.

Originality/value

First, it emphasizes that the returns from inter-organizational collaboration as part of the operational acumen of knowledge complexity depend upon the firm’s ability to manage infrastructure, mobility and data. The relationship is negatively moderated by firm resilience, which means that the most resilient firms may focus on the exploitation of internal resources and substitute it for inter-organizational collaboration. Second, this study demonstrates that SMEs’ growth and productivity strategy should be management skills and competencies driven, rather than strategy-driven, with strategy facilitating managerial decision-making on business and IT.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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