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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1986

Andrew Napier

Aims to discuss incentive schemes within sales management circles and illustrates effects on sales staff. Believes that there is a belief among writers that the ‘carrot…

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1373

Abstract

Aims to discuss incentive schemes within sales management circles and illustrates effects on sales staff. Believes that there is a belief among writers that the ‘carrot and stick’ method prevails within the selling/marketing fraternity, but purports to show that sales people are motivated by the anticipated satisfaction that comes with performance, rather than by performance itself, stating that self‐esteem has a direct effect on performance. States that three main areas bear on the incentive system: monetary incentives affect goal setting; lower goals allow rewards to be obtained easier so resulting in lower performance; personalized income may be increased if budgeted individuals set own goals. Proposes in summation that middle‐term sales disciplines should be quantified and assessed by means of a merit‐based appraisal scheme. Concludes that it is naive to assume that incentives motivate sales people to perform more effectively and that sales managers have the power of improved motivation in their hands.

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European Journal of Marketing, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Book part
Publication date: 20 January 2014

Chwo-Ming J. Yu, Hsiao-Wen Lin and Hui-Yun Chiu

In recent years, many firms from developing countries (LDCs) have engaged in foreign direct investment (FDI). Interestingly some of these firms locate their investments in…

Abstract

In recent years, many firms from developing countries (LDCs) have engaged in foreign direct investment (FDI). Interestingly some of these firms locate their investments in developed countries (DCs) (i.e., upstream FDI), instead of in countries economically similar to or less than their home countries (i.e., downstream FDI). However, only a few researchers have examined the issues related to upstream FDI. Furthermore, when examining FDI, most studies have focused on manufacturing subsidiaries but paid less attention to sales subsidiaries. Due to the differences in nature, management of manufacturing and sales subsidiaries should be different. Using a case study approach and focusing on the behaviors of Taiwanese firms, we address two research questions: (1) what are the channel strategies adopted by the sales subsidiaries of Taiwanese high-tech firms (i.e., multinational corporations (MNCs) from LDCs (LDCMNCs)) in DCs? and (2) how do these subsidiaries manage their channels in DCs? Our findings are: (1) LDCMNCs tend to use multiple sales channels, to work with large national distributors, and to adopt high touch channels to market products in DCs; (2) to reduce channel conflict, less powerful LDCMNCs tend to adopt multiple independent channel system, instead of dual channel system; and (3) due to limited resources, LDCMNCs make more effort on designing channel conflict prevention mechanisms than designing channel conflict resolution mechanisms, emphasize more on building relationships with distributors and tend to use financial incentives/high-power incentives than use other types of incentives to motivate distributors. The findings of this study are helpful for LDC firms to operate their sales subsidiaries more effectively in DCs.

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International Marketing in Rapidly Changing Environments
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-896-9

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Article
Publication date: 12 December 2017

Shivendra Pandey, OP Wali and Rajan Chandra

The current study aims to evaluate the utilization of export incentives of the Indian Government. A model conceptualizing the relationships between incentive’s awareness…

Abstract

Purpose

The current study aims to evaluate the utilization of export incentives of the Indian Government. A model conceptualizing the relationships between incentive’s awareness, utilization, perception of utilization on export increase and overall performance was tested.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 107 Indian exporters from the ten major exporting sectors of the Indian economy were chosen. The exporters within the sectors were chosen on the basis of the quota sampling technique. The top-most executive of the exporting house was interviewed using both structured questionnaire and in-depth method.

Findings

Results indicated that awareness impacted availing of incentives which led to the perception of enhanced export sales. Enhanced export sales led to the perception of an enhanced overall performance of the firm. Smaller firms believed more as compared to larger firms in the effect of export incentives on export sales growth. Recommendations have been provided to remove lacunae in various incentive schemes and improve utilizations.

Research limitations/implications

The inability to extract firm-level financial data of the value of various schemes availed, exports sales increase, overall performance indicators is a limitation of the study.

Practical implications

The lack of awareness seemed to be the biggest roadblock for the Indian Government to make export incentive schemes successful. The Indian Government needs to customize the offerings of incentive schemes by incorporating the general perceptions of experts/users. Some less-used schemes can be done away with and some new schemes with less paperwork will be more useful.

Originality/value

There is scant literature in the Indian context on the study of export incentive schemes. There is even less empirical primary evidence available. This study is one of the first to provide a model for the utilization of export schemes and has great practical relevance for exporters and Indian Government alike.

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Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2009

Jo En Yap, Liliana L. Bove and Michael B. Beverland

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of different reward programs on in‐role and extra‐role behaviour; and to investigate whether specific reward programs…

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5449

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of different reward programs on in‐role and extra‐role behaviour; and to investigate whether specific reward programs can be designed to enhance both in‐role and extra‐role behaviour simultaneously.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi‐structured in‐depth interviews were conducted on a total of 11 employees from four different fashion retail outlets. Informants consisted of employees from different positions within these organizations (i.e. store manager, assistant store manager and sales associates) to provide researchers with possibly differing viewpoints. Interviews were content analysed and classified, according to emerging themes.

Findings

Certain reward programs, namely individual and group financial incentives motivated sales associates to engage in both in‐role and extra‐role behaviour simultaneously. Further, compared to formal recognition programs, informal reward programs (individual financial incentives, individual social recognition and group social recognition) appeared to be more effective in motivating sales associates to enhance their in‐role and extra‐role performance.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to a better understanding of the effects of different reward programs and their administration on in‐role and extra‐role performance of retail sales associates.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2004

Susan S. Krawczyk

During 2003, compensation practices for the retail sale of mutual funds came under fire. Recent revelations about failures in the processing of mutual fund breakpoints had…

Abstract

During 2003, compensation practices for the retail sale of mutual funds came under fire. Recent revelations about failures in the processing of mutual fund breakpoints had triggered a more in‐depth investigation into mutual fund marketing and compensation practice by securities regulators, Congress, and the states. This article focuses on the regulation of sales compensation practices primarily as it affects a broker‐dealer selling mutual funds in the retail market. It addresses the regulatory framework for three key compensation practices: (1) the use of non‐cash compensation in connection with mutual fund sales; (2) marketing and compensation arrangements providing enhanced compensation to a selling firm as well as to its sales representatives for the promotion of certain fund securities over others, such as proprietary funds over non‐proprietary funds, preferred funds over non‐preferred funds, and Class B shares over Class A shares; and (3) the use of commissions for mutual fund portfolio trades as an additional source of selling compensation for selling firms, a practice sometimes referred to as ”directed brokerage.“

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Journal of Investment Compliance, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1528-5812

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1995

William H. Murphy and Ravipreet S. Sohi

Aims to improve understanding of an important and widely usedmanagement tool for motivating the salesforce – sales contests.Begins by introducing the question: what…

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1677

Abstract

Aims to improve understanding of an important and widely used management tool for motivating the salesforce – sales contests. Begins by introducing the question: what factors are associated with salespeople′s feelings towards a sales contest? Several potentially relevant characteristics that are expected to be associated with various feelings towards contests are discussed. To test the hypotheses, data were collected through verbal protocols and surveys from salespeople belonging to a division of a Fortune 100 firm. Results indicate that salespeople′s self‐esteem, commitment level, and career stage play a role in influencing feelings towards the sales contest.

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European Journal of Marketing, vol. 29 no. 13
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Kimberly Judson, Denise D. Schoenbachler, Geoffrey L. Gordon, Rick E. Ridnour and Dan C. Weilbaker

The purpose of this research is to provide an empirical examination of the role of the salesperson in the new product/service development process.

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4181

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to provide an empirical examination of the role of the salesperson in the new product/service development process.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was mailed to 2,650 sales managers representing US firms across the nation, and the resulting sample size consisted of 246 respondents with a response rate of 9.3 percent. The survey sample included firms with a business‐to‐business emphasis, and those with a minimum of 50 employees.

Findings

The majority of the respondents reported that salespeople are indirectly or directly involved in the new product/service development process. In spite of this contribution, many firms do not directly reward salespeople for their involvement. Offering appropriate incentives could greatly increase their efforts to collect information for new product/service idea generation.

Research limitations/implications

Suggested future research includes the perspectives of salespeople, new product development directors, etc. In addition, the study was strictly domestic and could benefit from an international focus, as well as a comparison of products versus services sectors.

Practical implications

The findings from this study can be used by managers as a benchmark for assessing sales force participation in the new product/service development, and to identify ways to encourage increased participation by the sales force with incentives.

Originality/value

Little formalized research has been conducted on the specific role that salespeople play in the new product/service development process. The findings from this study may provide strategic guidance to organizations with respect to the role of salespeople in the critical new product/service development process.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 22 September 2021

Danny Claro, Valter Afonso Vieira, Raj Agnihotri and Rafael Serer

As manufacturers and retailers aim to increase return on marketing investments, value- vs experience-related trade promotions gain attention. These two trade promotions…

Abstract

Purpose

As manufacturers and retailers aim to increase return on marketing investments, value- vs experience-related trade promotions gain attention. These two trade promotions become complicated in the presence of different retail format strategies (generalist vs specialist) and channel structures (direct to retailer vs distributors). Building on trade promotion literature, this study aims to show the main effect of value-related and experience-related trade promotions on retailers’ sales and the moderating role of different retail strategies and channel structures.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use unique panel data from 8 personal care brands with 1,920 observations to test the hypotheses. The authors investigate how consumer goods manufacturer sells products using different channels structures and retail strategies. Estimated panel regressions provide the empirical evidence and robustness analyzes provide extra confidence to the findings.

Findings

Results reveal higher retail sales when the manufacturer invests in value-related trade promotions rather than experience-related trade promotions. The results also demonstrate how the manufacturer successfully invests in trade promotion by adequately accounting for channel structure and retail strategy. While temporary price reduction’s positive effect on retail sales is enhanced in generalist retailers (e.g. supermarket stores), shelf display’s positive impact is enhanced in specialist retailers (drug stores).

Research limitations/implications

The authors used unique panel data accounting for 15 months, limiting the findings. The results supported the investment allocation decisions in each period. However, future research may evaluate the effectiveness over a longer period and thoroughly address each investment’s seasonal effects.

Practical implications

The authors unveil how retailers achieve higher sales with value-related trade promotions when compared to experience-related trade promotions. The authors also shed light on the way manufacturers design their relationships with generalist and specialist retailers by working in direct and indirect channels. Trade promotions yield better results when the direct channel structure couples with a retailer’s generalist strategy.

Originality/value

The empirical findings help manufacturers achieve success in trade promotions by developing an equitable evaluation to contrast value- and experience-related promotions accounting for generalist and specialist retail strategies and direct and indirect channels.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Mary Larson and Romney Resney

Is there a management team that hasn’t been seduced by the revenue‐boosting, cost‐slashing mantra “sales force effectiveness”? The phrase, used broadly to encompass both a…

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Abstract

Is there a management team that hasn’t been seduced by the revenue‐boosting, cost‐slashing mantra “sales force effectiveness”? The phrase, used broadly to encompass both a wide range of sales force automation and related CRM (customer relations management) initiatives, as well as revamped sales‐force training and incentive systems, activity audits, customer satisfaction surveys, and personnel reshufflings, has triggered massive amounts of corporate spending in recent years – nearly $12 billion on CRM applications alone in 2002, according to Forrester Research, a figure that Forrester projects will almost double in the next five years.

Details

Handbook of Business Strategy, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1077-5730

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 1987

William Gaidis and James Cross

Abstract

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Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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