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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

Amanda Hart

Introduction This was the first comprehensive survey and analysis of UK university professorial and senior staff salaries. The survey was conducted by the AUT in response…

Abstract

Introduction This was the first comprehensive survey and analysis of UK university professorial and senior staff salaries. The survey was conducted by the AUT in response to membership demand for information on their salaries and in order to assess the support among professors and senior staff for a salary scale. The analysis of the results was carried out by the Polytechnic of North London (PNL) Social Research Unit.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Article
Publication date: 1 September 1993

David J. Smyth

The annual rate of growth of the average salaries of faculty atuniversities and colleges has fluctuated considerably from year to year.Analyses annual academic year data…

Abstract

The annual rate of growth of the average salaries of faculty at universities and colleges has fluctuated considerably from year to year. Analyses annual academic year data on salaries from 1971‐72 to 1991‐92. Results are presented for continuing faculty (faculty on staff in both the reporting year and previous year), and for total faculty, in both cases disaggregated by rank. Two macroeconomic variables, the expected rate of inflation and whether or not the economy is in recession, provide a good explanation of how large the percentage increase in salaries will be for the forthcoming academic year, and in conjunction with the actual rate of inflation, the behaviour of real salaries of academics. The estimates provide a gloomy outlook for real academic salaries.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 14 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 19 October 2020

Emmanouil Platanakis and Charles Sutcliffe

Although tax relief on pensions is a controversial area of government expenditure, this is the first study of the tax effects for a real-world defined benefit pension…

Abstract

Although tax relief on pensions is a controversial area of government expenditure, this is the first study of the tax effects for a real-world defined benefit pension scheme. First, we estimate the tax and national insurance contribution (NIC) effects of the scheme's change from final salary to career average revalued earnings (CARE) in 2011 on the gross and net wealth of the sponsor, government, and 16 age cohorts of members, deferred pensioners, and pensioners. Second, we measure the size of the twelve income tax and NIC payments and reliefs for new members and the sponsor, before and after the rule changes. We find the total subsidy split is roughly 40% income tax subsidy and 60% NIC subsidy. If lower tax rates in retirement and the risk premium effect of the exempt-exempt-taxed (EET) system are not viewed as a tax subsidy, the tax subsidy to members largely disappears. Any remaining subsidy drops, as a proportion of pension benefits, for high earners, as does that for NICs.

Book part
Publication date: 14 August 2015

Robert J. Thornton and Judith A. McDonald

Using a unique data set from the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE), we estimate the gender starting-salary gap for college graduates from 2000 to 2010…

Abstract

Using a unique data set from the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE), we estimate the gender starting-salary gap for college graduates from 2000 to 2010. Simulation techniques are used to estimate how the salary gap would change if women had selected the same majors or job types as men. We find that about 90% of the starting-salary gap is explainable by gender differences in majors and types of job offers – a higher percentage than found in most other studies. Duncan indexes of dissimilarity also indicate that the gender distributions of job offers by college major and type of first jobs have not become more similar over the past 10 years. Although differences in college major and types of first jobs explain most of the gender gap in starting salaries of college graduates, small but unexplained gender pay differences reveal themselves in the NACE statistics.

Details

Gender in the Labor Market
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-141-5

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 November 2016

Fernando Groisman

The objective of this study is to examine the impact that changes in minimum wage and the main income transfer programmes have had on the economic participation of the…

Abstract

The objective of this study is to examine the impact that changes in minimum wage and the main income transfer programmes have had on the economic participation of the population and the informal sector in Argentina. The magnitude and importance that both policies have had in the Argentine case makes it possible carry out an in-depth analysis of these topics. In effect, minimum wage was periodically modified between 2002 and 2014 to be among the highest in the Latin American region while the mentioned income transfer programme – called the Universal Child Allowance – has benefited some 40 per cent of children residing in the country since its implementation.

The obtained evidence suggests that modifications to minimum wage did not produce adverse effects on employment or have a substantial impact on the probabilities of entering the informal sector. Regarding the income transfers, it was possible to confirm that it did not encourage adults in beneficiary households to become economically inactive.

Details

Inequality after the 20th Century: Papers from the Sixth ECINEQ Meeting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-993-0

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 14 April 2010

Jon S.T. Quah

Compensation refers to “all forms of financial returns and tangible services and benefits employees receive as part of an employment relationship” (Milkovich & Newman

Abstract

Compensation refers to “all forms of financial returns and tangible services and benefits employees receive as part of an employment relationship” (Milkovich & Newman, 1999, p. 6). A more specific definition is provided by Edwin B. Flippo, who has defined compensation as “the adequate and equitable remuneration of personnel for their contribution to organization objectives.” He identifies its three components as: basic wage or salary (to attract qualified candidates); variable compensation (to motivate job performance); and supplementary fringe benefits (to retain talented staff) (Flippo, 1984, p. 281). Table 6.1 identifies the functions of these three components of compensation.

Details

Public Administration Singapore-style
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-924-4

Article
Publication date: 31 December 2007

Ling Li and Michael E. Roloff

Compensation influences applicants' perceptions of a position's attractiveness, but there has been limited analysis of how different compensation systems might reflect…

4103

Abstract

Purpose

Compensation influences applicants' perceptions of a position's attractiveness, but there has been limited analysis of how different compensation systems might reflect organizational cultures and influence organizational attractiveness. This article seeks to explore these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

An experiment was conducted in which 288 undergraduates reacted to scenarios describing a company that distributed salaries and benefits based on either merit or on seniority. Individual differences were also measured and analyzed. Analysis of variance and moderated regression were used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Relative to seniority‐based compensation systems, the cultures of organizations relying on merit were perceived to be more aggressive, reward‐oriented, and less decisive. Unexpectedly, the psychological contracts of organizations using merit systems were generally perceived to be more relational and less transactional than those using seniority‐based systems. Individual differences were not related to attraction to the organization regardless of its compensation systems. Finally, individuals were least attracted to organizations that distributed both salaries and benefits based on seniority relative to those using a mixed compensation distribution system or one based entirely on merit.

Research limitations/implications

The sample was composed of undergraduates who responded to a hypothetical job scenario. The scenario only included information about how salary and benefits are allocated. Future research should use more experienced samples that are considering actual positions.

Practical implications

Findings indicate how information about compensation systems might be used in job descriptions to encourage applicants.

Originality/value

This study was the first to find that merit/seniority‐based compensation systems for determining salary and benefits reflect different organizational cultures to job applicants and influence job applicants' attraction to organizations.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 January 2016

Eric A. Hanushek

The purpose of this paper is to consider how the level and structure of teacher salaries affect student outcomes and the possibility of improving student achievement in…

4796

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider how the level and structure of teacher salaries affect student outcomes and the possibility of improving student achievement in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis integrates an underlying economic model of the role of salaries in the teacher labor market with existing empirical results.

Findings

Much of the current policy discussion about teacher salaries is very unclear about how student outcomes will be affected by changing policies. The US is at a “bad equilibrium” where it cannot increase salaries for effective teachers without increasing salaries for ineffective teachers and thus it is stuck with a teaching corps that is harming both students and the future economic performance of the country. Dealing with problems of the productivity of schools must involve altering the structure of the single salary schedule for teachers.

Research limitations/implications

The discussion focusses exclusively on the US schooling system, although there are obvious parallels to systems in other countries.

Practical implications

The paper provides an overarching model of how the structure of salaries for teachers has broad implications of school outcomes.

Social implications

Improved long-run economic outcomes depend crucially on reforms that involve rewarding the most effective teachers but not the least effective.

Originality/value

The integrated approach to the consideration of teacher salaries provides a way of assessing the discordant policy discussions related to teacher salaries.

Details

Journal of Professional Capital and Community, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-9548

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 June 2014

Paul D. Larson and Matthew Morris

This paper aims to develop and test hypotheses on determinants of supply chain managers’ salaries. While women make up about half the workforce, there is evidence in the…

2965

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop and test hypotheses on determinants of supply chain managers’ salaries. While women make up about half the workforce, there is evidence in the trade press that they receive far less than half of the compensation. Sex of the manager and size of his or her organization are among the predictors of salary.

Design/methodology/approach

The hypotheses are tested using regression analysis of data from a survey of supply chain managers in Canada. This technique enables testing for a gender effect, while controlling for the effects of other factors.

Findings

Seven variables are found to be significant predictors of supply chain manager salaries. Smaller companies pay lower salaries. Small business supply chain/logistics managers working longer hours with a professional designation, more experience, greater budgetary responsibility and greater share of compensation coming as a bonus earn higher salaries. Finally, male small business supply chain managers earn more than their female counterparts.

Research limitations/implications

The piece includes a discussion of limitations and future research opportunities into the gender salary gap.

Practical implications

There are implications for small businesses wanting to hire supply chain managers, and for female (and male) managers looking for work.

Social implications

This paper presents evidence of possible gender discrimination against half the population. The potential social implications are tremendous.

Originality/value

This is a unique piece of research in testing theory-driven hypotheses about supply chain salaries, especially by including gender and organizational size as predictors.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Martin Lally

This paper aims to determine the optimal date for an employee to initiate the pension payments from the New Zealand Government Superannuation Fund (GSF), through…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to determine the optimal date for an employee to initiate the pension payments from the New Zealand Government Superannuation Fund (GSF), through retirement or job shifting.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses discounted cash flow methods in conjunction with mortality tables, inflation estimates and a range of values for the yield on inflation-adjusted bonds in New Zealand.

Findings

The paper finds that, if job shifting is costless, then the optimal exit date is between 60 and 65. If job switching is costly, then this paper determines the effective salary reduction arising from continuing to work at the GSF-associated job beyond the optimal job switching age under costless job switching, arising from the adverse impact on the present value of the pension benefits, so as to assist in deciding when to switch jobs or retire. These effective salary reductions are small below 65 but rapidly rise after that, thereby significantly discouraging work much beyond age 65.

Originality/value

This paper assists GSF members to determine when to switch jobs or retire.

Details

Pacific Accounting Review, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0114-0582

Keywords

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