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The purpose of this paper is to report on SpeakApps, a major collaborative computer-assisted language learning project, developed based on an open source…
The purpose of this paper is to report on SpeakApps, a major collaborative computer-assisted language learning project, developed based on an open source techno-pedagogical solution to facilitate online oral language production and interaction.
A mixed method approach was incorporated as part of the development process which included a comprehensive literature and practice review, user requirement survey of 815 learner, 61 pilot studies with 7,180 students, construction of qualitative teaching scenarios and a Delphi analysis.
Language learners have limited experience of using synchronous communication tools within language learning contexts. Improving usability features within the Open Educational Resources supported the notion of sustainability and that the provision of the mechanism to indicate quality were vital to support the integrity of open content.
The paper provides an overview of the operationalisation of an action-oriented approach to language learning which manifested as a design for learning development process. It illustrates the breadth of issues raised from technical to pedagogical when teacher and learner agency are central for development and sustainability.
For aiding computer security experts in their study, log files are a crucial piece of information. Especially the time domain is very important for us because in most…
For aiding computer security experts in their study, log files are a crucial piece of information. Especially the time domain is very important for us because in most cases, timestamps are the only linking points between events caused by attackers, faulty systems or simple errors and their corresponding entries in log files. With the idea of storing and analyzing this log information in graph databases, we need a suitable model to store and connect timestamps and their events. This paper aims to find and evaluate different approaches how to store timestamps in graph databases and their individual benefits and drawbacks.
We analyse three different approaches, how timestamp information can be represented and stored in graph databases. For checking the models, we set up four typical questions that are important for log file analysis and tested them for each of the models. During the evaluation, we used the performance and other properties as metrics, how suitable each of the models is for representing the log files’ timestamp information. In the last part, we try to improve one promising looking model.
We come to the conclusion, that the simplest model with the least graph database-specific concepts in use is also the one yielding the simplest and fastest queries.
Limitations to this research are that only one graph database was studied and also improvements to the query engine might change future results.
In the study, we addressed the issue of storing timestamps in graph databases in a meaningful, practical and efficient way. The results can be used as a pattern for similar scenarios and applications.
With respect to the guiding “ideas” of Humboldt andtheir consequences for the constitution of science, describes thetransition to a modern research university with the…
With respect to the guiding “ideas” of Humboldt and their consequences for the constitution of science, describes the transition to a modern research university with the emergence of theory‐based practice, science‐based technology and technology‐based industry. The pure research imperative is endangered or even substituted by a new technological imperative
Purpose – The integration of librarians and technologists to deliver information services represents a new and costly organizational challenge for many library…
Purpose – The integration of librarians and technologists to deliver information services represents a new and costly organizational challenge for many library administrators. To understand how to control the costs of integration, this study uses structural contingency theory to study the coordination of librarians and technologists within the information commons.
Design/methodology/approach – This study tests the structural contingency theory expectation that an organization will achieve higher levels of performance when there is a positive relationship between the degree of workflow interdependence and the complexity of coordinative structures necessary to integrate these workflows. This expectation was tested by (a) identifying and collecting a sample of information common; (b) developing and validating survey instruments to test the proposition; and (c) quantitatively analyzing the data to test the proposed contingency theory relationship.
Findings – The contingency theory expectations were confirmed by finding both a positive relationship between coordination and interdependence and a positive relationship between perceptions of performance and degree of congruency between interdependence and coordination.
Limitations – The findings of this study are limited to both the context of an information common and the structures tested. Future research should seek to both broaden the context in which these findings are applicable, and test additional structural relationships as proposed by contingency theory
Practical implications – This study contributes to the library profession in a number of ways. First, it suggests that managers can improve IC performance by matching coordination structures to the degree of interdependence. For instance, when librarians and technologists are strictly co-located, managers should coordinate workflows using less resource-intensive policies rather than meetings. Second, the instruments developed in this study will improve the library manager's ability to measure and report unit interdependence and coordination in a valid and reliable manner. Lastly, it also contributes to the study of structural contingency theory by presenting one of the first empirical confirmations of a positive relationship between interdependence and coordination.
Originality/value – This study represents one of the first empirical confirmations of the structural contingency theory expectations of both a positive relationship between workflow interdependence and coordination, and a positive relationship between performance and coordination's fit to workflow interdependence. These findings are of value to both organizational theorists and to administrators of information commons.
This chapter investigates the determinants of the volatility of spread in the over-the-counter foreign exchange market and examines whether the relationships differ in the…
This chapter investigates the determinants of the volatility of spread in the over-the-counter foreign exchange market and examines whether the relationships differ in the crisis periods. We compute the measures for the volatility of liquidity by using bid-ask spread data sampled at a high frequency of five minutes. By examining 11 currencies over a 13-year sample period, we utilize a balanced dynamic panel regression to investigate whether the risk associated with the currencies quoted or trading activity affects the variability of liquidity provision in the FX market and examine whether the crisis periods have any effect. We find that both the level of spread and volatility of spread increases during the crisis periods for the currencies of emerging countries. In addition, we find increases in risks associated with the currencies proxied by realized volatility during the crisis periods. We also show risks associated with the currency are the major determinants of the variability of liquidity and that these relationships strengthen during periods of uncertainty. First, we develop measures to capture the variability of liquidity. Our measures to capture the variability of liquidity are non-parametric and model-free variable. Second, we contribute to the debate of whether variability of liquidity is adverse to market participants by examining what drives the variability of liquidity. Finally, we analyze seven crisis periods, allowing us to document the effect of the crises on determinants of variability of liquidity over time.
Over the past two decades, scholars have noted an increasing global convergence in the policy and practice of education that predominantly contains Western ideals of mass…
Over the past two decades, scholars have noted an increasing global convergence in the policy and practice of education that predominantly contains Western ideals of mass schooling serving as a model for national school systems (Bieber & Martens, 2011; Goldthorpe, 1997; Spring, 2008). A number of transnational organizations contribute disproportionately to global educational discourse, particularly the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) through its international comparative performance measure, the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). This study conducted a critical discourse analysis of the OECD document PISA 2012 Results: Excellence through Equity (OECD, 2013) to examine the ways that PISA and the OECD conceive of educational equity in a global context. Given the growing convergence of global educational policy, the way that transnational educational organizations address equity has crucial implications for the ways that the world intervenes in schooling to promote or diminish equitable outcomes. Analysis revealed that the OECD and the PISA foreground economistic notions of educational equity, which diminishes the role of other factors (i.e., race/ethnicity, gender, immigration status, language) that mediate equity in schools. Findings and implications are discussed.
Purpose: This chapter explores how Russian fashion designers, as cultural intermediaries operating in the marketplace, interpret patriotism, which has become a noticeable…
Purpose: This chapter explores how Russian fashion designers, as cultural intermediaries operating in the marketplace, interpret patriotism, which has become a noticeable phenomenon in Russia.
Methodology/Approach: Patriotism is approached as an appeal to patria and is considered as a socially constructed category. To explore the construction of patriotism, this research uses Michel Foucault’s concept of governmentality. In the market, the state, commercial companies, media, and consumers co-produce the dispositif of patriotism, which conducts the creative conduct of fashion designers and encourages them to follow patriotic fashion. At the same time, fashion designers have freedom to conduct themselves and act in different ways.
Findings: Interpretations of patriotism within a patriotic dispositif are explored vis-à-vis the interpretations of patriotism articulated by fashion designers. In addition to patriotic fashion, the forms of their creative conduct or counter-conduct are manifested in such subtypes of patriotism in fashion as cosmopolitan patriotism, economic patriotism, cultural patriotism, and fashion localism.
Research Limitations/Implications: The research is mainly limited to a perspective of fashion designers, and to some extent of the government, and does not consider the perspective of consumers.
Originality/Value: The research develops a theoretical argument of patriotism as a tool of governmentality, juxtaposing it to the approach of patriotism as an ideology. This chapter also contributes to the studies of resistance, adding the perspective of cultural intermediaries contrary to the commonly studied perspective of consumers.
In the 30 years since Giroux (1983) named schools as a site of resistance, little has happened to sustain and embed that practice in schools. The contexts, structures, and…
In the 30 years since Giroux (1983) named schools as a site of resistance, little has happened to sustain and embed that practice in schools. The contexts, structures, and policies in schools do not foster opportunities for resistance, and schools of education do not prepare teachers to support students’ critical actions in schools, ensuring the reproduction of inequity and injustice. While this is true for all historically marginalized groups, the specific legacy of discrimination (i.e., threats of deportation) faced by Latinx students and communities in the western United States often serves to silence their voices and efforts at resistance (Darder, Noguera, Fuentes, & Sanchez, 2012). In this chapter, we examine data from a student voice research project, including weekly observations (n = 102) for the school year across three public school classrooms, teacher reflections, and student work. This work is framed by the theory of sociopolitical development, implicating both teachers and students in the process of resistance and liberation. The data we explore captures (1) early conversations between students and teachers about issues of racial and economic injustice, (2) the initial resistance of students to having those conversations, (3) increasing trust between teachers and students supporting engagement with the issues, (4) students’ active resistance toward the issues that impacted them, (5) teachers and students working together to challenge unjust policies – at the school, district, and state level.
The purpose of this paper is to synthesize ten years of case studies and data analysis from which emerged an organizational design that facilitates adaptability, agility…
The purpose of this paper is to synthesize ten years of case studies and data analysis from which emerged an organizational design that facilitates adaptability, agility, and resilience. The resulting triangular model of culture, leadership, and systems is proposed.
Analysis of over 100 case studies over ten years along with statistical analysis of survey data from 50 of those companies resulted in the emergence the triangular model and provides quantitative support for validity.
People drive a complex and dynamic system with culture, leadership, and systems as key factors driving organizational success in a rapidly changing environment. The critical factor in adapting to change is designing organizations to maximize the vast tacit knowledge base within organizations. Diagnostic tools are necessary to identify underlying strengths and weaknesses to initiate targeted discussions and provide a baseline for measurement.
All of the organizations were from Europe, Africa, or the Middle East.
The emergent people-centric triangular model with culture, leadership, and systems at the points along with the development of a diagnostic tool offers a methodology for executives to gain valuable insight into critical elements of their organizations from which to initiate constructive dialogue leading to effective action.
Many authors have offered theories on developing agile organizations. The emergent people-centric performance triangle and evolving diagnostic instrument add to the body of existing literature and lays the groundwork for practical tools and methods to yield practical results.