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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2021

Sajid Iqbal and Ahmad Raza Bilal

The study aims to empirically estimate the role of public supports for energy efficiency financing and presents the way forward to mitigate the energy financing barriers that…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to empirically estimate the role of public supports for energy efficiency financing and presents the way forward to mitigate the energy financing barriers that incurred during the COVID-19 crisis.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the G7 countries data, the study estimated the nexus between the constructs. Generalized method of moments (GMM) and conventional increasing-smoothing asymptotic of GMM are applied to justify the study findings. Wald econometric technique is also used to robust the results.

Findings

The study findings reported a consistent role of public support on energy efficiency financing indicators, during the COVID-19 crisis period. G7 countries raised funds around 17% through public supports for energy efficiency financing, and it raised 4% of per unit energy usage to GDP, accelerated 16% energy efficiency and 24% output of renewable energy sources, during COVID-19. By this, study findings warrant a maximum support from public offices, energy ministries and other allied departments for energy efficiency optimization.

Practical implications

The study presents multiple policy implications to enhance energy efficiency through different alternative sources, such as, on-bill financing, direct energy efficiency grant, guaranteed financial contracts for energy efficiency and energy efficiency credit lines. If suggested policy recommendations are applied effectively, this holds the potential to diminish the influence of the COVID-19 crisis and can probably uplift the energy efficiency financing during structural crisis.

Originality/value

The originality of the recent study exists in a novel framework of study topicality. Despite growing literature, the empirical discussion in the field of energy efficiency financing and COVID-19 is still shattered and less studied, which is contributed by this study.

Details

China Finance Review International, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1398

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 July 2021

Bilal Ahmad, Sajid Iqbal, Mahnoor Hai and Shahid Latif

This paper aims to examine the mediating role of relational mobile usage on the relationship between personal values (individualism, collectivism and academic self-efficacy) and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the mediating role of relational mobile usage on the relationship between personal values (individualism, collectivism and academic self-efficacy) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) among the faculty members of higher education/degree-awarding institutes (DAIs) in Pakistan. The paper also examines the moderating role of gender on the relationship between relational mobile usage and OCB.

Design/methodology/approach

Cross-sectional data from 217 faculty members of higher education/DAIs in Pakistan were collected through an online questionnaire. Structural equation modeling technique using SmartPLS was used to assess the measurement and structural model. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21 was used for data normality analysis, missing value analysis and variable calculation. Response and non-response bias were also examined.

Findings

The findings confirmed that individualism was not significantly related to relational mobile usage; however, collectivism and academic self-efficacy were significantly related to relational mobile usage. The relationship of relational mobile usage and OCB was also significant. The mediating role of relational mobile usage on the relationship between individualism and OCB was not significant; however, the mediating role of relational mobile usage between collectivism and OCB, and academic self-efficacy and OCB was significant. The moderating role of gender on the relationship between relational mobile usage and OCB was also significant.

Practical implications

DAIs’ administration should strive to encourage individuals to value group priorities over the individualistic interests. Valuing group interest over the individualistic interest would promote the usage of mobile technology for relational purpose. This relational perspective of mobile usage will ultimately develop OCB among individuals. Also, academic self-efficacy through relational mobile usage can lead to OCB; therefore, another important policy implication for the administration of DAIs is to develop academic self-efficacy among the stakeholders of the institutions.

Originality/value

Although OCB has become a theoretically mature concept, the framework proposed for this study has rarely been discussed in previous scholarships, particularly from the perspective of relational mobile usage. Arguably, this study is the first in testing the mediating role of relational mobile usage between the personal values and OCB within the context of academia in Pakistan.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 April 2022

Ahmad Raza Bilal, Tehreem Fatima, Sajid Iqbal and Muhammad Kashif Imran

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how alertness enable small and medium scale enterprise (SME) owners to leverage their individual entrepreneurial orientation (IEO) such…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how alertness enable small and medium scale enterprise (SME) owners to leverage their individual entrepreneurial orientation (IEO) such as risk-taking, pro-activity, innovation, passion and perseverance in a better way to recognize opportunities for financial resources as compared to their counterparts who are not alert. Moreover, it elaborates on the mediating role of opportunity recognition of financial resources between IEO and SMEs’ access to finance (AF).

Design/methodology/approach

A three-wave time-lagged survey from a stratified sample of 271 small and medium scale business owners in Pakistan was conducted and the data were analysed using PROCESS models 1 and 4.

Findings

The findings grounded in the theory of Action Regulation, signify that the IEO of small and medium scale business owners helps them attain financial resources through opportunity recognition capacity which is an action characteristic. Moreover, the IEO of SME owners, coupled with entrepreneurial alertness (EA; a cognitive pre-action state), amplifies their ability to recognize opportunities for financial resource availability.

Originality/value

This is one of the initial studies to test the IEO scale, including passion and perseverance. Moreover, it has added to the individual-level antecedents of AF in small and medium scale businesses through the role of EA and opportunity recognition.

Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2012

Riaz Ahmed Shaikh

Purpose – This paper discusses the emergence of terrorism in South Asia during last three decades and it resulted in the culmination of Mumbai attacks of…

Abstract

Purpose – This paper discusses the emergence of terrorism in South Asia during last three decades and it resulted in the culmination of Mumbai attacks of 26/11.

Design/methodology/approach – This paper mostly depending on secondary resources is archival in nature.

Findings – This paper links the development of extremism in Pakistan with the events of the Mumbai attacks 26/11.

Originality/value – This paper finds that terrorist activity committed in Mumbai on 26/11 is a result of well-connected Islamist, extremist, who got training and proper support from their network based in Pakistan.

Details

New Wars, New Militaries, New Soldiers: Conflicts, the Armed Forces and the Soldierly Subject
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-638-6

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 May 2019

Muhammad Ijaz Khan, Madiha Rashid, Tasawar Hayat, Niaz B. Khan and Ahmed Alsaedi

This paper aims to examine the three-dimensional (3D) flow of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) due to bidirectional nonlinearly stretching surface by considering porous medium…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the three-dimensional (3D) flow of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) due to bidirectional nonlinearly stretching surface by considering porous medium. Characteristics of both single-walled CNTs and multi-walled CNTs are discussed by considering Xue model. Darcy–Forchheimer model is used for flow saturating porous medium.

Design/methodology/approach

Optimal homotopy analysis method is used for the development of series solutions.

Findings

The authors deal with 3D Darcy–Forchheimer flow of CNTs over a nonlinearly stretching surface. Heat transport mechanism is discussed in the presence of Xue model. The homogeneous and heterogeneous effects are also accounted. The mathematical modeling is computed using boundary-layer approximations.

Originality/value

No such work has been done yet in the literature.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

M. Mustafa, T. Hayat and A. Alsaedi

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the heat transfer effects on the stretched flow of Oldroyd-B fluid in a rotating frame. Cattaneo–Christov heat conduction model is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the heat transfer effects on the stretched flow of Oldroyd-B fluid in a rotating frame. Cattaneo–Christov heat conduction model is considered, which accounts for the influence of thermal relaxation time.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on scale analysis, the usual boundary layer approximations are used to simplify the governing equations. The equations so formed have been reduced to self-similar forms by similarity transformations. A powerful analytic approach, namely, homotopy analysis method (HAM), has been applied to present uniformly convergent solutions for velocity and temperature profiles.

Findings

Suitable values of the so-called auxiliary parameter in HAM are obtained by plotting h-curves. The results show that boundary layer thickness has an inverse relation with fluid relaxation time. The rotation parameter gives resistance to the momentum transport and enhances fluid temperature. Thermal boundary layer becomes thinner when larger values of thermal relaxation time are chosen.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first attempt to study the three-dimensional rotating flow and heat transfer of Oldroyd-B fluid.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 27 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2019

S. Bilal, Muhammad Sohail and Rahila Naz

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the studies of momentum and transmission of heat on mixed convection boundary layer Darcy‒Forchheimer flow of Casson liquid over a linear…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the studies of momentum and transmission of heat on mixed convection boundary layer Darcy‒Forchheimer flow of Casson liquid over a linear extending surface in a porous medium. The belongings of homogeneous‒heterogeneous retorts are also affianced. The mechanism of heat transmission is braced out in the form of Cattaneo‒Christov heat flux. Appropriate restorations are smeared to revolutionize coupled nonlinear partial differential equations conforming to momentum, energy and concentration of homogeneous‒heterogeneous reaction equations into coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs).

Design/methodology/approach

Numerical elucidations of the transmogrified ODEs are accomplished via a dexterous and trustworthy scheme, namely optimal homotopy analysis method. The convergence of planned scheme is exposed with the support of error table.

Findings

The exploration of mixed convection Darcy‒Forchheimer MHD boundary layer flow of incompressible Casson fluid by the linear stretched surface with Cattaneo‒Christov heat flux model and homogeneous‒heterogeneous reactions is checked in this research. Imitations of the core subsidized flow parameters on velocity, temperature and concentration of homogeneous‒heterogeneous reactions solutions are conscripted. From the recent deliberation, remarkable annotations are as follows: non-dimensional velocities in xa− and xb− directions shrink, whereas the non-dimensional temperature upsurges when the Casson fluid parameter ameliorates. Similar impact of Casson fluid parameter, magnetic parameter, mixed convection parameter, inertia parameter, and porosity parameter is observed for both the components of velocity field. An escalation in magnetic parameter shows the opposite attitude of temperature field as compared with velocity profile. Similar bearing of Casson fluid parameter is observed for both temperature and velocity fields. Enhancement in concentration rate is observed for growing values of (Ns) and (Sc), and it reduces for (k1). Both temperature and concentration of homogeneous‒heterogeneous upturn by mounting the magnetic parameter. Demeanor of magnetic parameter, Casson fluid parameter, heat generation parameter is opposite to that of Prandtl number and thermal relaxation parameter on temperature profile.

Practical implications

In many industrial and engineering applications, the current exploration is utilized for the transport of heat and mass in any system.

Originality/value

As far as novelty of this work is concerned this is an innovative study and such analysis has not been considered so far.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 February 2014

T. Hayat, Z. Iqbal, M. Mustafa and A. Alsaedi

This investigation has been carried out for thermal-diffusion (Dufour) and diffusion-thermo (Soret) effects on the boundary layer flow of Jeffrey fluid in the region of…

Abstract

Purpose

This investigation has been carried out for thermal-diffusion (Dufour) and diffusion-thermo (Soret) effects on the boundary layer flow of Jeffrey fluid in the region of stagnation-point towards a stretching sheet. Heat transfer occurring during the melting process due to a stretching sheet is considered. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors convert governing partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations by using suitable transformations. Analytic solutions of velocity and temperature are found by using homotopy analysis method (HAM). Further graphs are displayed to study the salient features of embedding parameters. Expressions of skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and local Sherwood number have also been derived and examined.

Findings

It is found that velocity and the boundary layer thickness are increasing functions of viscoelastic parameter (Deborah number). An increase in the melting process enhances the fluid velocity. An opposite effect of melting heat process is noticed on velocity and skin friction.

Practical implications

The boundary layer flow in non-Newtonian fluids is very important in many applications including polymer and food processing, transpiration cooling, drag reduction, thermal oil recovery and ice and magma flows. Further, the thermal diffusion effect is employed for isotope separation and in mixtures between gases with very light and medium molecular weight.

Originality/value

Very scarce literature is available on thermal-diffusion (Dufour) and diffusion-thermo (Soret) effects on the boundary layer flow of Jeffrey fluid in the region of stagnation-point towards a stretching sheet with melting heat transfer. Series solution is developed using HAM. Further, the authors compare the present results with the existing in literature and found excellent agreement.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 October 2018

A.S. Dogonchi, F. Selimefendigil and D.D. Ganji

The purpose of this study is to peruse natural convection in a CuO-water nanofluid-filled complex-shaped enclosure under the influence of a uniform magnetic field by using control…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to peruse natural convection in a CuO-water nanofluid-filled complex-shaped enclosure under the influence of a uniform magnetic field by using control volume finite element method.

Design/methodology/approach

Governing equations formulated in dimensionless stream function, vorticity and temperature variables using the single-phase nanofluid model with the Koo–Kleinstreuer–Li correlation for the effective dynamic viscosity and the effective thermal conductivity have been solved numerically by control volume finite element method.

Findings

Effects of various pertinent parameters such as Rayleigh number, Hartmann number, volume fraction of nanofluid and shape factor of nanoparticle on the convective heat transfer characteristics are analysed. It was observed that local and average heat transfer rates increase for higher value of Rayleigh number and lower value of Hartmann number. Among various nanoparticle shapes, platelets were found to be best in terms of heat transfer performance. The amount of average Nusselt number reductions was found to be different when nanofluids with different solid particle volume fractions were considered due to thermal and electrical conductivity enhancement of fluid with nanoparticle addition.

Originality/value

A comprehensive study of the natural convection in a CuO-water nanofluid-filled complex-shaped enclosure under the influence of a uniform magnetic field by using control volume finite element method is addressed.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 September 2019

Muhammad Sohail, Rahila Naz and Rabeeah Raza

The purpose of this paper is to address the entropy analysis of the 3D flow of Maxwell nanofluid containing gyrotactic microorganism in the presence of homogeneous–heterogeneous…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the entropy analysis of the 3D flow of Maxwell nanofluid containing gyrotactic microorganism in the presence of homogeneous–heterogeneous reactions with improved heat conduction and mass diffusion models over a stretched surface. Improved models are supported out by utilizing Cattaneo–Christov heat flux and generalized Fick’s law, respectively.

Design/methodology/approach

Governing equations which present the given flow phenomenon are modeled in the form of PDEs by applying boundary layer analysis and then suitable makeovers are engaged to transfigure prevailing partial differential equations into a set of ordinary differential equations. Transformed equations are handled via optimal homotopy analysis process in computational tool Mathematica and also a special case of already published work is substantiated and found to be in excellent settlement.

Findings

The bearing of innumerable convoluted physical parameters on velocity, temperature, concentration, reaction rate, the concentration of motile microorganism and entropy generation are presented and deliberated through graphs. Moreover, the convergence of the homotopic solution is presented in tabular form which confirms the reliability of the proposed scheme. It is perceived that mounting values of the magnetic parameter and Brinkman number boosts the irreversibility analysis and Bejan number diminishes for these parameters. Moreover, the growing values of Prandtl and Schmidt numbers reduce the temperature and concentration fields, respectively.

Practical implications

The work contained in this paper has applications in a different industry.

Originality/value

The work contained in this paper is original work and it is good for the researcher in the field of applied mathematics.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

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