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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2020

Zainab Akhtar, Jong Weon Lee, Muhammad Attique Khan, Muhammad Sharif, Sajid Ali Khan and Naveed Riaz

In artificial intelligence, the optical character recognition (OCR) is an active research area based on famous applications such as automation and transformation of…

Abstract

Purpose

In artificial intelligence, the optical character recognition (OCR) is an active research area based on famous applications such as automation and transformation of printed documents into machine-readable text document. The major purpose of OCR in academia and banks is to achieve a significant performance to save storage space.

Design/methodology/approach

A novel technique is proposed for automated OCR based on multi-properties features fusion and selection. The features are fused using serially formulation and output passed to partial least square (PLS) based selection method. The selection is done based on the entropy fitness function. The final features are classified by an ensemble classifier.

Findings

The presented method was extensively tested on two datasets such as the authors proposed and Chars74k benchmark and achieved an accuracy of 91.2 and 99.9%. Comparing the results with existing techniques, it is found that the proposed method gives improved performance.

Originality/value

The technique presented in this work will help for license plate recognition and text conversion from a printed document to machine-readable.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2017

Naveed Riaz, Ayesha Riaz and Sajid Ali Khan

The security of the stored biometric template is itself a challenge. Feature transformation techniques and biometric cryptosystems are used to address the concerns and…

Abstract

Purpose

The security of the stored biometric template is itself a challenge. Feature transformation techniques and biometric cryptosystems are used to address the concerns and improve the general acceptance of biometrics. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of different techniques and processes for securing the biometric templates. Furthermore, the paper explores current research trends in this area.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors provide an overview and survey of different features transformation techniques and biometric cryptosystems.

Findings

Feature transformation techniques and biometric cryptosystems provide reliable biometric security at a high level. There are many techniques that provide provable security with practical viable recognition rates. However, there remain several issues and challenges that are being faced during the deployment of these technologies.

Originality/value

This paper provides an overview of currently used techniques for securing biometric templates and also outlines the related issues and challenges.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 23 October 2020

Ahmad Jamal

An estimated 52% of Pakistan’s population is under the age of 25, and like their counterparts elsewhere around the globe, Generation Z in Pakistan was born into a world…

Abstract

An estimated 52% of Pakistan’s population is under the age of 25, and like their counterparts elsewhere around the globe, Generation Z in Pakistan was born into a world overrun with technology, Internet, and social media. This generation of consumers possess information processing ability that is much faster than any other generation. Generation Z consumers in Pakistan are active users of social media platforms connecting with local and international users, brands and exchanging information, photos, videos, ideas, and opinions with people inside and outside Pakistan. To develop insights into the consumption patterns, preferences, attitudes, and preferences of this segment of consumers, this chapter provides an overview of cultural and social values underpinning consumption choices and social media preferences. The chapter identifies and discusses the dynamic nature of Generation Z in Pakistan by identifying some of its defining features: the generation consists of confident, able, and multilingual consumers who are largely collectivists in orientation but shows strong individualistic tendencies. Such consumers have a global outlook and actively seek engagement with brands via digital platforms and influencer marketers expecting authenticity, respect, and equality. The chapter discusses work-related implications such as the need for providing transformational leadership and training programs to harness the intellectual skills of Generation Z in Pakistan. The chapter concludes by identifying and discussing issues relevant to handling Generation consumers in Pakistan including effective marketing strategies.

Details

The New Generation Z in Asia: Dynamics, Differences, Digitalisation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-221-5

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2021

Sanatan Das, Akram Ali and Rabindra Nath Jana

Outstanding features such as thermal conductivity and superior electrical conductivity of nanofluids unfold a new window in the context of their extensive applications in…

Abstract

Purpose

Outstanding features such as thermal conductivity and superior electrical conductivity of nanofluids unfold a new window in the context of their extensive applications in engineering and industrial domains. The purpose of this study to simulate numerically the magneto-nanofluid flow and heat transfer over a curved stretching surface. Heat transport is explored in the presence of viscous dissipation. At the curved surface, the convective boundary condition is adopted. Three different nanoparticles, namely, copper, aluminium oxide and titanium dioxide are taken into consideration because of easily available in nature.

Design/methodology/approach

The basic flow equations are framed in terms of curvilinear coordinates. The modelled partial differential equations are transformed into a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations by means of appropriate similarity transformation. The subsequent non-linear system of equations is then solved numerically by using the Runge–Kutta–Felhberg method with the shooting scheme via bvp4c MATLAB built-in function. Impacts of various physical parameters on velocity, pressure and temperature distributions, local skin-friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and wall temperature are portrayed through graphs and tables followed by a comprehensive debate and physical interpretation.

Findings

Graphical results divulge that augmenting values of the magnetic parameter cause a decline in velocity profiles and stream function inside the boundary layer. The magnitude of the pressure function inside the boundary layer reduces for higher estimation of curvature parameter, and it is also zero when the curvature parameter goes to infinity. Furthermore, the temperature is observed in a rising trend with growing values of the magnetic parameter and Biot number.

Practical implications

This research study is very pertinent to the expulsion of polymer sheet and photographic films, metallurgical industry, electrically-conducting polymer dynamics, magnetic material processing, rubber and polymer sheet processing, continuous casting of metals, fibre spinning, glass blowing and fibre, wire and fibre covering and sustenance stuff preparing, etc.

Originality/value

Despite the huge amount of literature available, but still, very little attention is given to simulate the flow configuration due to the curved stretching surface with the convective boundary condition. Very few papers have been examined on this topic and found that its essence inside the boundary layer is not any more insignificant than on account of a stretching sheet. A numerical comparison with the published works is conducted to verify the accuracy of the present study.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2018

Maria Khalid, Sajid Bashir, Abdul Karim Khan and Nida Abbas

The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between abusive supervision and knowledge hiding behaviors. The authors further investigate how abusive supervision…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between abusive supervision and knowledge hiding behaviors. The authors further investigate how abusive supervision is linked with knowledge hiding behaviors, and why some subordinates, unlike others, tend to engage in more knowledge hiding behaviors in response to abusive supervision. The authors propose that interpersonal justice mediates the relationship between abusive supervision and knowledge hiding behaviors, and that Islamic work ethics (IWE) weaken the hypothesized relationship between abusive supervision and knowledge hiding behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were gathered in three time lags from 224 respondents working in the hospitality industry of Pakistan.

Findings

The results reveal that the abusive supervision is positively associated with a knowledge hiding behaviors. This relationship is mediated by perceptions of interpersonal justice, but the IWE moderated this relationship such that in the presence of high levels of IWE, the impact of abusive supervision on knowledge hiding behaviors is weak.

Practical implications

Employees’ values and beliefs can serve as a safeguard against reactions to abusive supervision. The impact of abusive supervision on employees’ behaviors may be minimized by building their ethical values around Islamic principles.

Originality/value

To the best of the knowledge, this is the first study to examine the relationship between abusive supervision and knowledge hiding behaviors. The authors integrate displaced aggression and social exchange theory with the IWE literature to offer new insights in-to the mechanisms and boundary conditions associated with the relationship between abusive supervision and knowledge hiding behaviors.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 39 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 6 December 2020

S. Das, Akram Ali and R.N. Jana

In this communication, a theoretical simulation is aimed to characterize the Darcy–Forchheimer flow of a magneto-couple stress fluid over an inclined exponentially…

Abstract

Purpose

In this communication, a theoretical simulation is aimed to characterize the Darcy–Forchheimer flow of a magneto-couple stress fluid over an inclined exponentially stretching sheet. Stokes’ couple stress model is deployed to simulate non-Newtonian microstructural characteristics. Two different kinds of thermal boundary conditions, namely, the prescribed exponential order surface temperature (PEST) and prescribed exponential order heat flux, are considered in the heat transfer analysis. Joule heating (Ohmic dissipation), viscous dissipation and heat source/sink impacts are also included in the energy equation because these phenomena arise frequently in magnetic materials processing.

Design/methodology/approach

The governing partial differential equations are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by adopting suitable similar transformations. The resulting system of nonlinear ODEs is tackled numerically by using the Runge–Kutta fourth (RK4)-order numerical integration scheme based on the shooting technique. The impacts of sundry parameters on stream function, velocity and temperature profiles are viewed with the help of graphical illustrations. For engineering interests, the physical implication of the said parameters on skin friction coefficient, Nussult number and surface temperature are discussed numerically through tables.

Findings

As a key outcome, it is noted that the augmented Chandrasekhar number, porosity parameter and Forchhemeir parameter diminish the stream function as well as the velocity profile. The behavior of the Darcian drag force is similar to the magnetic field on fluid flow. Temperature profiles are generally upsurged with the greater magnetic field, couple stress parameter and porosity parameter, and are consistently higher for the PEST case.

Practical implications

The findings obtained from this analysis can be applied in magnetic material processing, metallurgy, casting, filtration of liquid metals, gas-cleaning filtration, cooling of metallic sheets, petroleum industries, geothermal operations, boundary layer resistors in aerodynamics, etc.

Originality/value

From the literature review, it has been found that the Darcy–Forchheimer flow of a magneto-couple stress fluid over an inclined exponentially stretching surface with heat flux conditions is still scarce. The numerical data of the present results are validated with the already existing studies under limited cases and inferred to have good concord.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2021

Abdelkader Daghfous, Abroon Qazi and M. Sajid Khan

The literature on supply chain risk management (SCRM) has investigated a multitude of supply chain risks. This paper aims to make a case for the importance of managing the…

Abstract

Purpose

The literature on supply chain risk management (SCRM) has investigated a multitude of supply chain risks. This paper aims to make a case for the importance of managing the risk of knowledge loss in the supply chain management (SCM) function and incorporating knowledge loss as a critical risk within the SCRM process.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts a knowledge-based view of the SCRM process and attempts to bring to light insights based on a synthesis of the relevant literature. The authors conducted a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed articles published between 1998 and 2019. Further, a case study was conducted to illustrate the significance of the risk of knowledge loss in the SCM function in terms of how it operates and why it has such a significant impact on performance.

Findings

Knowledge loss is a relatively neglected type of supply chain risk that can be added to the existing typologies. This paper argues that knowledge loss in the SCM function has the propensity to significantly impact the performance of the focal firm, exacerbate other types of supply chain risk and impede risk mitigation efforts. We put forth several strategies that supply chain managers can adopt to mitigate the risk of knowledge loss in their function.

Research limitations/implications

This paper generates an exploratory opening that could pave the way for a systematic theory of knowledge loss as a supply chain risk and future empirical research. The study culminates in a number of important insights and initiatives for supply chain managers to recognize and manage the risk of knowledge loss.

Originality/value

This paper argues for the importance of incorporating the risk of knowledge loss in SCRM research and practice. It also provides an examination of some promising angles for future research in SCRM from a knowledge-based perspective.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2021

Arsalan Shakoor, Sajid Haider, Muhammad Hanif Akhtar and Muhammad Ali Asadullah

The purpose of this study was to examine a moderated mediation model of job dissatisfaction and workplace social support in the relationship between work–life conflict and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to examine a moderated mediation model of job dissatisfaction and workplace social support in the relationship between work–life conflict and turnover intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of 220 police investigation officers. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was applied for data analysis.

Findings

Empirical findings of study indicate that work–life conflict enhances employee turnover intentions by creating job dissatisfaction. However, workplace social support buffers this effect and reduces turnover intentions by weakening the effect of work–life conflict on job dissatisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

This study contributes to personnel management and organizational psychology literature by explaining how workplace social support can affect the mediating process of job dissatisfaction through which the relationship between work–life conflict and turnover intentions is determined. The limitations are related to external validity, single source data and cross-sectional nature of data.

Practical implications

Organizational leaders and practitioners can take insights from the findings of this study that if workplace social support prevails at a level greater than work–life conflict, it will nullify or suppress the effect of work–life conflict on turnover intentions by reducing job dissatisfaction.

Originality/value

The originality value of this study is that it has addressed the scarcity of testing boundary conditions of the indirect effect of work–life conflict on turnover intentions through job dissatisfaction.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 27 April 2020

Asma AbdulRahim Chang, Muhammad Shujaat Mubarik and Navaz Naghavi

By taking the theory of entrepreneurial legacy as the baseline, this study explores the various aspects of succession planning in indigenous family businesses especially…

Abstract

Purpose

By taking the theory of entrepreneurial legacy as the baseline, this study explores the various aspects of succession planning in indigenous family businesses especially the role of female family members in succession and conflicts in family businesses.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is qualitative in nature and adopts narrative inquiry to explore the aspects of succession planning. In doing so, the study utilizes an in-depth interviewing technique with nine participants who run their family-owned firms which are mostly in their second or third generation for analysis.

Findings

The findings are concurrent with the literature that indicates a lack of strategic succession planning although ordinary or natural succession does occur in some firms. The study also reports a lack of consideration for female members in succession, daughters in particular, for traditional family firms (FFs) in contrast to entrepreneurial FFs.

Research limitations/implications

The study has many implications for family-owned firms in Pakistan as they need to align their family business with the theory of entrepreneurial legacy and its three strategic activities in order to ensure the longevity of their business.

Originality/value

Exploring how succession planning takes place in family indigenous family businesses and what is the role of female family members in succession and conflicts in family businesses are original contributions of this study.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

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Article
Publication date: 17 December 2019

Nilankush Acharya, Suprakash Maity and Prabir Kumar Kundu

Hybrid nanofluids are of significant engrossment for their considerable heat transport rate. The steady flow of an incompressible viscous electrically conducted hybrid…

Abstract

Purpose

Hybrid nanofluids are of significant engrossment for their considerable heat transport rate. The steady flow of an incompressible viscous electrically conducted hybrid nanofluid is considered over a rotating disk under a magnetic field. Titanium oxide (TiO2) and ferrous (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles are used with their physical properties and water is considered as host liquid. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how hydrothermal integrity varies for hybrid nanosuspension over a spinning disk in the presence of magnetic orientation.

Design/methodology/approach

Governing equations with boundary conditions are transformed by similarity transformations and then solved numerically with RK-4 method. A comparison of linear and nonlinear thermal radiation for the above-mentioned parameters is taken and the efficiency of nonlinear radiation is established, the same over nanofluid and hybrid nanofluid is also discussed. Heat lines are observed and discussed for various parameters like magnetic field, concentration, suction and injection parameter, radiation effect and Prandtl number.

Findings

Suction and increasing nanoparticle concentration foster the radial and cross-radial velocities, whereas magnetization and injection confirm the reverse trend. The rate of increment of radial friction is quite higher for the usual nanosuspension. The calculated data demonstrate that the rate for hybrid nanofluid is 8.97 percent, whereas for nanofluid it is 15.06 percent. Double-particle suspension amplifies the thermal efficiency than that of a single particle. Magnetic and radiation parameters aid the heat transfer, but nanoparticle concentration and suction explore the opposite syndrome. The magnetic parameter increases the heat transport at 36.58 and 42.71 percent for nonlinear radiation and hybrid nanosuspension, respectively.

Originality/value

Nonlinear radiation gives a higher heat transport rate and for the radiation parameter it is almost double. This result is very significant for comparison between linear and nonlinear radiation. Heat lines may be observed by taking different nanoparticle materials to get some diverse result. Hydrothermal study of such hybrid liquid is noteworthy because outcomes of this study will aid nanoscience and nanotechnology in an efficient way.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

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