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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2018

Kuntara Pukthuanthong, Saif Ullah, Thomas J. Walker and Jing Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to examine operational and stock performance changes around forced CEO turnovers caused by conflicts between corporate boards and CEOs over…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine operational and stock performance changes around forced CEO turnovers caused by conflicts between corporate boards and CEOs over the strategic direction of the firm. In addition, the authors investigate whether changes in performance can be explained by board, CEO, or firm characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors apply propensity score matching to choose matching firms that do not forced CEO turnover but have similar characteristics with the sample firms. The authors compare their operating and stock performances. The authors apply both univariate analysis and multivariate regression analyses.

Findings

The authors find that the CEO turnovers caused by conflicts between corporate boards and CEOs over the strategic direction of the firms tend to be preceded by significant declines in a firm’s operating and stock performance and that corporate performance improves after turnovers. In addition, the authors find that an increase in long-term incentives and firm size and a decrease in turnover improve firm performance.

Originality/value

While the existing corporate governance literature emphasizes oversight as the main role of the board of directors and identifies the CEO as the leader who sets the strategic direction of the firm, in cases of conflict-induced forced CEO turnover, it is the board that sets the strategic direction. This paper is the first to provide evidence regarding the implications of conflict-induced forced CEO turnovers.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 44 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 27 October 2020

Erin Oldford, Saif Ullah and Ashrafee Tanvir Hossain

The objective of this paper is to leverage a two-sided view of social capital to develop a model of board gender diversity and firm performance using social capital data…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this paper is to leverage a two-sided view of social capital to develop a model of board gender diversity and firm performance using social capital data from Northeast Regional Center of Rural Development.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors examine a large sample of 2,322 US publicly listed firms over the period 1996 to 2009. The final sample consists of 14,634 firm-year observations.

Findings

The authors find that when a firm's social network is not supportive of gender diversity, corporate boards have lower levels of female representation. The strength of a social network's social ties exacerbates the relationship between social capital and board gender diversity. The authors also report a negative relationship between female board membership and firm performance in social networks that are not pro-diversity. Robustness tests reveal that the authors’ social capital view of board diversity also applies to board ethnic diversity.

Research limitations/implications

This study focuses primarily on blue chip firms due to data constraints. It will be interesting for future researchers to investigate a broader spectrum of firms from a broader perspective of diversity beyond the study’s gender and ethnicity findings. Furthermore, this study assesses the US context, and future research could investigate firm sociability in other national contexts.

Practical implications

This study contributes new insights to the discourse on gender diversity on corporate boards which stand to inform both policy and practice. The results of the study can inform the position of an industry association on board gender diversity, with guidance on how messaging across networks can be more effective should it account for the hidden bias that the authors uncover in the current study. From a manager's perspective, this study can help those managers and boards trying to enhance board gender diversity by providing a more complete understanding of the factors that can limit progress.

Originality/value

This study contributes a social capital view of board gender diversity to the growing literature of corporate governance, board diversity and local environmental influences on corporate policies.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 47 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2021

Asia Kausar, Faiza Siddiqui, Abdul Khalique Gadhi, Saif Ullah and Omer Ali

This study aims to find out the dynamic and causal long-run and the short-run relationship between energy consumption (electricity usage) and energy production…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to find out the dynamic and causal long-run and the short-run relationship between energy consumption (electricity usage) and energy production (electricity creation) and also find out the relationship of these two variables based on past values for the SAARC nations (Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal).

Design/methodology/approach

Vector auto-regressive (VAR), auto-regressive distributive Lag (ARDL) and Granger causality test have been used in this study to estimate the dynamic and causal relationship between variables.

Findings

The unit-root tests were found insignificant at a magnitude but significant at the initial difference. VAR test results were found insignificant, which means co-integration among variables exists, which was tested by ARDL approach. Results suggested that energy consumption has a short-run relationship with energy production, but it was found insignificant in the other way round. The results of this study also suggest that both variables cause each other in the long run.

Research limitations/implications

This study was conducted in a limited environment as we do not have access to energy policies of SAARC countries, and also data access was limited; only five countries’ data was available. This study can help government bodies and policymakers to exchange the electricity across borders to diminish the electricity shortage in the SAARC region, as countries with abandoned resources can produce electricity at a little cost.

Originality/value

Penal data for this study was collected from World Development Indicators from the year 1971 to 2015.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2020

Li Zhang, Linshan Ding, Saif Ullah, Tao Hu, Yangyang Xu, Li Chen and Muhammad Hanif

The principle of the medial axis calculation is complicated and difficult to implement. Moreover, the accuracy is not high. Then, as the generated path has an endpoint at…

Abstract

Purpose

The principle of the medial axis calculation is complicated and difficult to implement. Moreover, the accuracy is not high. Then, as the generated path has an endpoint at the boundary of the polygon, burrs may appear on the surface of the molded piece. This paper aims to improve the warpage deformation of SLM molded parts and the surface quality of molded parts, an improved mid-axis path generation algorithm is proposed.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the center point is calculated by the seed point growth method based on the distance transform, and the obtained medial axis has high precision and is suitable for simple polygons and complex polygons. Then, based on the extracted medial axis, a preliminary path is generated, the path is trimmed with MATLAB to remove the redundant path. Finally, a scan along the contour of the polygon is performed to improve the surface quality of the molded part.

Findings

The algorithm reduces the internal stress generated during the molding process by continuously changing the scanning direction of the path along the boundary curve of the scanning area, thereby reducing the amount of warpage of the molded part. The result of extraction has a higher precision and wider scope of application than other methods to extract central axis, such as the Voronoi diagram-based method. The path is trimmed to remove redundant paths and the polygon boundaries are scanned to further improve the surface quality of the molded part. The results show that warpage deformation of the proposed algorithm is significantly smaller than the other two methods, thus the forming precision is higher.

Originality/value

An improved medial axis path generation algorithm is proposed in this paper. The proposed method is applied to improve warpage deformation occurring in the SLM process. Seed point growth of distance transformation is used to extracted central axis. The result of extraction has a higher precision and wider scope of application than other methods to extract central axis, such as the Voronoi diagram-based method.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 18 July 2019

Faiza Syed, Malik Shah Zaman Latif, Iftikhar Ahmed, Sadia Bibi, Saif Ullah and Nauman Khalid

The purpose of this paper is to access the present situation of the Pakistani population that suffers from vitamin D deficiency.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to access the present situation of the Pakistani population that suffers from vitamin D deficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

A review-based study was conducted based on publications from Pakistan between the years 2008 and 2018. The publications were archived from Pub Med and Google Scholar databases. A total of 18 publications were shortlisted, based on the cutoff values of vitamin D sufficiency, insufficiency and deficiency.

Findings

As per the data, 38.5 per cent of the participants were males, 48.7 per cent were females and 12.8 per cent of the studies have not mentioned the genders of the participants. The cumulative results show that 58.17 per cent (95 per cent CI: 52.17, 64.16) of the population is vitamin D-deficient and 26.65 per cent (95 per cent CI: 21.63, 31.66) is insufficient in vitamin D. The highest level of vitamin D deficiency was reported from Sindh (62.15 per cent), followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (60.57 per cent), Punjab (51.75 per cent) and the Federal Capital (49.25 per cent). Moreover, Cochran’s Q test indicated considerable heterogeneity (p = >0.001) with regard to Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) prevalence found among samples from the selected studies.

Originality/value

The present analysis suggests that more than half of the Pakistani population suffers from VDD, which, thus, should be considered as an epidemic and treated likewise.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2019

Nadeem Ahmad Khan, Saif Ullah Khan, Sirajuddin Ahmed, Izharul Haq Farooqi, Arshad Hussain, Sergij Vambol and Viola Vambol

The purpose of this paper is to cover some aspects about the disposal and regulatory standard around the world toward hospital effluent discharge, its managements and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to cover some aspects about the disposal and regulatory standard around the world toward hospital effluent discharge, its managements and treatment technologies that are adopted and best suitable nowadays.

Design/methodology/approach

Due to large and variety of antibiotics available in the market nowadays it is difficult to control its use, thereby risking the whole ecosystem and its components. The regulation pattern is variable depending upon the various factors in different countries. The permissible limit of these emerging pollutants found in sewage as compared to in hospital effluent streams having active pharmaceutical ingredients is very narrow and is a debatable issue.

Findings

The disparity in the available legislation for hospital waste management in different countries makes it difficult to compare pro’s and con’s of methods adopted. Strict laws need to be framed for hospital wastewater management and its treatment, as it contains harmful compounds in higher concentrations resulting in development of resistant genes. The guideline applicable nowadays makes it clear that, specific management guidelines with respect to HWW, but also indicate certain characteristics that can be represented to specify their nature and indicator.

Research limitations/implications

Determination of effluent characteristic for each specialized treatment need to be analyzed for meeting the framed regulatory standards. Up-gradation of existing treatment facilities, adopting new technologies and improving operation, maintained is a viable option. As there are no specific treatment schemes available hence combination and optimization of treatment methods may solve the problem to certain extent.

Practical implications

There is some flexibility also there so that law framework can be modified accordingly. For any health facilities direct discharges into natural water bodies it effluent need to follow national discharge standards. These are quite strict as compared to indirect standards and generally not meet by such facilities. This is quite logical because they are not being monitored or treated by municipal systems.

Social implications

The law indicates that hospital needed to collect and treat effluent according to the treatment standards. But on other hand the law was made making it consideration about the HWW collection in water bodies.

Originality/value

The best way of management as described, is to treat HWW onsite-dividing into primary, secondary and tertiary. The document also provides details about sludge disposal, possible reuse, including the application of new and innovative treatment technologies for HWW. It also provides guidance for minimum approach for HWW management because developing countries patients do not have proper sanitation facilities.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 5 November 2020

Safeer Ullah Khan, Ikram Ullah Khan, Ismail Khan, Saif Ud Din and Abid Ullah Khan

This study aims to evaluate cognitive, personal and environmental factors affecting investors’ behavioral intentions (BI) to invest in ṣukūk (Islamic investment…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate cognitive, personal and environmental factors affecting investors’ behavioral intentions (BI) to invest in ṣukūk (Islamic investment certificates) in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from 462 participants were collected through survey-questionnaires by using the convenient sampling technique. Hypothesized proposed relationships among the constructs were examined by applying the structural equation modeling (SEM) technique through smart partial least squares.

Findings

Compatibility, internal influence, external influence and intrinsic motivation were found to be significant predictors of investors’ BI to invest in ṣukūk. In addition, it was found that the religious aspect not only affects investors’ BI positively but also works as a moderator in the relationships between BI and both internal and external influence.

Practical implications

The results are quite helpful for ṣukūk issuers and regulators to consider cognitive, personal and environmental factors that might enhance the adoption of ṣukūk, especially among Muslim investors.

Originality/value

This study is among the few research studies that shed light on investors’ BI to invest in ṣukūk. Using social cognitive theory, the study investigates the cognitive, personal and environmental factors influencing ṣukūk adoption, which were previously unexplored. In addition, this is the first study that unveils the influential factors of ṣukūk adoption in Pakistan, a Muslim-majority country.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 August 2020

Mohsin Shahzad, Ying Qu, Abaid Ullah Zafar, Saif Ur Rehman and Tahir Islam

Enhancing green innovation for corporate sustainability is one of the recent issues globally. Knowledge management has been determined as a core factor that hamstrings…

Abstract

Purpose

Enhancing green innovation for corporate sustainability is one of the recent issues globally. Knowledge management has been determined as a core factor that hamstrings green innovation. The existing literature was limited to expose the importance of the knowledge management process for corporate sustainable performance. Thus, this paper aims to examine the role of the knowledge management process for corporate sustainable performance with the integration of green innovation and organizational agility following the resource-based view theory.

Design/methodology/approach

Cross-sectional design was used in this study. Data were gathered through convenience sampling from 475 respondents of multinational manufacturing corporations of Pakistan, analyzed by using structural equation modeling.

Findings

This study revealed that the knowledge management process and its all constructs (acquisition, dissemination and application) lead toward green innovation; further, green innovation influences corporate sustainable performance and its all constructs (environment, economic and social). Green innovation partially mediates the association between the knowledge management process and corporate sustainable performance. Besides, organizational agility has a positive effect on green innovation and corporate sustainable performance but was not found moderating these relations. The study educates that organizations investing in innovative technologies and adopting greener strategies are not only adequate for achieving sustainable performance, soft issues such as knowledge management and organizational agility but also important factors in the current knowledge base economy.

Originality/value

This study is an attempt to examine the previously undiscovered multi-dimensional relationships among the knowledge management process, green innovation, organizational agility and corporate sustainable performance. The presence of a positive correlation among these constructs was observed, proving the conceptual framework for this study.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 24 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 19 September 2017

Wahid Ullah, Takaaki Nihei, Muhammad Nafees, Rahman Zaman and Muhammad Ali

This study aims to investigate risks associated with climate change vulnerability and in response the adaptation methods used by farming communities to reduce its negative…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate risks associated with climate change vulnerability and in response the adaptation methods used by farming communities to reduce its negative impacts on agriculture in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used household survey method of data collection in Charsadda district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, involving 116 randomly selected respondents.

Findings

Prevalent crops diseases, water scarcity, soil fertility loss and poor socio-economic conditions were main contributing factors of climate change vulnerability. The results further showed that changing crops type and cultivation pattern, improved seed varieties, planting shaded trees and the provision of excessive fertilizers are the measures adapted to improve agricultural productivity, which may reduce the climate change vulnerability at a household level.

Research limitations/implications

The major limitation of this study was the exclusion of women from the survey due to religious and cultural barriers of in Pashtun society, wherein women and men do not mingle.

Practical implications

Reducing climate change vulnerability and developing more effective adaptation techniques require assistance from the government. This help can be in the form of providing basic resources, such as access to good quality agricultural inputs, access to information and extension services on climate change adaptation and modern technologies. Consultation with other key stakeholder is also required to create awareness and to build the capacity of the locals toward reducing climate change vulnerability and facilitating timely and effective adaptation.

Originality/value

This original research work provides evidence about farm-level vulnerability, adaptation strategies and risk perceptions on dealing with climate-change-induced natural disasters in Pakistan. This paper enriches existing knowledge of climate change vulnerability and adaptation in this resource-limited country so that effective measures can be taken to reduce vulnerability of farming communities, and enhance their adaptive capability.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2021

Tamanna Dalwai, Dharmendra Singh and Ananda S.

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of intellectual capital (IC) efficiency on the banks’ risk-taking and stability of Asian emerging markets.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of intellectual capital (IC) efficiency on the banks’ risk-taking and stability of Asian emerging markets.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a sample of 204 listed banks from 12 Asian emerging countries for the period 2010 to 2019. Data were analyzed using Ordinary Least Squares regression and checked for robustness using system generalized methods moment (GMM) estimation. The dependent variable of bank stability is measured using Z-score-based return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE). The second dependent variable of bank risk is proxied by the standard deviation of ROA, ROE, non-performing loans and loan loss provision.

Findings

The results suggest the IC efficiency has no association with bank risk-taking and stability. The findings lend no support to the resource-based theory. The robustness of this result is confirmed by the system GMM estimation. However, support is found for the competition fragility view as high market power is associated with low risk-taking. The IC subcomponents, human capital efficiency (HCE) report a negative coefficient for bank risk-taking thereby having no support for the hypothesized relationships. Diversified banks with a higher deposit to total asset ratio resort to high risk-taking.

Research limitations/implications

IC efficiency does not have an impact on the bank’s risk-taking behavior and stability for Asian banks. Managers can use these findings to improve their IC and boost investor confidence. Regulatory authorities should increase its monitoring function of banks when the GDP decreases as risk-taking behavior are galvanized during this period.

Originality/value

This research is one of the first to provide empirical evidence of IC efficiency’s relationship with bank stability and bank risk-taking. The implications are useful for policymakers, managers and governing bodies to enhance the banks’ IC efficiency.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

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