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The purpose of this paper is the numerical investigation of the friction laws for incompressible flow in undulated channels, with emphasis on the applicability of the…
The purpose of this paper is the numerical investigation of the friction laws for incompressible flow in undulated channels, with emphasis on the applicability of the hydraulic diameter concept. A focal point of the study is the derivation of correlations to increase the accuracy of the hydraulic diameter approach.
Calculations are performed for laminar and turbulent flow, for Reynolds number ranges between 10–2,000 and 5,000–100,000. For turbulent flow, the shear stress transport (SST) model is used. A simple, sawtooth-like undulation shape is considered, where the channel geometry can be described by means of three length parameters. Letting each to take three values, totally 27 geometries are analyzed.
It is observed that the hydraulic diameter concept applied via analytical or empirical expressions to obtain friction coefficients does not lead to accurate results. For laminar flow, the maximum deviations of analytical values from predicted are about 70%, while 20% deviation is observed on average. For turbulent flow, deviations of Blasius correlation from predicted ones are smaller, but still remarkable with about 20% for maximum deviation and about 10% on average.
Applicability of the hydraulic diameter concept to undulated channels was not computationally explored. A further original ingredient of the work is the derivation of correlations that lead to improved accuracy in calculating the friction coefficient using hydraulic diameter. For laminar flow, the maximum and average deviations of present correlations from numerical predictions are below 5% and 2%, respectively. For turbulent flow, these numbers turn out to be approximately 12% for the maximum deviation and about 2% for the average.