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Availability, reliability, flexibility and comprehensive diagnostics are the most significant demands placed upon safety systems today. Increasing payloads, work ranges…
Availability, reliability, flexibility and comprehensive diagnostics are the most significant demands placed upon safety systems today. Increasing payloads, work ranges and cycle times of robotic processes necessitate a different approach to safety, particularly other than that offered by conventional safety relays and fencing. The development of fieldbus for safety‐related applications and new International and European Standards have fundamentally changed the manner in which safety is now being engineered in the plant. BMW are the first to directly integrate robotic safety functions using a safety‐related fieldbus.
Standards have restricted the use of networks and programmable electronics in safety‐related applications. New standards have released technology to enable improvements in safety and ensure developments take place within an overall safety framework. Best practice in the additional protocol enhancements required is discussed. The installation of a safety‐related fieldbus, replacing conventional hardwiring in a machine safety system is used to illustrate the potential of the technology. The use of fieldbus in safety‐related applications is shown to reduce complexity and enhance functionality, whilst enabling significantly reduced ownership cost.
A review of safety‐technology, applicable safety‐related standards and the impact on the use of robots in industrial environments.
Technological developments are presented in safety‐related control technology, including programmable safety controllers, configurable safety controllers, safety networking and robotic safety in human environments. The technological developments are related to new and emerging safety standards.
The development of safety‐related technology and new international and European standards have fundamentally changed the way in which safety is now being engineered in industry. The introduction of new standards and revision of others have allowed safety‐related systems to utilise “state of the art” electronic, programmable, and network based technologies. New international standards are likely to include collaborative working with humans in the robotic workspace. This is set to change how robots are utilised in manufacturing environments.
The review of applicable standards and technical developments: with examples from current research and new technologies, demonstrating engineering solutions that embody the principles of the new standards.
The CAN (Controller Area Network) standard, ISO 11898, is now ubiquitous in industrial automation environments. CAN is used with defined application layers for…
The CAN (Controller Area Network) standard, ISO 11898, is now ubiquitous in industrial automation environments. CAN is used with defined application layers for implementing sensor/actuator level distributed control applications. Protocols such as Honeywell's SDS, ODVA's DeviceNet (Allen Bradley) and CANopen are well‐known device level networks which are based on the CAN protocol. A new time‐triggered protocol for CAN, referred to as TTCAN, is under development where the real‐time scheduling of the network traffic can be formally verified. This paper introduces the new TTCAN protocol and suggests that TTCAN has the potential to provide new solutions in industrial automation applications. TTCAN has the potential to replace some conventional pneumatic, hydraulic and other mechanical safety‐critical control systems with a reliable electronic network. The emergence of 42‐volt technology from the automotive world will further complement the TTCAN technology to provide some unique industrial automation solutions.
Safety‐related fieldbus is now being employed in many varied applications. Developments in fieldbus technology and programmable systems, coupled with developments in…
Safety‐related fieldbus is now being employed in many varied applications. Developments in fieldbus technology and programmable systems, coupled with developments in International and European Standards have created the opportunity for widespread use. Performance, equipment availability, flexibility, diagnostics and reduced cost of ownership are the principal reasons for rapid growth in safety‐related networking. The use of programmable safety systems has fundamentally have changed the way in which safety is now being engineered in the manufacturing plant. New devices provide direct connectivity to safety‐related networks, increasing the scope and changing the architecture of safety systems far beyond conventional expectations. Technological developments, application and benefits of safety‐related networking in industrial automation systems are shown. Criteria for safety network selection are highlighted.
Reviews robotic exhibits at the UK Automation and Robot (AandR) show held alongside the UK's major manufacturing product exhibitions owned by the UK Machine Tool…
Reviews robotic exhibits at the UK Automation and Robot (AandR) show held alongside the UK's major manufacturing product exhibitions owned by the UK Machine Tool Technologies Association (MTTA), including MACH 2002. A centrepiece of the AandR show was the “robot island” sponsored by British Automation and Robots Association (BARA) in which a variety of robot applications were demonstrated including machine tending, bin picking and plastic riveting. Some of the robot exhibits in the MACH and Metalworking shows are also described including applications of press brake tending and deburring.
Recently there has been considerable technological change in the way in which safety‐related control may be engineered. A series of standards based upon IEC 61508 are…
Recently there has been considerable technological change in the way in which safety‐related control may be engineered. A series of standards based upon IEC 61508 are under development. This paper discusses these changes and highlights their relevancy to machine safety.
An overview of technological change is given; from safety relays, to programmable safety controllers, safety‐related networks and the trend to combine safety and control functions in controllers and networks. Topics to consider when choosing between technologies are put forward, followed by a review of standards that incorporate functional safety.
The development of safety‐related standards, such as IEC 61508 provides general guidance on the design of safety‐related systems across a wide range of industries, with specific machinery implementation of the same principles in IEC 62061. There is overlap between IEC 62061 and ISO 13849‐1. The same functional safety principles are also implemented in IEC 61800‐5‐2 for adjustable power drive systems. IEC 61784‐3 embodies the functional safety concept in specific network technologies. Significant opportunities arise from the combination of technology and standards development to facilitate design, engineering and cost improvements.
Confusion is apparent in the application of emerging safety standards, coupled with dramatic changes in the approach to safety engineering. Areas of overlap between developing standards are highlighted, along with draft amendments intended to reduce potential conflict and perplexity. Incorporating functional safety into automation and industrial networking technologies enables engineers to produce innovative solutions that can lead to further improvements in machine safety, functionality, productivity and afford design, commissioning and maintenance benefits. Similar benefits are unlikely to be achievable with traditional safety technologies.
Areas of overlap between developing standards are highlighted, with amendments intended to reduce confusion in the intended audience. This paper seeks to raise awareness in the methods and benefits of incorporating functional safety into automation and industrial networking technologies.