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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2019

Saman Babaie-Kafaki and Saeed Rezaee

The purpose of this paper is to employ stochastic techniques to increase efficiency of the classical algorithms for solving nonlinear optimization problems.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to employ stochastic techniques to increase efficiency of the classical algorithms for solving nonlinear optimization problems.

Design/methodology/approach

The well-known simulated annealing strategy is employed to search successive neighborhoods of the classical trust region (TR) algorithm.

Findings

An adaptive formula for computing the TR radius is suggested based on an eigenvalue analysis conducted on the memoryless Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno updating formula. Also, a (heuristic) randomized adaptive TR algorithm is developed for solving unconstrained optimization problems. Results of computational experiments on a set of CUTEr test problems show that the proposed randomization scheme can enhance efficiency of the TR methods.

Practical implications

The algorithm can be effectively used for solving the optimization problems which appear in engineering, economics, management, industry and other areas.

Originality/value

The proposed randomization scheme improves computational costs of the classical TR algorithm. Especially, the suggested algorithm avoids resolving the TR subproblems for many times.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2019

Giorgio Mion and Angelo Bonfanti

Higher education institutions draw up codes of ethics, but in several countries there are no standards to follow. Most universities have autonomy and can freely draw up…

Abstract

Purpose

Higher education institutions draw up codes of ethics, but in several countries there are no standards to follow. Most universities have autonomy and can freely draw up their codes of ethics in terms of structure and content. The purpose of this paper is to understand the main ethics issues that universities identify in their codes of ethics and what activities they implement to respond to these issues toward appropriate educational management of their institutions in ethical terms.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was performed through content analysis of codes of ethics of Italian public universities (64 codes), and may be considered a single in-depth case study. The main ethics issues and related activities were inductively codified in relation to the research purpose. The four constitutive aspects of business ethics (individual, managerial, organizational and societal ethics) proposed by Melé were chosen as the framework to investigate the main ethical needs and related activities implemented by universities to respond to these ethical issues.

Findings

This research has identified nine main ethical issues and related activities that contribute to guarantee the ethical compliance of universities under the four interrelated aspects different individual behaviors, managerial initiatives, organization strategies and responsibilities toward society. The analysis shows some relevant differences among Italian universities that have important implications in the ethical vision of academic communities and of managerial role in universities.

Practical implications

The research can help managers of higher education institutions to identify the main ethical issues to draw up codes of ethics and to formulate consistent development strategies that are able to improve the conditions of collaboration, work and productive participation in activities for all members of academic communities.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is one of the first studies that connect codes of ethics and higher education. This research brings to light the main ethical issues and related activities that universities can consider to orient their strategic choices toward the public interest as well as educational management improvement.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 33 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Book part
Publication date: 9 May 2012

James Lloyd Bierstaker, James E. Hunton and Jay C. Thibodeau

The current study examines the effect of fraud training on auditors' ability to identify fraud risk factors. This is important because most auditors have little or no…

Abstract

The current study examines the effect of fraud training on auditors' ability to identify fraud risk factors. This is important because most auditors have little or no direct experience with fraud; thus, research that investigates the potential effect of indirect experience through training is vitally important to fraud detection and audit quality. A total of 369 experienced auditors completed a complex audit simulation task that involved 15 seeded fraud risk red flags. A total of 143 auditors participated in a 30-minute training session focused specifically on fraud risk, while the remaining 226 auditors learned about general internal control risk during this time block. The results indicate that auditors with fraud training identified significantly more red flags and obtained greater knowledge about fraud risk than auditors who did not receive the training. Considering that the fraud training consumed only 30 minutes out of a 64-hour training session, the findings suggest that even modest exposure to fraud training is quite effective.

Details

Advances in Accounting Behavioral Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-758-1

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2019

Mojtaba Safipour Afshar, Omid Pourheidari, Bakr Al-Gamrh and Asghar Afshar Jahanshahi

The purpose of this paper is to study whether diverting auditors to erroneous accounts leads to higher effectiveness and detection of errors. Also, this paper investigates…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study whether diverting auditors to erroneous accounts leads to higher effectiveness and detection of errors. Also, this paper investigates the effect of the need for cognitive closure of auditors on audit effectiveness and detection of errors in the presence of audit management.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used a financial statement containing a diverting statement and several errors for measuring audit management and used a survey to measure auditors’ need for closure. Research sample consisted of 79 independent auditors having above three years of audit experience. The set of financial statement and questionnaire (measuring the need for closure of auditors) was given to auditors and they had enough time to fill them.

Findings

Results show that diverting auditors to accounts containing error does not lead to higher effectiveness and detection of errors. Also, auditors need for closure character does not affect their effectiveness and detection of errors in the financial statements.

Practical implications

Diverting auditors to erroneous accounts leads to higher detection of earning management. With this regard, the results increase the awareness of auditors that diverting auditors away from important errors to easy-to-detect erroneous accounts leads to their belief of achieving the audit objectives by detecting phony errors and misstatements. In other words, the results alert auditors of managers’ techniques of audit management.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature on audit management and need for cognitive closure of auditors in Iran’s audit environment and introduces these concepts to this environment. The paper will be of value to Association of Iranian Certified Public accountants to include stricter measure in appraisal of audit firms’ quality and educate its participants about audit management and mediating effect of the need for closure of auditors on the detection of errors and misstatements in financial statements.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

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Article
Publication date: 5 January 2015

Rainer Lenz and Ulrich Hahn

The purpose of this paper is to provide a synopsis of what academic literature says about internal audit (IA) effectiveness ten years after Bailey et al. (2003) presented…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a synopsis of what academic literature says about internal audit (IA) effectiveness ten years after Bailey et al. (2003) presented research opportunities in IA. A new set of research questions that may help to bring the best out of IA is proposed.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical studies based on internal auditors’ self-assessments (“inside-out”) and empirical studies based on other stakeholders’ perspectives (“outside-in”) are reviewed through an “effectiveness lens”. The “outside-in” perspective is regarded as particularly valuable.

Findings

First, common themes in the empirical literature are identified. Second, the main threads into a model comprising macro and micro factors that influence IA effectiveness are synthesized. Third, promising future research paths that may enhance IA's value proposition were derived.

Practical implications

The “outside-in” perspective indicates a disposition to stakeholders’ disappointment in IA: IA is either running a risk of marginalization (IIA, 2013; PWC, 2013) or has to embrace the challenge to emerge as a recognized and stronger profession. The suggested research agenda identifies empirical research threads that can help IA practitioners to make a difference for their organization, be recognized, respected and trusted and help the IA profession in its pursuit of creating a unique identity. This paper wishes to motivate researchers to explore innovative research strategies and probe new theories, as well as benefit from cross-fertilization with other research streams.

Originality/value

This paper summarizes the state of research on IA effectiveness and proposes a guide for future IA research. It provides pointed questions that may further advance the understanding of what constitutes IA and how IA can enhance its value proposition.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2021

Hung Ngoc Dang, Khanh Hoang, Van Thuy Vu and Linh Van Nguyen

This paper aims to investigate the linkage between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and earnings quality (EQ) in the context of Vietnam, an Asian emerging economy…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the linkage between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and earnings quality (EQ) in the context of Vietnam, an Asian emerging economy characterized by high growth for decades and a socialist orientation. As CSR firms are expected to have high EQ, there arise concerns that corporate managers of CSR firms may use the reputation of the firm as a protection mechanism against the cost of earnings management.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a unique sample of Vietnamese CSR firms listed on Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh Stock Exchanges from 2015 to 2019. Several econometric tests are conducted to investigate whether corporate managers of CSR-active firms actively engage in earnings management and reduce the firms' EQ.

Findings

The empirical results show a negative impact of CSR on EQ, meaning that, in general, corporate managers of CSR firms in Vietnam opportunistically manage earnings. This confirms the paradox of the CSR–EQ relationship. In line with an emerging strand of research in the CSR literature, the finding suggests that the agency problem arises in CSR firms where corporate managers use their managerial discretion over accrual accounting to manipulate reported earnings.

Practical implications

The finding has practical implications for market participants and policymakers in improving monitoring mechanisms and enhancing the information environment in developing capital markets.

Originality/value

This is the first study in the literature that investigates and shows the paradox of the CSR–EQ relationship in the context of Vietnam, a new emerging economy that follows socialist orientation.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2020

John Richard Kurpierz and Ken Smith

The purpose of this paper is to show a significant overlap in the models accounting research uses for fraud and the models other research disciplines use for greenwashing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show a significant overlap in the models accounting research uses for fraud and the models other research disciplines use for greenwashing, and show how researchers and policymakers interested in the application of effective sustainability policy can draw from fraud accounting literature to better understand, and therefore, combat greenwashing. This is illustrated by showing multi-actor information-asymmetry models from other branches of accounting literature and synthesizing them with the fraud triangle model to suggest new avenues for reducing greenwashing and strengthening corporate social responsibility (CSR).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews the current literature surrounding the greenwashing aspect of corporate camouflage compares the legal and technical definitions of fraud and synthesizes a new variant fraud triangle that more usefully describes greenwashing.

Findings

This paper is able to show that other areas of accounting research in North America have already tackled similar systems of multiple actors in an information-asymmetric environment and that a recurring trait is the emergence of a more robust reporting system. CSR reporting is currently in the process of emerging and could develop more swiftly by copying extant fraud-fighting tools. This is particularly salient given the increasing amount of liability legal regimes are giving to both sustainability activities and sustainability reporting from firms, as evidenced in both guidelines and scandals over the past decade.

Research limitations/implications

Sustainability reporting is not unique in comprising a large number of interrelated entities with non-financial information asymmetry between actors. Previous researchers have encountered similar situations in government accounting and public administration and developed network models to study these relationships as a result. In government accounting, this led to the development both of better diagnostic tools for further research and better models for local governments to use to prevent fraud and malfeasance. This paper suggests that using such research methods in the area of CSR will allow for the development of similarly-useful tools and models.

Practical implications

Visualizing greenwashing as a form of fraud allows policymakers to use tools from the fraud-fighting literature to improve CSR reporting and produce a more robust regime in the future. As governments increasingly seek to respond effectively to material misstatements with an intent to deceive in sustainability reports, understanding the underlying information asymmetry as it is found in other private-public interfaces is critical. Similarly, researchers can analyze CSR reporting through the lens of fraud researchers to gain novel insights into how information asymmetry in CSR reporting works.

Social implications

Greenwashing is not traditionally seen as a form of fraudulent reporting, even though it often meets the same technical test used to determine fraudulent reporting. The realization that the two are structurally similar allows the authors to better understand how CSR reporting works and how CSR reporting can be falsified. By understanding the latter, governments, firms and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) can develop tools to prevent CSR reporting from being falsified.

Originality/value

This paper suggests a new suite of tools with which to study greenwashing, and with which to fight greenwashing in a sustainability accounting context.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 11 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2011

Alexandra Kanellou and Charalambos Spathis

The purpose of this article is to provide a selective and comprehensive literature review based on previous research within auditing and enterprise systems (ES). This is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to provide a selective and comprehensive literature review based on previous research within auditing and enterprise systems (ES). This is done to identify research gaps, propose directions for future research and guide researchers and practitioners on how to better synthesize these two areas. Interaction between ES and auditing is in need of more academic research and practical investigation, which may lead to the development of better solutions, guidelines and frameworks.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 31 academic studies from 2000 to 2010 were included in this study. After reading these studies, different areas had been selected and were addressed in five categories: the future of audit in ES environment, modern audit tools and techniques, changes of auditors' role, differences in perceptions between financial auditors and IT auditors, ERP and compliance with regulations.

Findings

ES implementation results in audit process reengineering and increases the need of continuous monitoring of transactions. The presence of IT auditors becomes critical, while financial auditors are asked to enhance their skills in order to be able to conduct effective audit tests. Modern audit tools and techniques must be used so that internal control processes will be appropriate for an ES.

Research limitations/implications

It is not an exhaustive list and some relevant publications might have been overlooked. Much literature has been scanned by reading the title only. In order to conduct a comprehensive review the topical focus was kept relatively narrow on auditing and ES.

Practical implications

Researchers and practitioners must take into consideration the interaction between ES and auditing in order to advance research in this area. Companies must understand the changes that occur in the audit procedure due to ES implementation, so that they will design efficient audit tests and auditors must enhance their knowledge in order to be able to conduct these tests effectively.

Originality/value

This study uncovers and classifies current research within auditing and ES (focusing mostly on ERP systems).

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2018

Matteo La Torre, Vida L. Botes, John Dumay, Michele Antonio Rea and Elza Odendaal

As Big Data is creating new underpinnings for organisations’ intellectual capital (IC) and knowledge management, this paper aims to analyse the implications of Big Data…

Abstract

Purpose

As Big Data is creating new underpinnings for organisations’ intellectual capital (IC) and knowledge management, this paper aims to analyse the implications of Big Data for IC accounting to provide new conceptual and practical insights about the future of IC accounting.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a conceptual framework informed by decision science theory, the authors explain the factors supporting Big Data’s value and review the academic literature and practical evidence to analyse the implications of Big Data for IC accounting.

Findings

In reflecting on Big Data’s ability to supply a new value for IC and its implications for IC accounting, the authors conclude that Big Data represents a new IC asset, and this represents a rationale for a renewed wave of interest in IC accounting. IC accounting can contribute to understand the determinants of Big Data’s value, such as data quality, security and privacy issues, data visualisation and users’ interaction. In doing so, IC measurement, reporting and auditing need to keep focusing on how human capital and organisational and technical processes (structural capital) can unlock or even obstruct Big Data’s value for IC.

Research limitations/implications

The topic of Big Data in IC and accounting research is in its infancy; therefore, this paper acts at a normative level. While this represents a research limitation of the study, it is also a call for future empirical studies.

Practical implications

Once again, practitioners and researchers need to face the challenge of avoiding the trap of IC accountingisation to make IC accounting relevant for the Big Data revolution. Within the euphoric and utopian views of the Big Data revolution, this paper contributes to enriching awareness about the practical factors underpinning Big Data’s value for IC and foster the cognitive and behavioural dynamic between data, IC information and user interaction.

Social implications

The paper is relevant to prepares, users and auditors of financial statements.

Originality/value

This paper aims to instill a novel debate on Big Data into IC accounting research by providing new avenues for future research.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-372X

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Abubakr Saeed, Amna Yousaf and Jaithen Alharbi

In times of vivid debates on the inclusion of women on boards, the purpose of this paper is to shed a new light on the composition of boardrooms in emerging market firms…

Abstract

Purpose

In times of vivid debates on the inclusion of women on boards, the purpose of this paper is to shed a new light on the composition of boardrooms in emerging market firms by investigating how family and state ownership affect board-gender diversity in the emerging economies.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses Tobit regression to examine the effect of firm ownership on board-gender diversity. A panel data set of Chinese and Indian firms for the period 2004-2013 is used to conduct this study.

Findings

The results show a negative and significant impact of family and state ownership on the proportion of women directors. However, this relationship is seen to be reverse if the firm is operating in international markets. Notably, a negative relationship was seen to persist between ownership structure and board-gender diversity for both female executive and independent board members, whereas a positive impact of internationalization was observed only for independent female directors.

Originality/value

This research addresses the board-gender diversity issue in emerging economies by focusing on firm characteristics which are unique to their business context. Further, this study identifies the conditions under which emerging market firms assimilate or proscribe women on their boards by recognizing the salient features of firms from emerging markets. Hence, in doing so, new evidence is added to the studies on the determinants of board-gender diversity. Lastly, it advances the earlier literature based on resource dependency and agency views and demonstrates the importance of internationalization for the inclusion of women on corporate boards.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

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