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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2018

Ali Kazemi Karyani, Satar Rezaei, Behzad Karami Matin and Saeed Amini

Poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is one of the important issues in the health sector. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the prevalence and…

Abstract

Purpose

Poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is one of the important issues in the health sector. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the prevalence and socio-economic inequality in poor HRQoL in Tehran city, Iran.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 562 adults were included in this cross-sectional study. The cluster sampling method was used for data collection from May to June, 2016 in Tehran city, Iran. Data on HRQoL, using EuroQol 5-dimensions questionnaire, and data on socio-economic and demographic variables were gathered. Convenience regression method was performed to measure the concentration index (CI). Decomposition analysis was performed to determine the contribution of variables on socio-economic inequality in poor HRQoL. All analyses were performed by Stata v.14.

Findings

The prevalence of poor HRQoL was 28.3 percent. The value of CI for “poor HRQoL” was −0.299 (95% confidence interval: −0.402 to −0.195). Socio-economic status (SES) was the largest contributor to socio-economic inequality in poor HRQoL (69.44 percent of inequality was explained by SES). Age, obesity and race had a positive contribution to socio-economic inequality in poor HRQoL among the participants. Nonetheless, sex and smoking intensity had a negative contribution to inequality in poor HRQoL.

Originality/value

There is little evidence about the prevalence of poor HRQoL in insured people. This study provided new evidence in this area through the investigation of socio-economic inequality in poor HRQoL and its determinants among people with health insurance in Iran using decomposition analysis.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 February 2021

Reo Song, Risto Moisio and Moon Young Kang

Virtual gifts have emerged as a common feature of online communities, social gaming and social networks. This paper aims to examine how network-related variables and gift…

Abstract

Purpose

Virtual gifts have emerged as a common feature of online communities, social gaming and social networks. This paper aims to examine how network-related variables and gift-seeding impact virtual gift sales. The network variables include gift-giver centrality and gift-giving dispersion, capturing, respectively, the relative importance of gift-givers in a network and their tendency to give gifts to a greater or lesser number of network peers. Gift-seeding tactics capture social network firms’ attempts to stimulate virtual gift purchases by awarding virtual gifts to network members.

Design/methodology/approach

This study develops and estimates a fixed-effects panel data regression model to analyze virtual gift purchase data for a large social network service.

Findings

Gift-giver centrality, gift-giving dispersion and gift-seeding increase virtual gift purchases. Increases in consumers’ receipt of seed gifts from social network firms (“direct seeding”) and from other consumers (“indirect seeding”) increases virtual gift purchases. However, the extent to which consumers give seed gifts to their friends in the social network (“seed mediation”) does not affect sales. Greater gift-giver centrality amplifies (attenuates) the positive effects of direct (indirect) seeding. At greater levels of gift-giving dispersion, the effects of indirect seeding and seed mediation become negative. Furthermore, gift-seeding has spillover effects on virtual good (non-gift) purchases.

Research limitations/implications

This study’s data, drawn from a South Korean social network service, offer unique and valuable social network information on actual virtual gift purchases and their seeding. Future research should replicate the results of the study outside the South Korean context.

Practical implications

Given the effects reported in this study, social network firms can facilitate the purchases of virtual gifts by improving the targeting of consumers in social networks and gift-seeding tactics.

Originality/value

This study uniquely examines the individual and interactive effects of network-related variables and gift-seeding on virtual gift sales. The study is seminal in its examination of how gift-seeding can be used as a marketing tactic to increase virtual gift purchases.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 55 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

Amin Amini

Economic growth, without distributional measures and policies, engenders inequality and concentration. National income may be distributed either through the establishment…

Abstract

Economic growth, without distributional measures and policies, engenders inequality and concentration. National income may be distributed either through the establishment of a proper welfare system, or by the encouragement of and incentive for economic activities and policies with built‐in distributional factors. The prerequisites for sustainable income distribution are fair distribution of assets, investments and power. The main outcome of the growth‐based developing theories and activities are concentration of production, people and financial and political power. These concentrations are the sources of many problems of both developing and industrialised countries. Although there have been countless studies about development, few have made an attempt to investigate the social and economic interactions of small business with sustainable development. Small business’ contributions to the process of development, in terms of distribution of economic and non‐economic resources, are substantial. This article will explore the economic and political distributional power of small business and their roles in the process of socio‐economic development.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Hanxiao Wang, Marco Domingos and Fabio Scenini

The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of nano hydroxyapatite (HA) and graphene oxide (GO) particles on thermal and mechanical performances of 3D printed…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of nano hydroxyapatite (HA) and graphene oxide (GO) particles on thermal and mechanical performances of 3D printed poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) filaments used in bone tissue engineering (BTE).

Design/methodology/approach

Raw materials were prepared by melt blending, followed by 3D printing via 3D Discovery (regenHU Ltd., CH) with all fabricating parameters kept constant. Filaments, including pure PCL, PCL/HA and PCL/GO, were tested under the same conditions. Several techniques were used to mechanically, thermally and microstructurally evaluate properties of these filaments, including differential scanning calorimetry, tensile test, nano indentation and scanning electron microscope.

Findings

Results show that both HA and GO nano particles are capable of improving mechanical performance of PCL. Enhanced mechanical properties of PCL/HA result from reinforcing effect of HA, while a different mechanism is observed in PCL/GO, where degree of crystallinity plays an important role. In addition, GO is more efficient at enhancing mechanical performance of PCL compared with HA.

Originality/value

For the first time, a systematic study about effects of nano HA and GO particles on bioactive scaffolds produced by additive manufacturing for BTE applications is conducted in this work. Mechanical and thermal behaviors of each sample, pure PCL, PCL/HA and PCL/GO, are reported, correlated and compared with literature.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2006

Adrian J. Cahill and Cormac J. Sreenan

This paper examines the design and evaluation of a TV on Demand (TVoD) system, consisting of a globally accessible storage architecture where all TV content broadcast over…

Abstract

This paper examines the design and evaluation of a TV on Demand (TVoD) system, consisting of a globally accessible storage architecture where all TV content broadcast over a period of time is made available for streaming. The proposed architecture consists of idle Internet Service Provider (ISP) servers that can be rented and released dynamically as the client load dictates. This paper examines issues of resource management and content placement within this Video Content Distribution Network (VCDN). The existing placement algorithm is computationally expensive and in some cases, infeasible to execute within any reasonable length of time. This work proposes a number of new placement heuristics each of which attempts intelligently to reduce the search space so that only the best proxies are considered for replica placement. An extensive evaluation of these placement algorithms is carried out to identify a good placement algorithm without being computationally expensive.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 7 December 2018

Alison Taysum, Khalid Arar and Hauwa Imam

In this chapter, we present a critical engagement with the methodology that each research team presenting a case study in this book from England, Arab Israel, Northern…

Abstract

In this chapter, we present a critical engagement with the methodology that each research team presenting a case study in this book from England, Arab Israel, Northern Ireland, Trinidad and Tobago and the United States adopted.

Education is a cultural project that consists of history, narrative and faith. The Black, Asian Minority Ethnicity (BAME) and senior leaders representing marginalised groups that we talked to in this research all stated that their faith, and religion was central to their service as an educational leader. The faiths represented in our research are Islam, Christianity, Sikhism and no faith where a humanitarian approach is taken. The chapter presents the scientific significance of what values underpin these leaders’ behaviours, and to understand how their values align with legislation, education policy and the values found in Education Governance Systems.

A constructivist comparative analysis approach was adopted to address four research questions. First, how do the senior-level leaders describe and understand how school governance systems and school commissioners empower them to develop school communities as societal innovators for equity and renewal for peace in our time? Second, how do they describe and understand the role mentors, and/or advocates play to support their navigation through the governance systems? Third, to what extent do they believe a cultural change is required to empower them in school communities to Empower Young Societal Innovators for Equity and Renewal for peace in our time? Finally, how can the findings be theorised to generate a theory of knowledge to action through impact strategies within an international comparative analysis framework?

Each of the five international cases collected the narrative biographies of up to 15 superintendents, or chief executive officers of multi-academy trusts of colour. In the Northern Ireland case, eight religiously divided key agents of change were selected as an equivalence for the governance structures in the other five case studies. The total number of senior-level leaders participating in the five case studies was 40.

Each author read their findings through Gross’ (2014) Turbulence Theory and typology to categorise the level and the impact of the challenges the key agents of change need to navigate as they mediate between the governance systems. Gross (2014, p. 248) theory of turbulence is used as a metaphor and states that ‘turbulence can be described as “light” with little or no movement of the craft. “Moderate” with very noticeable waves. “Severe” with strong gusts that threaten control of the aircraft. “Extreme” with forces so great that control is lost and structure damage to the craft occurs’. The chapter identifies the findings were read through the theory of turbulence to reveal the state of the Education Governance Systems and their impact on empowering cosmopolitan citizens to participate fully and freely in societal interactions and cooperation between diverse groups. The authors’ chapters are subject to a comparative analysis that took place at the European Conference for Educational Research Annual Conference in two large seminars (Taysum et al., 2017) in Denmark, further developed by the editors and committed to peer-review.

Details

Turbulence, Empowerment and Marginalisation in International Education Governance Systems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-675-2

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Article
Publication date: 3 March 2020

Amirmahmood Amini Sedeh, Joseph Beck and Mahdi Forghani Bajestani

This cross-national study of entrepreneurship seeks to investigate the perceptual and institutional determinants of entrepreneurial entry. To do so, the authors…

Abstract

Purpose

This cross-national study of entrepreneurship seeks to investigate the perceptual and institutional determinants of entrepreneurial entry. To do so, the authors distinguish between social and commercial entrepreneurial activities, taking the position that the concept of entrepreneurship is not a monolithic one.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors construct a large cross-national data set and employ hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to run a multi-level analysis on individual-level data from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) and country-level data from Polity IV and GLOBE, representing 47 countries.

Findings

Individuals' perceptual characteristics (i.e. perceived self-efficacy, opportunity perception, and fear of failure) and informal institutions in the form of supportive cultures impact social entrepreneurship more strongly than commercial entrepreneurship. On the other hand, the formal institution of the rule of law, specifically the protection of property rights, is more conducive to commercial entrepreneurship.

Originality/value

The results of this study contribute to theory by illuminating the complicated relationships between environmental conditions, individual-level psychological factors, and entrepreneurial decisions. Furthermore, the authors’ multi-level model contributes to a more detailed conceptualization of entrepreneurial entry by identifying institutional settings that facilitate commercial versus social entrepreneurship. The authors also clarify why commercial entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship attract different types of individuals.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2020

Hamidreza Roohafza, Awat Feizi, Shahnaz Amani Tirani, Masoumeh Sadeghi and Nizal Sarrafzadegan

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of empirically derived dietary patterns with hypertension and hyperlipidemia among a large sample of Iranian…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of empirically derived dietary patterns with hypertension and hyperlipidemia among a large sample of Iranian industrial employees.

Design/methodology/approach

This cross-sectional study was done under the framework of Epidemiological Survey of Chronic Diseases on Manufacturing Employees. Major dietary patterns were derived based on a validated short form of food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) using exploratory factor analysis. Self-administered validated questionnaires were used to collect data on socio-demographic and job-related variables of participants. Multivariable logistic regression was applied for association analyses.

Findings

Higher levels of Western dietary pattern increased significantly the risk of hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 1.85, 95% CI [1.36-2.53], P trend <0.001) and hyperlipidemia (OR = 1.45, 95% CI [1.16-1.81], p = 0.001) even after controlling for confounding variables. The traditional dietary pattern was marginally associated with a significant increase in risk of hyperlipidemia ( = 1.14, 95% CI [0.92-1.41], p = 0.084) in the fully adjusted model. However, higher levels of healthy dietary pattern were significantly associated with a decreased risk of hyperlipidemia in the final model (OR 0.80, 95% CI [0.64-0.90], p = 0.025).

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, an association analysis between dietary patterns and major cardiovascular disease risk in workforce population over the world is scarce and has not yet been conducted among Iranian industrial employees. This study’s findings are especially relevant for the industrial workforce population because they are at high risk of other job-related risks that increase the CVD risk.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Parvin Hashemi, Ameneh Khadivar and Mehdi Shamizanjani

The purpose of this paper is to develop a new ontology for knowledge management (KM) technologies, determining the relationships between these technologies and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a new ontology for knowledge management (KM) technologies, determining the relationships between these technologies and classification of them.

Design/methodology/approach

The study applies NOY methodology – named after Natalya F. Noy who initiated this methodology. Protégé software and ontology web language are used for building the ontology. The presented ontology is evaluated with abbreviation and consistency criteria and knowledge retrieval of KM technologies by experts.

Findings

All the main concepts in the scope of KM technologies are extracted from existing literature. There are 241 words, 49 out of them are domain concepts, eight terms are about taxonomic and non-taxonomic relations, one term relates to data property and 183 terms are instances. These terms are used to develop KM technologies’ ontology based on three factors: facilitating KM processes, supporting KM strategies and the position of technology in the KM technology stage model. The presented ontology is created a common understanding in the field of KM technologies.

Research limitations/implications

Lack of specific documentary about logic behind decision making and prioritizing criteria in choosing KM technologies.

Practical implications

Uploading the presented ontology in the web environment provides a platform for knowledge sharing between experts from around the world. In addition, it helps to decide on the choice of KM technologies based on KM processes and KM strategy.

Originality/value

Among the many categories of KM technologies in literature, there is no classifying according to several criteria simultaneously. This paper contributes to filling this gap and considers KM processes, KM strategy and stages of growth for KM technologies simultaneously to choice the KM technologies and also there exists no formal ontology regarding KM technologies. This study has tried to propose a formal KM technologies’ ontology.

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2018

Betül Sönmez and Aytolan Yıldırım

The purpose of this paper is to test the mediating role of autonomy in the effect of a pro-innovation organizational climate and supervisor supportiveness (SS) on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the mediating role of autonomy in the effect of a pro-innovation organizational climate and supervisor supportiveness (SS) on the innovative behavior (IB) of nurses.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample of this cross-sectional, correlational study consisted of 332 nurses, who were selected, on the basis of the convenience sampling method, from among the nurses working at two public university hospitals in Istanbul. The data of the study were collected between February and May of 2015. Descriptive analysis and linear regression analysis were used for data analysis, and the bootstrapping method was applied to test the significance of the mediating role.

Findings

The model used for examining the mediating role of autonomy was found to be statistically significant, as it explained 36 percent of the variance of IB. When the significance of the mediating role was tested, its effect on both innovation climate and SS was observed to be significant.

Originality/value

The obtained results indicated that a pro-innovation organizational climate and SS functioned as premises for autonomy. In turn, the rise in autonomy level that served to innovative climate and SS increased the IB of the nurses through boosting their autonomy level. From these results, it can be argued that nurses with a high level of professional autonomy can create innovative outputs and provide added value through the IB they practice in providing patient care and general health services.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

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