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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1995

Alain d'Astous and Sadrudin A. Ahmed

This paper presents the results of a survey of 187 male consumers in Morocco. In this study, country‐of‐origin information was manipulated along three dimensions: country…

Abstract

This paper presents the results of a survey of 187 male consumers in Morocco. In this study, country‐of‐origin information was manipulated along three dimensions: country of design, country of assembly and country of materials origin. Consumer judgments of the quality and purchase value of automobiles, televisions and shoes were obtained in a multi‐cue context. The results show that Moroccan consumers make a distinction between the different dimensions of country‐of‐origin information and that their perceptions are significantly affected by each dimension. However, the pattern of effects varies across dependent variables and products. Differences in the evaluations of countries are greatly attenuated when country‐of‐origin information is presented along with other informational cues such as price and brand name.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1995

Sadrudin A. Ahmed and Jak Jabes

This article reports the results of a cross‐cultural study carried out at two different time periods ranging from late 1970s to late 1980s on job related motivations…

Abstract

This article reports the results of a cross‐cultural study carried out at two different time periods ranging from late 1970s to late 1980s on job related motivations, personality and values of business students in France and Canada. The major research objective was to investigate the similarities and differences in the achievement motivation of the French Canadians, and French students, their value structures and the characteristics they look for in a job. A related objective was to see how these have been affected over time. The results indicate that Canadians were more pragmatic and self‐oriented, seeking to excel in their jobs and wishing to be rewarded by leading a comfortable life and recognition. French students, on the other hand, put greater value on the peer group, tended to search for enriching and diverse social relationships and placed a higher value on spiritual and society oriented goals. Over time both national groups had become more acquisitive, and they displayed greater concern for peer status and excellence.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 5 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2001

Sadrudin A. Ahmed and Alain d'Astous

This article presents the results of a survey of 250 Canadian male consumers. In this study consumer judgements of products made in both highly and newly industrializing…

Abstract

This article presents the results of a survey of 250 Canadian male consumers. In this study consumer judgements of products made in both highly and newly industrializing countries were obtained in a multi‐attribute and multidimensional context. The results show that younger and less affluent respondents react more favorably towards products made in newly industrializing East Asian countries. The country‐of‐origin image of East Asian countries is less negative for products that generate a medium level of involvement (e.g., a VCR). This negative image of East Asian countries is attenuated by providing other product‐related information to consumers such as brand name and warranty. East Asian countries are perceived more negatively as countries of design than as countries of parts and assembly. In comparison with products made in highly developed countries, products made in East Asia are perceived to be poorer in terms of performance, quality and originality but more economical.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Sadrudin A. Ahmed, Alain d’Astous and Christian Champagne

This article presents the results of a survey of 202 male Taiwanese consumers. In this study, consumer judgements of two technological products varying in their level of…

Abstract

This article presents the results of a survey of 202 male Taiwanese consumers. In this study, consumer judgements of two technological products varying in their level of complexity made in highly, moderately, and newly industrialised countries were obtained in a multi‐attribute context. The results show that the country‐of‐origin image of moderately and newly industrialised countries was less negative for technologically simpler products (i.e. a television) than they were for technologically complex products (i.e. a computer). It appears that the negative image of moderately and newly industrialised countries can be attenuated by making Taiwanese consumers more familiar with products made in these countries and/or by providing them with other product‐related information such as brand name and warranty. Newly industrialised countries were perceived more negatively as countries of design than as countries of assembly, especially in the context of making technologically complex products. The image of foreign countries as producers of consumer goods was positively correlated with education. The more familiar consumers were with the products of a country, the more favourable was their evaluation of that country. Consumer involvement with purchasing a technologically complex product such as a computer was positively associated with the appreciation of products made in moderately industrialised countries. Managerial and research implications are derived from these results.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2008

Sadrudin A. Ahmed and Alain d'Astous

The purpose of this paper is to provide an in‐depth examination of country‐of‐origin (COO) perceptions of consumers in a multinational setting. It shows how explanatory…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an in‐depth examination of country‐of‐origin (COO) perceptions of consumers in a multinational setting. It shows how explanatory factors like demographics, familiarity with a country's products, purchase behaviour and psychological variables jointly work to explain consumers' COO perceptions.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a quantitative study using a drop‐off and pick‐up survey among three samples of consumers in Canada, Morocco and Taiwan. The final sample size was comprised of 506 male consumers. The data were analyzed using factor analysis to group countries of origin and analyses of variance to relate COO perceptions to the explanatory variables.

Findings

The familiarity with products made in a country was the strongest predictor of country perceptions, followed by nationality and the manufacturing process and product complexity dimensions of country evaluation. Canadians had the highest propensity to distinguish between countries of origin on the basis of product technological complexity and manufacturing dimensions and Moroccans the least. Taiwanese appeared to show animosity towards China.

Research limitations/implications

The study used an only‐male sample from a limited number of countries. Future research should seek to develop a multi‐dimensional scale for the familiarity construct. They should also explore the concept of consumer capacity to distinguish between COOs. Cross‐national studies using cognitive style scales should be carried out. A qualitative examination of Taiwanese's COO perceptions is also recommended.

Practical implications

It seems important to increase consumers' familiarity with a COO and its products to improve its overall perception. Products made in Latin American countries have the lowest level of familiarity in general. Thus, increasing familiarity with their products is particularly important to achieve export success.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the marketing and international business literatures and provides insights to international marketers by bringing valuable information that can help make decisions as to where to manufacture and how to promote global products. It provides guidance as to what types of nations are likely to require multi‐dimensional information about countries of origin.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1990

Daniel Zeghal and Sadrudin A. Ahmed

This study examines the social responsibility information disclosedthrough mass media vehicles by Canadian companies operating in thebanking and petroleum industries. The…

Abstract

This study examines the social responsibility information disclosed through mass media vehicles by Canadian companies operating in the banking and petroleum industries. The analysis compares disclosures, made through mass media vehicles such as magazine, radio and television advertisements and company brochures, with those made through the company′s annual reports. Results indicated that the mass media vehicles were used extensively, but that they provided less information in the quantitative and monetary form than did the annual reports. In addition, information provided through the mass media vehicles dealt with only a few information categories. Comparison across the firms by industry indicated that there was a large interfirm difference in the usage of these media for making social disclosure. It is, therefore, felt that annual reports alone perhaps do not adequately represent the information disclosure activities of a firm or an industry.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1993

Sadrudin A. Ahmed and Alain d′Astous

Investigates the effects of three countries of origin, three brandnames and three levels of price and service on consumers′ perceptions ofthe purchase value of an

Abstract

Investigates the effects of three countries of origin, three brand names and three levels of price and service on consumers′ perceptions of the purchase value of an automobile. Based on data collected from a random sample of 179 Canadians and 197 Belgians, the results indicate that the effects of price are not very important. Brand name is a more important cue than made‐in for Belgian consumers, but not for Canadian consumers. Concludes that modifications to marketing strategies for global products may be needed from one consuming country to another.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 27 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Sadrudin A. Ahmed and Alain d'Astous

This article presents the results of a survey of 209 Mainland Chinese male consumers carried out in the late 1990s. In this study, consumer judgements of products made in…

Abstract

This article presents the results of a survey of 209 Mainland Chinese male consumers carried out in the late 1990s. In this study, consumer judgements of products made in both highly and newly industrialised countries were obtained in a multi‐attribute and multi‐dimensional context. As expected, the results showed that Chinese consumers' perceptions of country of design and country of assembly were much more positive for products made in highly industrialised countries than for those made in newly industrialised countries. However, some exceptions to this are addressed. A multi‐attribute analysis with country‐of‐origin variables indicates that the perception of a T‐shirt quality was strongly related to price and product satisfaction assurance, whereas the perception of a T‐shirt purchase value was mainly linked to satisfaction assurance. It is therefore concluded that Chinese consumers, having recently emerged from a totalitarian state‐controlled market condition, are in the process of forming enduring attitudes towards products made in foreign countries. This provides excellent opportunities for countries/brands that wish to build an image of fashion leadership in the Chinese market to gain a first‐mover advantage.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2002

Sadrudin A. Ahmed, Alain d’Astous and Jelloul Eljabri

This article reports the results of a survey of 151 Canadian male consumers. In this study, consumer judgements of products varying in their level of technological…

Abstract

This article reports the results of a survey of 151 Canadian male consumers. In this study, consumer judgements of products varying in their level of technological complexity made in both highly and newly industrialised countries (NICs) were obtained in a multi‐attribute and multi‐dimensional context. The results show that the country‐of‐origin image of NICs is less negative for technologically simpler products (i.e. television) than for technologically complex products (i.e. computers). In addition, NICs are perceived more negatively as countries of design than as countries of assembly, especially for technologically complex products, but their negative image may be attenuated by making consumers more familiar with products made in these countries and/or by providing them with other product‐related information such as brand name and warranty. Three personal variables namely, computer involvement, technological sophistication and technological innovativeness were found to moderate the perceptions of countries of origin. The more technologically sophisticated a consumer was, the more favourable he/she was towards products made in more technologically advanced NICs.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1999

Alain d’Astous and Sadrudin A. Ahmed

Presents the results of a survey conducted among 194 retail salesmen of electronic equipment and 190 male consumers. According to salesmen, country of origin is a much…

Abstract

Presents the results of a survey conducted among 194 retail salesmen of electronic equipment and 190 male consumers. According to salesmen, country of origin is a much less important attribute for shoppers of video‐cassette recorders and themselves than brand reputation. For the purpose of comparison, both salesmen and consumers provided direct evaluative judgements of 13 countries on their design and assembly capabilities, of three VCR brands and of the quality and purchase value of nine VCR conjoint profiles varying systematically with respect to country of design, country of assembly, brand, price and warranty. Salesmen’s direct importance weights were found to differ greatly from conjoint derived weights in that, in the latter case, country of origin cues had a significant and, with regard to quality perceptions, greater impact than the other attributes. Multiple regression models relating the direct perceptions of the countries of origin to brand evaluations indicate that the nesting of country perceptions in brand evaluation may partly explain this apparent inconsistency.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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