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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2018

Sadia Nadeem and Sana Mumtaz

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the process of Chinese expatriates’ adjustment in Pakistan through integrating the U-curve model and social identity theory. It…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the process of Chinese expatriates’ adjustment in Pakistan through integrating the U-curve model and social identity theory. It has also highlighted the importance of engaging in strong social ties and their contribution in expatriates’ adjustment.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through semi-structured interviews from 30 Chinese expatriates working as directors, deputy directors, senior managers, managers and assistant managers in Chinese organizations in Pakistan. After verbatim transcription of all the interviews, data were analyzed using the NVivo software.

Findings

The findings of this paper indicate that expatriates’ identities somewhat changed in terms of their behaviors and work habits, while fewer changes were observed in their belief and value system. These changes were related to expatriates’ perceptions of host country groups, attraction to these groups and similarity in beliefs, which resulted in the development of interdependent beliefs and depersonalization. However, a few Chinese expatriates predominantly interacted among themselves at work, and their reduced socialization with Pakistanis lessened their chances of change.

Research limitations/implications

The results of the study suggest that expatriates’ adjustment is a multi-stage process and social identity change is one of the powerful mechanisms through which they adjust in the host country’s environment; hence host organizations should facilitate expatriates in strengthening their bond with local people.

Originality/value

This paper has proposed a model that explains the mechanism of Chinese expatriates’ adjustment in Pakistan through improved interactions between expatriates’ and host country nationals, resulting in minor social identity changes, leading to further positive relationship building, and then major social identity changes.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

Sadia Nadeem and Chris Hendry

This paper focuses on the possibilities of the long‐term development of flexible working as a work‐life policy, through understanding the power dynamics between the…

Abstract

This paper focuses on the possibilities of the long‐term development of flexible working as a work‐life policy, through understanding the power dynamics between the individual and the organisation. The study presents a framework which summarises the factors influencing the employee‐employer power dynamics, and leads us to the research questions. The methodology involves triangulation in case studies in two organisations based on surveys of representative samples in each organisation (n = 243 and n = 128) and interviews with the management. Findings support the long‐term development of employee‐friendly flexible working. There is a strong desire, and a lack of polarisation of attitudes, among employees for greater flexibility. Certain employee groups with stronger negotiating power have initiated the work‐life debate, but in doing so, they have increased the power of all employees through lowering ideological barriers, and creating knowledge of new possibilities and aspirations. Favourable external pressures and changing business needs also improve the position of employees.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 18 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2020

Farhan Aadil, Oh-young Song, Mahreen Mushtaq, Muazzam Maqsood, Sadia Ejaz Sheikh and Junaid Baber

Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) technology envisions a network in which sensors continuously operate on and obtained critical physical and physiological readings…

Abstract

Purpose

Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) technology envisions a network in which sensors continuously operate on and obtained critical physical and physiological readings. Sensors deployed in WBANs have restricted resources such as battery energy, computing power and bandwidth. We can utilize these resources efficiently. By devising a mechanism that is energy efficient with following characteristics, i.e. computational complexity is less, routing overhead is minimized, and throughput will be maximum. A lot of work has been done in this area but still WBAN faces some challenges like mobility, network lifetime, transmission range, heterogeneous environment, and limited resources. In the present years well, contemplative studies have been made through a large body to reach some holistic points pertaining to the energy consumption in WBAN. Thus we/put forward appropriate algorithm for energy efficiency which can vividly corroborate the advances in this specific domain. We have also focused on various aspects and phases of the studies like study computational complexity, routing overhead and throughput type of characteristics. There is still a room for improvement to get the desired energy optimization in WBAN. The network performance mainly relies upon the algorithm used for optimization process. In this work, we intended to develop an energy optimization algorithm for energy consumption in WBAN which is based on evolutionary algorithms for inter-BAN communications using cluster-based routing protocol.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper we propose a meta heuristics algorithm Goa to solve the optimization problem in WBAN. Grasshopper is an insect. Generally, this insect is viewed individually and creating large swarm in nature. Figure 5 shows the individual grasshoppers' primitive patterns in swarm. Figure 7 depicts the pseudo code of Goa. In Goa, experiments are done to view the behavior of grasshoppers in swarm. How they gradually move towards the stationary and mobile target. Through experimentation it is conceived that swarm gradually converge towards their target. Another interesting pattern related to convergence of grasshopper is that it slowly towards its target. This shows that grasshopper does not trapped in local optima. In starting iterations of exploration process Goa, search globally and in last iterations it searches local optima. Goa makes the exploration and exploitation process balanced while solving challenging optimization problems.

Findings

Energy efficiency is achieved in the optimization process of cluster formation process. As the use of proposed algorithm Goa creates the optimal number of clusters. Shorter cluster lifetime means more times clustering procedure is called. It increases the network computational cost and the communication overhead. Experimentation results show that proposed Goa algorithm performs well. We compare the results of Goa with existing optimization Algorithms ACO and MFO. Results are generated using MATLAB.

Originality/value

A lot of work has done for the sake of energy optimization in WBAN. Many algorithms are proposed in past for energy optimization of WBAN. All of them have some strengths and weaknesses. In this paper we propose a nature inspired algorithm Goa. We use the Goa algorithm for the sake of energy optimization in WBAN.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2019

Muhammad Ijaz Khan, Shahid Farooq, Tasawar Hayat, Faisal Shah and Ahmed Alsaedi

The novel mechanical, chemical and thermodynamics characteristics of both single- and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) make them a subject of much attention for the…

Abstract

Purpose

The novel mechanical, chemical and thermodynamics characteristics of both single- and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) make them a subject of much attention for the scientists and engineers from all domains. Fluid flows subject to CNTs are significant in biomedical engineering, energy storage systems, domestic and industrial cooling, automobile industries and solar energy collectors, etc. Keeping such effectiveness of CNTs in mind, this paper aims to examine peristaltic flow subject to CNTs in an asymmetric tapered channel. Both single and multiple walls CNTs are considered. The viscosity of nanomaterial depends on nanoparticles volume fraction and temperature. Total entropy rate through second law of thermodynamics is calculated. Heat source/sink and nonlinear heat flux are accounted.

Design/methodology/approach

The complicated flow expressions are simplified through lubrication approach. The velocity, temperature and entropy expressions are numerically solved by the built-in-shooting method.

Findings

The solutions for entropy generation, temperature and velocity are plotted, and the influences of pertinent variables are examined. The authors noticed that entropy generation is an increasing function of the Brinkman number.

Originality/value

The originality of this work is to communicate peristaltic CNTs-based nanomaterial peristaltic flow of viscous fluid in an asymmetric channel. No such consideration is yet published in the literature.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2020

Ameer A. Basit

Political skill is a valued resource employees use to achieve success. Earlier research has mostly focused on the effect of political skill on others rather than on the…

Abstract

Purpose

Political skill is a valued resource employees use to achieve success. Earlier research has mostly focused on the effect of political skill on others rather than on the self of the politically skilled individuals. Specifically, there is disconnect between political skill and employee engagement research as both these fields have been growing in isolation. Drawing from theories of engagement and conservation of resources, this study bridges this gap in knowledge by investigating how political skill leads to job and organization engagement of politically skilled employees via impacting their self-evaluations of organization-based self-esteem (OBSE) and organizational identification.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a survey method, data were obtained from 188 employees who worked in three private schools of Lahore, Pakistan. Structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed model.

Findings

This study found that individuals who used political skill by practicing social astuteness, interpersonal influence, networking and sincerity rated themselves high in OBSE and organizational identification. As a consequence, high OBSE enhanced their job engagement, whereas high organizational identification increased their organization engagement.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first studies to present political skill as a driver of job and organization engagement. It reveals that the self-evaluations of OBSE and organizational identification mediate the political skill–engagement relations in unique manners.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 39 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2021

LiJun Zhang, Tayyaba Nazar, M.M. Bhatti and Efstathios E. Michaelides

The flow and heat transfer of a hybrid nanofluid composed of kerosene and ZnO-Al2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) is investigated. The flow occurs over complex surfaces with…

Abstract

Purpose

The flow and heat transfer of a hybrid nanofluid composed of kerosene and ZnO-Al2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) is investigated. The flow occurs over complex surfaces with stretching and shrinking features. The base fluid is electrically conducting, and an external magnetic field is added so that the nanofluid and the electric field are in equilibrium. Irrotational flow with viscous dissipation effects is considered.

Design/methodology/approach

The governing equations of the system are formulated, and a similarity transformation is used to convert the system of equations into ordinary differential equations, which are solved numerically. The friction coefficient of the flow and the Nusselt number are calculated for a wide range of parameters, and the results are presented in graphical form. In addition, dual solutions of the problem were noticed to occur for a certain range of the unsteadiness parameter. A stability analysis has been performed and presented to elucidate the behavior of these dual solutions.

Findings

For the solution of the upper branch, the velocity and temperature profiles of the nanofluid are enhanced by increasing the magnetic field parameter M, but the same variables decrease in the solution of the lower branch. The same trend is detected for the velocity of the fluid with the suction parameter. The temperature of the nanofluid decreases in both branches of the solution by increasing the Prandtl number. Similarly, they decrease with the suction parameter. The temperature of the nanofluid slightly increases in both branches of the solution by increasing the Eckert number. With the stability analysis the authors performed, it was determined that the solution is stable in the upper branch, but unstable in the lower branch.

Originality/value

The kerosene nanofluid with hybrid Zinc/Aluminum-oxide is presented for the first time in the literature.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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