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Describes research on the processes and outcomes of consumer socialisation; it investigates the importance of the family as the main socialisation agent for young children. Shows how parents influence child behaviour directly through instruction in consumer skills, indirectly as models of consumer behaviour, and by supervision of the child’s consumer opportunities; also by influencing cognitive abilities, motivating the child to use its cognitive abilities in consumer situations, and teaching consumer skills which are unrelated to cognitive ability. Relates changes in US family demographic patterns to children as consumers: more single‐parent families and working mothers may mean less contact and socialisation of children by parents, while greater ethnic diversity and mixed‐race families affects the way that children are socialised. Test four hypotheses: that parents of younger children engage in less direct instruction of consumer behaviours than parents of older children; that parents engage in more direct consumer instruction, co‐shopping and co‐viewing with daughters than with sons; that more highly educated parents engage in more direct consumer instruction, co‐shopping and co‐viewing than do parents with lower levels of education; and that ethnicity is a factor in parental consumer instruction, co‐shopping and co‐viewing. Discusses the results of the survey questionnaire used for this US study of parents with children between two and eight years old; the results roughly confirm the first three of these four hypotheses.
Reports research on Generation X and Generation Y mothers and shows how today’s US mothers differ from those of past generations, such as in being more family oriented and ethnically diverse; mothers are vital to marketers as they tend to “hold the purse‐strings”. Arranges mothers on a continuum of six categories, varying from the most permissive to the most restrictive in parenting style, and argues that children’s marketing needs to address the 58% of mothers who are restrictive. Points out that the central two categories, which include both “permissive” mothers who are responsive to their children’s requests and “restrictive” mothers who are concerned about the objective value of products, constitute almost half the total and are therefore vital for advertising messages.
Market leaders are constantly being forced to evaluate and modify their relationships and interactions with suppliers, buyers, and even competitors, in order to remain…
Market leaders are constantly being forced to evaluate and modify their relationships and interactions with suppliers, buyers, and even competitors, in order to remain competitively viable in response to marketplace, technology, and competitive changes. Presents the Interdependency Cube framework which allows businesses to identify their current positions relative to their partners, and develop an understanding of what needs to be done in order to change their interdependency relationships. Real‐world examples illustrate different cells within the framework and demonstrate how a company can simultaneously, and successfully, have different types of strategic interdependencies with a number of partners, depending on the environment in each case. Managers can learn how vigilance and flexibility are vital to a company’s ability to change as its situation and circumstances change.
In response to coronavirus disease 2019, California State University Long Beach (CSULB) announced mandatory online course conversions on March 12, 2020. The College of…
In response to coronavirus disease 2019, California State University Long Beach (CSULB) announced mandatory online course conversions on March 12, 2020. The College of Business designed a Student Online Learning Experience Survey to explore learners' experience, needs, expectations and challenges in the online learning environment.
The time-sensitive survey questions were administered using Qualtrics with Institutional Review Board approval. The authors used 5-point Likert scales to rate students' experience and satisfaction and performed statistical analysis. They assessed students' written comments to further corroborate statistical findings.
The results identify students' satisfaction are highly correlated to content coverage and interaction of online learning technologies. A combination of BeachBoard, Zoom, e-mails and publisher's website is valued most by the learners. Project-based experiential design is ranked #1 by graduate students. Noticeably, the upward trend of satisfaction with online modality from sophomore to senior is probably attributable to learners' maturity and number of years studied at CSU system. Overall, students generally dislike proctoring devices due to concerns of privacy, inequalities, mental stress, etc.
The evidence-based results offer innovative pedagogical recommendations for business education in higher education.
While prior studies examine student perceptions and satisfaction within the online education system, the study aims to deeply investigate the students' experience after a large-scale two-week institutional emergency course conversion mandate. This study systematically reviews students' experience with four aspects of online learning: (1) the adequacy of instructional designs; (2) the effectiveness of technology; (3) the appropriateness of the online learning material and (4) the integrity of online assessment and testing tools.