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Article
Publication date: 28 March 2018

Oussama Senouci, Zibouda Aliouat and Saad Harous

This paper is a review of a number routing protocols in the internet of vehicles (IoV). IoV emphasizes information interaction among humans, vehicles and a roadside unit…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper is a review of a number routing protocols in the internet of vehicles (IoV). IoV emphasizes information interaction among humans, vehicles and a roadside unit (RSU), within which routing is one of the most important steps in IoV network.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors have summarized different research data on routing protocols in the IoV. Several routing protocols for IoV have been proposed in the literature. Their classification is made according to some criteria such as topology-based, position-based, transmission strategy and network structure. This paper focuses on the transmission strategy criteria. There exist three types of protocols that are based on this strategy: unicast protocol, broadcast protocols and multicast protocols. This later type is classified into two subclasses: geocast and cluster-based protocols. The taxonomy of the transmission strategy is presented in this study. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each type with a general comparison between the five types.

Findings

The authors can deduce that many challenges are encountered when designing routing protocols for IoV.

Originality/value

A simple and well-explained presentation of the functioning of the IoV is provided with a comparison among each categories of protocols is well presented along with the advantages and disadvantages of each type. The authors examined the main problems encountered during the design of IoV routing protocol, such as the quick change of topology, the frequent disconnection, the big volume of data to be processed and stored in the IoV, and the problem of network fragmentation. This work explores, compares existing routing protocols in IoV and provides a critical analysis. For that, the authors extract the challenges and propose future perspectives for each categories of protocols.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2014

Zibouda Aliouat and Saad Harous

The purpose of this paper is to design a hierarchical routing protocol. Wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of a set of miniature sensor nodes powered by a low-capacity…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to design a hierarchical routing protocol. Wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of a set of miniature sensor nodes powered by a low-capacity energy battery. This limitation requires that energy is used in an efficient way and kept as long as possible to allow the WSN to accomplish its mission. Thus, energy conservation is a very important problem facing researchers in this context. Because sending and receiving messages is the activity that consumes the most energy in a WSN, so when designing routing protocols, this problem is targeted specifically. The aim of this paper is to propose a solution to this problem by designing a hierarchical routing protocol.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors started by designing a protocol called efficient energy-aware distributed clustering (EEADC). Simulation result showed EEADC might generate clusters with very small or very large size. To solve this problem, the authors designed a new algorithm called fixed efficient energy-aware distributed clustering (FEEADC). They concluded from the simulation result that cluster-heads (CHs) far away from the base station die faster than the ones closer to it. To remedy this problem, they propose multi-hop fixed efficient energy-aware distributed clustering (M-FEEADC). It is based on a new fixed clustering mechanism, which aims to create a balanced distribution of CHs. It uses data aggregation and sleep/wakeup techniques.

Findings

The simulation results show a significant improvement in terms of energy consumption and network lifetime over the well-known low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy and threshold-sensitive energy-efficient protocols.

Originality/value

The authors propose M-FEEADC. It is based on a new fixed clustering mechanism, which aims to create a balanced distribution of CHs. It uses data aggregation and sleep/wakeup techniques.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Abdelhak Bentaleb, Saad Harous and Abdelhak Boubetra

Scalability is a fundamental problem in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), where network topology includes large number of nodes and demands a large number of packets in…

Abstract

Purpose

Scalability is a fundamental problem in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), where network topology includes large number of nodes and demands a large number of packets in network that characterized by dynamic topologies, existence of bandwidth constrained, variable capacity links, energy constraint and nodes are highly prone to security threats. The key purpose of this paper is to overview the efficiency of the proposed clustering scheme for large-scale MANETs and its performance evaluation and especially in the case of a large number of nodes in the network.

Design/methodology/approach

Designing clustering schemes for MANETs, which are efficient and scalable in the case of large number of mobile nodes, has received a great attention in the last few years. It is widely used to improve resources management, hierarchical routing protocol design, quality of service, network performance parameters such as routing delay, bandwidth consumption, throughput and security. MANETs are characterized by limited wireless bandwidth, nodes mobility that results in a high frequency of failure regarding wireless links, energy constraint and nodes are highly prone to security threats. Due to all these features, the design of a scalable and efficient clustering scheme is quite complex. Many clustering schemes have been proposed to divide nodes into clusters, focusing on different metrics and purposes.

Findings

To the best of the author's knowledge, the different proposed clustering schemes are not scalable when the network size increases to a very large number. The paper presents the clustering scheme in detail and its performance evaluation by simulating MANETs composed of a large number of mobile nodes. The authors compare the performance of the scheme with a number of existing clustering schemes such as lowest-ID, highest degree, and weighted clustering algorithm, based on a number of performance metrics. Simulation results show that the scheme performs better than other clustering schemes, based on the performance metrics considered, for large-scale MANETs.

Originality/value

This paper addresses the problem of scalability in MANETs when there are high numbers of node in the network. The paper analyses the performance of the proposed clustering scheme for large-scale MANETs. The obtained results show that the different proposed clustering schemes do not allow the scalability when the network size is very large. The scheme supports scalability efficiently when the number of nodes increases in the network (more than 2,000 nodes).

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

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