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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Dirk Meissner and Pavel Rudnik

Foresight is frequently used to establish science and technology investment priorities and develop corresponding technology and innovation support programmes. In the light…

Abstract

Purpose

Foresight is frequently used to establish science and technology investment priorities and develop corresponding technology and innovation support programmes. In the light of technology and innovation policy, many individual Foresight studies are undertaken which are separate and little linked with the broader policy scope and ambition. This paper aims to look at an approach towards a consistent Foresight system which is linked closely to science, technology and innovation policy.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides an in-depth case study of the Russian Foresight system. The case study is based on desk research and extensive experience of the authors with the system.

Findings

Russia has developed a systematic approach towards organising Foresight which involves and serves multiple stakeholders, including government, ministries, federal and regional agencies, higher education institutions, public research institutes, state-owned companies and private businesses and a large range of associations. Under the auspicious of a dedicated commission, targeted Foresight is undertaken with clearly defined scope for each. The paper finds that the Russian system is unique in its organisational structure and in the integration of Foresight with science, technology and innovation policy measures.

Originality/value

The paper describes all facets of the Russian Foresight system which has not been done before. It also outlines the practical steps to further develop and leverage the system.

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Jing‐Wen Li

Simulation experiment was employed to investigate the schemes for coordinating JIT practices to promote performance upgrade in a job shop environment with the pull system.

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Abstract

Purpose

Simulation experiment was employed to investigate the schemes for coordinating JIT practices to promote performance upgrade in a job shop environment with the pull system.

Design/methodology/approach

The four related essential JIT practices (job shop JIT practices) investigated include: cellular manufacturing (CM), operations overlapping (OPOVR), reduction of set‐up/processing time variability (variability reduction) and set‐up time reduction (STR).

Findings

Experiment findings suggest that coordination of CM and STR should be given the priority. While the extent of STR effected by CM substantially influences the efficacy of adopting a cellular layout, the choice of adopting a functional layout (FL) is more likely to be affected by the STR resulted from improvement of set‐up operations (set‐up improvement). Variability reduction tends to be more effective for a cellular layout. For a cellular layout without OPOVR, the effectiveness of reducing set‐up time variability is prominent and almost impervious to the extent of set‐up improvement. For a FL, the effect of variability reduction is minor; reduction of set‐up time variability is effective in this case only for a set‐up to processing time ratio of 20 or larger. The findings of this study do not justify the implementation of OPOVR in the shop environment, even with the support of the other three job shop JIT practices.

Originality/value

This study is notable in integrating STR into the job shop JIT practices to achieve overall performance improvement. In addition, the resulting strategies for variability reduction are essential for adapting the pull system to job shop manufacturing. Therefore, the findings of this study form systematic guidelines enabling exercise of the job shop JIT practices coherently to promote reform of job shop manufacturing.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 16 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2018

Anna Sokolova, Anna Grebenyuk and Alexander Sokolov

This paper aims to present a retrospective analysis of the experience gained in the course of 20 years’ history of S&T priority setting and critical technologies…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a retrospective analysis of the experience gained in the course of 20 years’ history of S&T priority setting and critical technologies’ identification, in terms of expected and actually achieved effects and lessons learned.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology is based on analysing project documentation and reports, as well as on interviewing project team members. Each project’s effects are evaluated in terms of the six key foresight functions.

Findings

The key factors affecting success of priority S&T areas and critical technologies’ selection and implementation have been identified. They include focusing on practical implementation, linking S&T with socio-economic goals, combining thematic priorities with infrastructural and functional ones, as well as integrating priority selection in the S&T policy process.

Research limitations implications

The task of evaluating priority setting exercises over a long period requires a substantial information base to provide a comprehensive comparative analysis. The projects considered in the paper also need to be analysed in a context of socio-economic development.

Practical implications

The lessons learned presented in the paper could contribute to further development of approaches to selecting science and technology priorities and critical technologies, and their more efficient implementation.

Originality value

Priority setting has significant influence on policymaking and decision-making at the national and industry level. The evaluation of a unique 20-year experience provides substantial information and practical hints for further increasing efficacy of this instrument.

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Mika Nieminen, Torsti Loikkanen and Antti Pelkonen

The purpose of this paper is to explore and discuss possible future pathways of the Finnish science, technology and innovation (STI) system. The paper sketches three…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore and discuss possible future pathways of the Finnish science, technology and innovation (STI) system. The paper sketches three speculative pathways for the Finnish STI system.

Design/methodology/approach

Theoretical considerations behind the pathways are based on analyses of the determinants and behaviour of small open economies, their innovation systems and governance. The empirical background of the paper is in the current trends of the Finnish economy and STI system. The analysis of pathways is based on three dimensions: institutionalized policy environment and economy, domestic interest groups and policy and STI institutions and funding. Changes in these dimensions are analysed by paying special attention to two variables: the position of the nation state and the general economic development.

Findings

The first future pathway outlined is based on an optimistic view by setting Finland on the basis of past success factors as an European and global STI hotspot. The second pathway is based on the assumption that the Finnish STI system will be increasingly subordinated to international structures and decision-making. The third one is geared around the assumption that the Finnish STI system will be dominated by industries.

Research limitations/implications

While Finland has been seen as a European showpiece of innovation since the early 2000s, currently the country’s national economy and STI system are undergoing a critical period. The paper sheds light on this transformation and its potential future outcomes and attempts to raise debate on the options policy makers may face in the increasingly complex global environment in small countries.

Originality/value

The paper introduces potential future avenues for the Finnish STI system and provides a contribution to the debate of the future of small countries’ STI systems and innovation policies by emphasising the limited space of the STI policy choices and how the development paths and space for policy making evolve from the interaction of socio-economic factors between domestic and wider international context.

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1980

TEFKO SARACEVIC

The purpose of this paper is to survey and analyse the literature emanating from less developed countries (LDCs) and international agencies and dealing with their…

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to survey and analyse the literature emanating from less developed countries (LDCs) and international agencies and dealing with their perception of the needs of LDCs for scientific and technical information (STI) in relation to social and economic development.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Simon Smith and Richard J. Pech

Scientists are known for their good ideas, but packaging those ideas into a commercial format requires skills, funding, and processes for which many scientists and their…

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1658

Abstract

Purpose

Scientists are known for their good ideas, but packaging those ideas into a commercial format requires skills, funding, and processes for which many scientists and their research institutions are all too often not equipped. The Victorian Government of Australia has developed a successful initiative designed to facilitate and commercialise scientific innovations. The purpose of this paper is to document the processes and the lessons drawn from the establishment of the Science, Technology, and Innovation (STI) Initiative.

Design/methodology/approach

This case study describes the Australian state of Victoria's STI Initiative over a four year period from its inception. The program was designed to enhance the ability to compete globally through commercialisation of Victoria's science capability and to facilitate greater industry innovation through collaboration with the science community.

Findings

The STI case demonstrates how the program has exceeded expectations with proven return on investment in less than four years. The case describes the STI's history, structure, strategies, processes, and methods of monitoring and evaluation. It also describes problems and difficulties that have occurred and how these were overcome. One of the major findings of the STI Initiative concerns the development of governance structures for each project. Rather than introducing rigidity and decision speed‐bumps, the introduction of well‐designed governance structures provides rapid and useful feedback and favourable control measures.

Practical implications

A large part of managing STI projects involves the establishment of funded grants and the development and management of commercial objectives and cooperation between the science and commercial sectors. It is argued that this successful format for commercialising science and facilitating innovation can be templated and therefore duplicated by governments almost anywhere in the world.

Originality/value

The lessons from this case study support the argument that there is a need for structure to formalise a successful relationship between industry, science, government, and investors. The paper provides a format for such a structure based on the experiences of the STI Initiative based in Victoria, Australia.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Oleg V. Ena and Gulnara I. Abdrakhmanova

Developing methodically sound approaches for defining and analysing measurements of sectoral science and technology (S&T) priorities is a key pre-requisite of a successful…

Abstract

Purpose

Developing methodically sound approaches for defining and analysing measurements of sectoral science and technology (S&T) priorities is a key pre-requisite of a successful and effective state science, technology and innovation management system. This paper aims to present the results of research into the evolution of Russia’s S&T priorities in information and communication technologies (ICTs) based on a system founded on detailed profiles for sectoral critical technologies (CTs) supplemented by quantitative statistics on the development of the information society in Russia.

Design/methodology/approach

This analysis of Russia’s ICT S&T priorities was broken down into three periods which tie in with milestones when large-scale changes in ICT were observed: 2002-2006; 2007-2010; 2011-2015.

Findings

This paper presents the results of research into the evolution of Russia’s S&T priorities in ICTs based on a system founded on detailed and carefully studied profiles for sectoral CTs supplemented by quantitative statistics on the development of the information society in Russia. An important aspect in support of this approach is regular large-scale processes to update the profiles of sectoral CTs (on average once every five years) and to conduct statistical observations in ICT (once every year). The involvement in this process of updating CTs of large (500 or more) numbers of sectoral experts representing industry leaders, research and educational institutions, core ministries and regulatory bodies guarantees a comprehensive cross-section in researching and profiling CTs in different important areas: science, production and government administration.

Originality/value

For more than 15 years, the Higher School of Economics has been conducting a range of statistical studies on ICT: the amount of goods and services output in the ICT sector and the level of diffusion and use of ICT in the economy, social sphere and public and private life. The results of these studies are used as an evidence base when defining and updating STI priorities to develop Russia’s ICT industry. This paper presents a retrospective view of the evolution of Russia’s S&T priorities from 2002 to the present and discusses the effects of ICT’s transformation in specific changing markets and identifies priority areas for the future.

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2014

Jesús M. Valdaliso, Edurne Magro, Mikel Navarro, Mari Jose Aranguren and James R. Wilson

– The purpose of this paper is to apply the path dependence theoretical framework to STI policies that support research and innovation strategies for smart specialisation (RIS3).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to apply the path dependence theoretical framework to STI policies that support research and innovation strategies for smart specialisation (RIS3).

Design/methodology/approach

Review of the recent literature on the phases, sources of reinforcement and change mechanisms (layering, conversion, recombination, etc.) present in path-dependent processes, as well as the role played by mental frameworks, political agents and power relations; and its illustration and testing over 30 years of STI policy development in the Basque Country.

Findings

How to operationalise the analysis of continuity and change of STI policies supporting RIS3 policies characterised by path dependence processes. Likewise, learnings from the analysis of Basque case regarding the types of challenges that European regions will face as they design their RIS3, according to their degree of maturity in STI policies.

Originality/value

It is the first time that the recently developed tools for analysis of path-dependent processes are applied to the development of STI policies supporting RIS3 policies.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2017

Albert Edgar Manyuchi and John Ouma Mugabe

A growing number of African countries are starting to produce science, technology and innovation (STI) indicators. The purpose of this paper is to provide some lessons…

Abstract

Purpose

A growing number of African countries are starting to produce science, technology and innovation (STI) indicators. The purpose of this paper is to provide some lessons learnt in the production and use of STI indicators in Malawi and South Africa. It is compares the two countries’ efforts to conduct Research and Development (R&D) surveys and examines whether and how STI indicators are used in policymaking processes.

Design/methodology/approach

The study approach is qualitative. The research methodology encompasses a thorough review of both policy and academic literature as well as some interviews.

Findings

The study demonstrates that South Africa has a relatively developed institutional arrangement for undertaking R&D and innovation surveys and developing related STI indicators. There is evidence that efforts are being made to use STI indicators to inform policymaking in the country. On the other hand, Malawi conducted its first R&D survey under the African Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators Initiative (ASTII) and has not established an institutional mechanism dedicated to producing STI indicators. There is no evidence that indicators are used in, or to inform, policymaking in the country.

Research limitations/implications

Because of significant differences in STI policymaking histories, capacities and cultures of the two countries, it is not really useful to compare the STI production and use. Rather it is important to draw lessons from the efforts of the two countries.

Practical implications

The results suggest that the production of STI indicators should be embedded in policy processes. To be useful and effective, STI indicators production needs to be explicitly linked to policy formulation, evaluation and monitoring activities without necessarily undermining the independence of producing STI indicators.

Social implications

Creating stand-alone programmes or agencies for R&D and innovation surveys without clear articulation with policymaking needs erodes opportunities of having evidence-based STI policy regimes.

Originality/value

Although in 2005 only South Africa and Tunisia had national programmes dedicated to the generation of R&D statistics, by the end of 2010 at least 19 African countries had experimented with conducting R&D surveys under the auspices of the ASTII of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development. These countries accumulated different experiences and consequently build different kinds of institutional capacities. Through the Malawi and South Africa case studies, some important lessons for STI indicators production and use and STI policymaking can be drawn for developing countries in general and African countries in particular.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2010

Jacques L. Hamel

The paper provides a speculative reflection on the power of modern science, technology and innovation systems (STI) for revealing some distinctive style of modernity in…

Abstract

The paper provides a speculative reflection on the power of modern science, technology and innovation systems (STI) for revealing some distinctive style of modernity in Africa. The modernization of these systems, as the backbones of any mode of modernity, also requires the modernization of our mental or intellectual costumes. This process is essentially the passage from closed, selfconfirming, faith‐based, customary, totalizing or terrorizing knowledge systems to essentially falsifiable, evidence‐based, scientifically‐established and technicallyproven innovative knowledge systems. In these systems scientific knowledge can be construed as a theory of the real and as a technology of truth and understood as the epistemological foundation of any form of Afro‐modernity. It is also the passage from the ‘Book of Scripture’ to the ‘Book of Nature’ or from the submission to the white man’s colonizing gods to the more authentic and genuine African identities, beliefs and values, such as those embodied in the concept of ubuntu. The paper discusses a possible way forward in terms of capacity development in STI in Africa with an emphasis on some observed weaknesses regarding fundamental long term neglected issues. It provides some ideas for filling gaps in the context of the call by a number of African thinkers, including the Executive Secretary of UNECA, for initiating a ‘scientific revolution’ on the African continent.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

Keywords

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