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Article
Publication date: 28 July 2021

Zhongpeng Cao, Qian Xiao, Weiling Zhuang and Lina Wang

As self-service technologies (SSTs) become more prevalent, service providers are actively encouraging customers’ involvement with these technologies, sometimes even…

Abstract

Purpose

As self-service technologies (SSTs) become more prevalent, service providers are actively encouraging customers’ involvement with these technologies, sometimes even forcing their customers to use SSTs. This paper aims to examine the influence of the SST-only (vs full-service) mode on customers’ negative attitude toward SST providers through the mediating mechanism of powerlessness and explores how SST familiarity and SST anthropomorphism moderate the impacts of the SST-only mode on powerlessness.

Design/methodology/approach

Three experiments were performed, study 1 tested the main and mediating effect and studies 2 and 3 verified the moderating effects.

Findings

The results suggest that customer perceived powerlessness mediates the relationship between SST-only (vs full-service) mode and negative attitude toward SST providers. When the levels of SST familiarity and SST anthropomorphism are high, the impacts of SST-only on powerlessness are attenuated. Alternative mediating mechanism of powerlessness is examined and ruled out.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should investigate other moderators that may reduce the impacts of SST on customer powerlessness. These moderators could be service-operating procedures, SST interface design, types of service situations and customer characteristics. In addition, other consequences of powerlessness, other than the negative attitude toward SST providers and intention to switch investigated here, should be investigated as well.

Practical implications

This research provides guidelines helping service providers to improve their customers’ SST usage experience by showing both SST familiarity and SST anthropomorphism may alleviate the negative effects of SST-only mode on customer perceived powerlessness more effectively.

Originality/value

This research examines the role of customers’ psychological reactions toward the SST-only mode, particularly from the perspective of power and control.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2021

Anuj Kumar Shukla and Anupam Dewan

Convective heat transfer features of a turbulent slot jet impingement are comprehensively studied using two different computational approaches, namely, URANS (unsteady…

Abstract

Purpose

Convective heat transfer features of a turbulent slot jet impingement are comprehensively studied using two different computational approaches, namely, URANS (unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations) and SAS (scale-adaptive simulation). Turbulent slot jet impingement heat transfer is used where a considerable heat transfer enhancement is required, and computationally, it is a quite challenging flow configuration.

Design/methodology/approach

Customized OpenFOAM 4.1, an open-access computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, is used for SAS (SST-SAS k-ω) and URANS (standard k-ε and SST k-ω) computations. A low-Re version of the standard k-ε model is used, and other models are formulated for good wall-refined calculations. Three turbulence models are formulated in OpenFOAM 4.1 with second-order accurate discretization schemes.

Findings

It is observed that the profiles of the streamwise turbulence are under-predicted at all the streamwise locations by SST k-ω and SST SAS k-ω models, but follow similar trends as in the reported results. The standard k-ε model shows improvements in the predictions of the streamwise turbulence and mean streamwise velocity profiles in the zone of outer wall jet. Computed profiles of Nusselt number by SST k-ω and SST-SAS k-ω models are nearly identical and match well with the reported experimental results. However, the standard k-ε model does not provide a reasonable profile or quantification of the local Nusselt number.

Originality/value

Hybrid turbulence model is suitable for efficient CFD computations for the complex flow problems. This paper deals with a detailed comparison of the SAS model with URANS and LES for the first time in the literature. A thorough assessment of the computations is performed against the results reported using experimental and large eddy simulations techniques followed by a detailed discussion on flow physics. The present results are beneficial for scientists working with hybrid turbulence models and in industries working with high-efficiency cooling/heating system computations.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Book part
Publication date: 14 October 2019

Petranka Kelly, Jennifer Lawlor and Michael Mulvey

Purpose: The development of service automation continues to underpin the travel, tourism and hospitality sectors providing benefits for both customers and service…

Abstract

Purpose: The development of service automation continues to underpin the travel, tourism and hospitality sectors providing benefits for both customers and service companies. The purpose of this chapter is to showcase the practice of self-service technology (SST) usage in the contemporary tourism and hospitality sectors and present a conceptual framework of customer SST adoption.

Design/Methodology/Approach: This chapter offers an examination of theory, research and practice in relation to SST usage in tourism, highlighting the benefits and drawbacks arising for both customers and service providers. Since the benefits are achieved only if SSTs gain effective adoption with customers, this chapter focuses on concepts underpinning the study of customer SST adoption. Drawing on SST adoption factors and SST customer roles, a conceptual framework of SST adoption is discussed.

Findings/Practical Implications: This chapter examines the principles and practice underpinning the usage of self-service technologies in the travel, tourism and hospitality sectors, with specific reference to customer SST roles in co-creation. The customer SST roles provide a more detailed and nuanced picture of the customer perspective on SST usage. These nuanced roles are captured in a conceptual framework which seeks to further refine the understanding of customer SST adoption.

Research Implications & Originality/Value: The framework provides a useful foundation for further research with a focus on customer empowerment in SSTs. The future development of service automation will require a balance between the delivery of a personalised and smarter customer experience and technology applications that are unobtrusive and which do not pose any ethical or privacy concerns.

Details

Robots, Artificial Intelligence, and Service Automation in Travel, Tourism and Hospitality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-688-0

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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2020

Manimay Ghosh

The study aimed to examine the antecedents to self-service technology (SST) adoption behavior and the relationships between the constructs using empirical research.

Abstract

Purpose

The study aimed to examine the antecedents to self-service technology (SST) adoption behavior and the relationships between the constructs using empirical research.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on synthesis of the extant literature, a model was hypothesized, hypotheses were framed. Field data collected were analyzed using structural equation modeling.

Findings

Few interesting findings were noted in this research. First, SST service quality had a direct positive linkage with perceived value, but no linkage with e-satisfaction. Second, strong positive linkage existed between perceived value and e-satisfaction. Therefore, the connection between SST service quality and satisfaction was completely mediated by perceived value. Third, no relationship existed between perceived value and behavioral intentions, but a direct positive relationship existed between e-satisfaction and behavioral intentions. Thus, the relationship of perceived value with behavioral intentions was fully mediated by e-satisfaction. Fourth, no direct connection was found between SST service quality and behavioral intentions. Rather, the connection was fully mediated by perceived value and e-satisfaction. Fifth, direct positive association was found between behavioral intentions and actual adoption of SST.

Research limitations/implications

This empirical research was conducted primarily on the young population.

Practical implications

The study will benefit managers in making better decisions on how to make SST work successfully for their organizations.

Originality/value

First, this research further refined the SST adoption process of a customer, thus making a meaningful contribution to the literature on SST. Second, the research validated SSTQUAL scale in a different geographical setting.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Alinda Kokkinou and David A. Cranage

The purpose of the present study is to examine the effect of waiting lines on customers’ decisions between using a self-service alternative and using a service employee…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the present study is to examine the effect of waiting lines on customers’ decisions between using a self-service alternative and using a service employee. As self-service technologies are expensive and time-consuming to design and implement, service providers need to understand what drives customers to use them. Service operators have the most control over waiting lines and flexibility in expanding capacity, either by adding service employees or by adding self-service kiosks.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used online scenario-based surveys following a 4 (number of customers waiting for the self-service technology) × 4 (number of customers waiting for the service employee) design. A binary dependent variable was used to record participants’ choice of service delivery alternative.

Findings

Using logistic regression, the authors found that customers are increasingly motivated to use self-service technology as the waiting line for the service employee grows longer. This effect is influenced by perceived usefulness, anticipated quality of the self-service technology, need for interaction and technology anxiety.

Research limitations/implications

This study should be replicated in a real-world setting where actual behavior, and not only intention, can be measured.

Practical implications

The study provides guidance on how service providers can design their service to take advantage of the motivating effect of waiting lines on usage of self-service technology.

Originality/value

The present study is the first to combine a scenario-based experiment with a binary dependent variable to isolate the impact of waiting lines on the choice between using a self-service technology and using a service employee. The use of the binary dependent variable overcomes the ambiguity of extrapolating from a continuous measure of intention to draw conclusions about behavior, a binary variable.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

Devashish Pujari

This paper investigates self‐service technology (SST) encounters among Canadian B2B (business‐to‐business) customers. It provides an understanding of key determinants of…

Abstract

This paper investigates self‐service technology (SST) encounters among Canadian B2B (business‐to‐business) customers. It provides an understanding of key determinants of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. This research also explores issues relating to service recovery in case of SST failure and effects of favorable/ unfavorable SST encounters on business relationships. The study finds that B2B customers experience satisfaction from different sources as compared to B2C customers. These sources include speed, process efficiency and cost savings. Service recovery has been found to be a critical problem with regards to SST.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2002

Jungki Lee and Arthur Allaway

A new literature is emerging around the role of self‐service technologies (SSTs) such as airline ticketing machines, automatic teller machines, and computer‐based shopping…

Abstract

A new literature is emerging around the role of self‐service technologies (SSTs) such as airline ticketing machines, automatic teller machines, and computer‐based shopping services in the strategic offering of service providers. SSTs allow (or force) consumers to help produce their own service encounters via machine interaction rather than by interacting with a firm’s service personnel. Firms which introduce SSTs wish to gain rapid acceptance and usage of these technologies by potential consumers. This study investigates whether the provision of more personal control to consumers can reduce their perceived risk, enhance the perceived value of the SST, and induce greater adoption intention associated with the innovation. Propositions are tested using an experiment. Multiple analysis of covariance and follow‐up tests either fully or partially supported 11 out of 12 hypotheses. A set of managerial implications and recommendations is provided.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2007

Adesegun Oyedele and Penny M. Simpson

The purpose of this study is to build on prior work to empirically test the possible effects of control‐related consumer difference variables on the decision to use…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to build on prior work to empirically test the possible effects of control‐related consumer difference variables on the decision to use self‐service technology (SSTs) in three different contexts. Specifically, the paper seeks to examine potential effects of locus of control, autonomy, self‐efficacy, technology anxiety and time pressure on the SST usage decision in a shopping, a library and a hotel situation.

Design/methodology/approach

The design of the study was empirical. Data for the study came from 187 college students in classes from four different departments (business, computer science, language, and music departments) in a southern regional university.

Findings

Overall, the results suggest that regardless of individual need for control and achievements, highly techno phobic consumers and those with an enduring attitude that all events in life are predestined may be generally more disposed than others to prefer check‐out service personnel rather than self‐service check‐out machines, depending on the situation.

Research limitations/implications

The major limitation of this study is that respondents were primarily students, which limits the generalizability of the study. However, the study provides useful information about customer characteristics to target for service managers who are considering adopting SST options or are planning a SST improvement program.

Originality/value

This study helps augment earlier studies developed to understand the importance of examining consumer traits in the context of the specific situation, especially when deploying new SSTs.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Edwin J. Nijssen, Jeroen J. L. Schepers and Daniel Belanche

Customers often think that innovations, such as self-service technologies (SSTs), are introduced by service providers to cut costs rather than extend customer service…

Abstract

Purpose

Customers often think that innovations, such as self-service technologies (SSTs), are introduced by service providers to cut costs rather than extend customer service levels. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how customers use such attributions to adjust their perceptions of relational value.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on attribution and relationship marketing theories, this study proposes a conceptual model that includes benefit and cost attributions, their antecedents, and consequences. Survey data came from customers of a supermarket that recently introduced self-scanning technology.

Findings

Attributions mediate the impact of SST performance on relational value. This value is highest for customers with high-benefit and low-cost attributions; customers with low-benefit and low-cost attributions exhibit detrimental effects on the exchange relationship with the firm. Characterized by low self-efficacy, low education, and low spending, these latter customers appear ambivalent and possibly confused about the provider’s motives for introducing SST.

Practical implications

This research has important implications for service managers responsible for communicating technological innovations to customers. A clear reason for the introduction should be provided, to stimulate customers’ attribution and prevent ambivalence among those with low self-efficacy and low education.

Originality/value

Most SST research focusses on adoption, non-adoption, and disadoption. The more subtle responses by customers facing a new SST and the consequences for the customer-provider exchange relationship, as addressed herein, have been left largely unexplored.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2012

Cheng Wang, Jennifer Harris and Paul G. Patterson

The purpose of this paper is to explore situational influences on customers' actual choice between self‐service and personal service and to examine the impact of past…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore situational influences on customers' actual choice between self‐service and personal service and to examine the impact of past experiences on self‐service technology (SST) attitudes and behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

A supermarket self‐checkout machine is the SST under investigation. A mixed qualitative research design was used and a total of 209 observations and 47 interviews were obtained from customers in five supermarket stores in Australia.

Findings

Perceived waiting time, perceived task complexity, and companion influence are the three situational factors that impact on a customer's actual choice between self‐service and personal service. Past experiences influence SST attitudes and behavior in a more complex manner than SST characteristics and other individual difference variables.

Research limitations/implications

The findings may not be generalizable to internet‐ or telephone‐based SST contexts.

Practical implications

By understanding what factors affect a customer's choice, better strategies can be developed to manage and coordinate multiple service delivery options. The findings also highlight the importance of preventing frequent failure and providing speedy recovery in the SST context.

Originality/value

This paper goes beyond SST attitudes/intentions and focuses on the moderating effect of situational factors on a customer's actual SST behavior. It also examines the impact of focal product and product‐norm experiences on SST attitudes and behavior.

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