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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2020

Kekoura Sakouvogui

The consistency of stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) and data envelopment analysis (DEA) cost efficiency measures using a sample of 650 commercial and domestic banks in…

Abstract

Purpose

The consistency of stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) and data envelopment analysis (DEA) cost efficiency measures using a sample of 650 commercial and domestic banks in the United States is investigated based on cluster analysis while accounting for the yearly variation in banks.

Design/methodology/approach

Due to the importance of efficiency measures for policy and managerial decision-making, the cost efficiency measures of SFA and DEA estimators are examined according to four criteria: levels, rankings, stability over time and stability over clustering groups. In this paper, we present two clustering methods, Gap Statistic and Dindex, that involve SFA and DEA cost efficiency measures. The clustering approach creates homogeneous groups of banks offering a similar mix of efficiency levels. Hence, each evaluated bank knows the cluster to which it belongs. Furthermore, this paper provides nonparametric statistical tests of SFA and DEA cost efficiency measures estimated with and without a clustering approach.

Findings

The results suggest that the clustering approach plays a considerable role in the rankings of US banks. Furthermore, the average SFA and DEA cost efficiency measures over time of the homogeneous US banks are substantially higher than those of the heterogeneous US banks.

Originality/value

This research is the first to provide comparative efficiency measures needed for desirable policy conclusions of heterogeneous and homogeneous US banks.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 47 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Jaakko Sinisalo, Heikki Karjaluoto and Saila Saraniemi

– The purpose of this paper is to examine the barriers associated with the adoption and use of mobile sales force automation (SFA) systems from a salesperson’s perspective.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the barriers associated with the adoption and use of mobile sales force automation (SFA) systems from a salesperson’s perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative investigation of two business-to-business companies was conducted. Data collected from ten semi-structured interviews with directors or sales managers were analyzed to understand the main barriers to SFA system adoption.

Findings

The study confirms the existence of three barriers (customer knowledge, quality of information and the characteristics of mobile devices) to a mobile SFA system use and identifies two additional barriers: lack of time and optimization issues.

Research limitations/implications

The explorative nature of the study and the qualitative method employed limit the generalizability of the results. The propositions could be further validated and tested with a wider population.

Practical implications

Organizations wishing to speed the adoption of a mobile SFA system should evaluate the importance and significance of the five identified barriers to adoption, and plan how to overcome them. It is important for the providers of the mobile SFA systems to focus on developing systems that can exploit the different characteristics of each channel and, in parallel, overcome the inherent limitations of any single channel. The content of an SFA system should be customizable for each type of mobile device.

Originality/value

Ever increasing mobility has led to a rise in the use of smartphones and tablet PCs (tablets) in business and the consequent growth in the use of SFA systems. Although SFA systems have been studied for roughly 30 years, little is known of the impact of newly developed mobile devices on sales management and sales personnel.

Details

Journal of Systems and Information Technology, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1328-7265

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

Madhavan Parthasarathy and Ravipreet S. Sohi

In the past few years, organizations have spent millions of dollars adopting salesforce automation (SFA) systems, and this trend continues to grow. Despite its…

Abstract

In the past few years, organizations have spent millions of dollars adopting salesforce automation (SFA) systems, and this trend continues to grow. Despite its significance, very little academic research has been devoted to understanding the factors that can influence the adoption and implementation of SFA systems. Contends that SFA is a two‐stage process that involves adoption at: (a) the organizational level, and (b) the level of the individual salesperson ‐ with organizational adoption preceding individual salesperson adoption. Draws on diffusion theory and the existing SFA trade literature to discuss factors that can influence SFA adoption at both these levels and their implications for management.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 12 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Ravipa Larpsiri and Mark Speece

Sales force automation (SFA) is increasingly used to support customer relationships, and provides a good example of technology application on the supplier‐customer…

Abstract

Sales force automation (SFA) is increasingly used to support customer relationships, and provides a good example of technology application on the supplier‐customer interface. While research has begun to examine SFA, understanding it from the customer viewpoint is still vague. This paper reports results of exploratory qualitative research to investigate perceptions of SFA among both salespeople and their customers in the insurance industry in Thailand. Results suggest that customers want technology to be integrated into interpersonal relationships, not to replace them. Most customers, even those with extensive IT background, are not willing to interact with technology‐based self service only. Much of the relationship with the company comes from trust in the salesperson, which is built up through the development of the relationship. This is probably more important in the relationship‐based cultures of Asia, which are strongly familiar with interpersonal service.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1999

Joanna Gray

The applicants in this case were the liquidators of Branston & Gothard Ltd. Branston & Gothard Ltd (Branston & Gothard) were stockbrokers authorised to conduct investment…

Abstract

The applicants in this case were the liquidators of Branston & Gothard Ltd. Branston & Gothard Ltd (Branston & Gothard) were stockbrokers authorised to conduct investment business under the Financial Services Act 1986 by virtue of their membership of the Securities and Futures Authority (SFA). Their main business consisted of portfolio investment management business on behalf of clients (this business being divided into discretionary, advisory and execution only business) and provision of single company and general PEPs. During the 1990s Branston & Gothard had contracted out its back office administrative functions to Carr Shepphards Ltd. who, as unsecured trade creditors of Branston & Gothard, were second respondents in this application. Unfortunately, Branston & Gothard began making losses in 1997 which led to SFA having concerns as to the firm's capital adequacy, reconciliation work as to verification of securities held and resolution of inquiries. In light of these concerns SFA served an intervention order on 2nd April, 1998 pursuant to rr 7–12 to 7–19 SFA Rules which ordered Branston & Gothard to:

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

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Article
Publication date: 22 August 2008

Michael L. Mallin and Susan K. DelVecchio

A strong and repeating theme in sales force automation (SFA) tool research is perceived usefulness. When salespeople perceived high levels of SFA tool usefulness, they…

Abstract

Purpose

A strong and repeating theme in sales force automation (SFA) tool research is perceived usefulness. When salespeople perceived high levels of SFA tool usefulness, they report higher intent and actual use. The authors aim to apply agency theory to the concept of perceived usefulness (from the technology acceptance model) to explain why salespeople adopt some forms of SFA and reject still others. A set of hypotheses are proposed and tested revealing that salespeople will decide to use a SFA tool because they perceive it to be useful to themselves (i.e. PUsp) and to their management (PUsm).

Design/methodology/approach

Based on responses from 105 salespeople, the SFA tools they used were categorized as either outcome‐based (i.e. helping salespeople achieve their selling outcome goals) or activity‐based tools (i.e. helping management monitor selling activities/behaviors). Regression analyses were used to test six hypotheses relating salespeople's usage of each category of tools (the dependent variable) to the salesperson perceived usefulness constructs (both PUsp and PUsm – the independent variables).

Findings

The findings confirm that SFA tool use (either outcome‐based or activity‐based) is a function of both forms of perceived usefulness (i.e. PUsp and PUsm). Furthermore, when PUsp is high, the salesperson is more likely to use outcome‐based (versus activity‐based) SFA tools over a longer period of time.

Practical implications

The paper validates agency theory as a useful paradigm for understanding salesperson SFA tool adoption. Salespeople will use SFA tools that they view as useful to their productivity and that the sales manager's influence over the salesperson's use of SFA tools may not be as important. To encourage use, firms need to emphasize how a SFA tool can meet salesperson needs.

Originality/value

The paper is the first to hypothesize and test the relationship between perceptions of SFA tool usefulness and actual usage by considering salesperson perception of usefulness to themselves (PUsp) and perception of usefulness to their sales manager (PUsm).

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 23 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2019

Kaouther Jridi, Amel Chaabouni and Abdelfattah Triki

The purpose of this study is to reconcile the deterministic and the knowledge management approaches to investigate a framework that provides an explanation of the sales…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to reconcile the deterministic and the knowledge management approaches to investigate a framework that provides an explanation of the sales force automation (SFA) practices’ impact on salespersons’ performance through the organizational absorptive capacity in the African pharmaceutical industry.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory study was conducted to understand SFA uses in the pharmaceutical industry; then a total of 186 medical representatives were sampled and partial least squares analysis was performed.

Findings

The results identified the positive impact of organizational absorptive capacity on SFA use. In addition, the use of the SFA positively influenced the salespersons’ performance. Finally, age plays a positive moderating role in the relationships between use of SFA as a tool for internal coordination between actors and salespersons’ performance.

Practical implications

This research could be useful for managers of pharmaceutical laboratories to SFA use as a tool of coordination between the actors, as a tool of management of the customer relationship and as a tool of management knowledge.

Originality/value

In contrast with the existing studies dealing with deterministic approach when studying the use of SFA, this study exploited the reconciliation between deterministic and knowledge management approaches to propose a conceptual framework dealing with the relationship between the SFA use, the organizational absorptive capacity and the salespersons’ performance in the pharmaceutical industry. This research proposed and tested a framework adapted to the African context.

Details

VINE Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems, vol. 49 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5891

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 6 May 2020

Phong Hoang Nguyen and Duyen Thi Bich Pham

The paper aims to enrich previous findings for an emerging banking industry such as Vietnam, reporting the difference between the parametric and nonparametric methods when…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to enrich previous findings for an emerging banking industry such as Vietnam, reporting the difference between the parametric and nonparametric methods when measuring cost efficiency. The purpose of the study is to assess the consistency in issuing policies to improve the cost efficiency of Vietnamese commercial banks.

Design/methodology/approach

The cost efficiency of banks is assessed through the data envelopment analysis (DEA) and the stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). Next, five tests are conducted in succession to analyze the differences in cost efficiency measured by these two methods, including the distribution, the rankings, the identification of the best and worst banks, the time consistency and the determinants of efficiency frontier. The data are collected from the annual financial statements of Vietnamese banks during 2005–2017.

Findings

The results show that the cost efficiency obtained under the SFA models is more consistent than under the DEA models. However, the DEA-based efficiency scores are more similar in ranking order and stability over time. The inconsistency in efficiency characteristics under two different methods reminds policy makers and bank administrators to compare and select the appropriate efficiency frontier measure for each stage and specific economic conditions.

Originality/value

This paper shows the need to control for heterogeneity over banking groups and time as well as for random noise and outliers when measuring the cost efficiency.

Details

Journal of Economics and Development, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1859-0020

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Article
Publication date: 23 April 2020

Kekoura Sakouvogui and Saleem Shaik

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the importance of financial liquidity and solvency on US commercial and domestic banks’ cost efficiency while accounting for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the importance of financial liquidity and solvency on US commercial and domestic banks’ cost efficiency while accounting for internal and external factors.

Design/methodology/approach

The Stochastic Frontier Analysis and Data Envelopment Analysis estimators are used to estimate the cost efficiency of 11,044  US commercial and domestic banks from 2005 to 2017. Using Tobit regression model, the importance of financial liquidity and solvency on cost efficiency is examined.

Findings

The results provide evidence that the financial liquidity and solvency negatively impact the cost efficiency of US commercial and domestic banks. Overall, US commercial and domestic banks were inefficient during the financial crisis in comparison to the tranquil period. The importance of financial solvency on the cost efficiency was not statistically significant, while the financial liquidity negatively collapsed because of contagion. Finally, the results provide evidence that the amount of total assets matters in the improvement of the cost efficiency.

Originality/value

This paper estimates and identifies the 2007-2009 financial crisis with liquidity, solvency or both financial factors.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Stephan F. Gohmann, Robert M. Barker, David J. Faulds and Jian Guan

This paper examines how perceptions about salesforce automation (SFA) systems are influenced by the perceived accuracy of the information the system provides.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines how perceptions about salesforce automation (SFA) systems are influenced by the perceived accuracy of the information the system provides.

Design/methodology/approach

Three hypotheses are tested. They are as follows. Sales people who perceive that the information is inaccurate will be less likely to: have a positive perception of the system; think that their training was helpful; and think that the system improves their productivity. Chi‐square tests are used to test the association between the perceptions of information accuracy and the statements in the hypotheses.

Findings

Negative perceptions about the accuracy of information leads to negative perceptions about other aspects of the SFA system.

Research limitations/implications

This study examines the results for only one particular organization. The results may not be generalizable to other organizations. As similar data about other SFA systems become available, this study can be used as a basis for examining the effect of information accuracy on perceptions of SFA systems.

Originality/value

Since the company has some control over the accuracy of the information provided by the system, they should attempt to provide information that the salesforce finds useful. To enure that the proper information is provided, management must seek the user's input about what information should be provided. Additionally, the data should be cleansed and provide an indicator of the probability that a particular lead will result in a sale.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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