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Market segmentation, the dividing of a market into distinct subsets of customers, is a conceptual approach that commercial real estate developers can use to identify unmet…
Market segmentation, the dividing of a market into distinct subsets of customers, is a conceptual approach that commercial real estate developers can use to identify unmet needs. By developing properties for which there is an unmet need instead of those that are already adequately supplied, the developer achieves a temporary monopoly. To accomplish this, the market area must be defined, an inventory of existing space must be made and the demand for particular types of space must be estimated. The office space market and the retail space market are used to illustrate the process of identifying the type and size of building that should be built as well as determining when it should be built.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of organisational climate in readiness for change (RFC) with particular focus on Lean Six Sigma (LSS) and to develop and…
The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of organisational climate in readiness for change (RFC) with particular focus on Lean Six Sigma (LSS) and to develop and operationalise an instrument to measure organisational climate to determine the organisational readiness of the Kenya Institute of Management (KIM) to progress to the next stage of the LSS implementation lifecycle.
A case study outlining the KIM journey to LSS is described. A quantitative survey was developed based on the ten organisational climate dimensions discovered by Ekvall (1983) and redefined by Lauer (1994). This was then used to measure the climate of the case study organisation. Data were analysed to determine individual perceptions of the climate dimensions within KIM. The average score for each dimension was used to determine overall organisational performance and hence RFC.
The generally positive scores across each dimension of the survey indicate that the KIM climate is ready for the next stage of its LSS implementation lifecycle although there may be some isolated pockets (individuals or groups) of resistance to change. However, the range of scores on each dimension indicates that there is disagreement within the survey group about the overall organisational climate.
The response rate to the climate survey questionnaire was only two-thirds of the total staff at KIM Headquarters and approximately one-fifth of all staff. The views of non-respondents are therefore not known and this may bias the results.
Since climate influences RFC it is essential that an organisation can measure it to ensure its environment is conducive to the implementation of change generally and LSS particularly. The developed questionnaire is easy to use, easy to analyse and easy to interpret making it an ideal climate measurement instrument.
Previous papers on LSS concentrate on organisational culture rather that climate as a success factor for LSS implementation. This paper addresses that omission.
Despite its stated intention to be independent, impartial and thorough, the 9-11 Commission was none of the three. The Commission was structurally compromised by bias-inducing connections to subjects of the investigation, and procedurally compromised, among other reasons, by (1) its failure to take up promising lines of inquiry and its failure to try to force the release of key documents that were closely guarded by the Bush administration, the FBI and various intelligence agencies; (2) its distortion of information about pre-9-11 military preparedness, foreknowledge of the attacks or attacks of like-kind; and (3) omissions of information related to the funding of the plot and the specific whereabouts of key officials on the morning of September 11, 2001.
These structural compromises and procedural failings converged to assure that the Commission would not challenge core elements of the “official story” of the 9-11 attacks. This failure was compounded by the Commission's desire to produce a final report that would read as a “historical narrative” rather than as an exhaustive set of findings on the critical unanswered questions that arose after the attacks. The Commission's unquestioning acceptance of the official narrative also meant that it missed a perhaps larger opportunity to challenge key myths associated with American exceptionalism. Thus, the 9-11 Commission ultimately functioned as an instrument of cultural hegemony, extending and deepening the official version of events under the guise of independence and impartiality.
For decades organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) has been of interest to scholars and practitioners alike, generating a significant amount of research exploring the…
For decades organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) has been of interest to scholars and practitioners alike, generating a significant amount of research exploring the concept of what citizenship behavior is, and its antecedents, correlates, and consequences. While these behaviors have been and will continue to be valuable, there are changes in the workplace that have the potential to alter what types of OCBs will remain important for organizations in the future, as well as what types of opportunities for OCB exist for employees. In this chapter we consider the influence of 10 workplace trends related to human resource management that have the potential to influence both what types of citizenship behaviors employees engage in and how often they may engage in them. We build on these 10 trends that others have identified as having the potential to shape the workplace of the future, which include labor shortages, globalization, immigration, knowledge-based workers, increase use of technology, gig work, diversity, changing work values, the skills gap, and employer brands. Based on these 10 trends, we develop propositions about how each trend may impact OCB. We consider not only how these trends will influence the types of citizenship and opportunities for citizenship that employees can engage in, but also how they may shape the experiences of others related to OCB, including organizations and managers.
Platforms in two-sided markets are known to provide subsidies to either buyers or sellers, in order to take advantage of cross-group externalities inherent in such…
Platforms in two-sided markets are known to provide subsidies to either buyers or sellers, in order to take advantage of cross-group externalities inherent in such industries. Online travel agents can be thought of as platforms facilitating trade between passengers and travel service providers (airlines). This chapter evaluates the effects of a buyer subsidy provided by one major US online travel agent – a low-price guarantee offered by Orbitz. We find evidence consistent with increased airline participation with this travel agent upon implementation of the low-price guarantee policy. Our results also confirm the theoretical claims that most-favored customer low-price guarantee policies are procompetitive.
Numerous government programs channel capital into rural communities, assuming that new businesses face major capital shortages in starting up. More such programs are…
Numerous government programs channel capital into rural communities, assuming that new businesses face major capital shortages in starting up. More such programs are enacted annually. This paper looks at business start-ups in Idaho, Montana and Iowa to see the extent of market failure in rural America. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we found capital to be widely available for start-ups, suggesting that government programs are not warranted.
Expatriate mobility is increasing globally, in volume and diversity. A growing element of this overall increase has been the greater share of self-initiated expatriates…
Expatriate mobility is increasing globally, in volume and diversity. A growing element of this overall increase has been the greater share of self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) working outside their home countries. In some host countries, SIEs make up a majority of the overall workforce. The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of innovative work behavior (IWB) of SIEs in one such country. Drawing upon leader-member exchange (LMX) theory and the conceptual framework of the resource-based view of career capital, the authors’ examine the influences of LMX, perceived innovation-reward, job knowledge and contextual knowledge on SIEs’ IWB.
The paper is based on the analysis of survey results from 229 SIEs based in the United Arab Emirates. The authors use hierarchal regression and an SPSS macro to assess the significance of the interaction effects.
Results indicate significant direct effects for LMX and perceived innovation-reward on SIEs’ IWB. Results also reveal significant interaction effects suggesting that the relationship between LMX and SIEs’ IWB is stronger when job knowledge is high and when reward for innovation is high.
This is the first study to examine the determinants of SIE’s IWB. This study investigates the effect of LMX, career capital differences (job knowledge and contextual knowledge) and perceived innovation-reward on SIEs’ IWB. This is also the first study to examine the interaction effects of LMX and individual differences (job knowledge and contextual knowledge) on SIEs’ IWB.
This chapter investigates the theoretical support for the distance metaphor that is widely used to capture the effects of institutional diversity in international business…
This chapter investigates the theoretical support for the distance metaphor that is widely used to capture the effects of institutional diversity in international business (IB) and management studies. It argues that neither new institutional economics (NIE) nor in neo-institutional sociology (NIS) offers support for a focus on the degree of dissimilarity. Rather, both literatures emphasize dis-commonality as a problem for cooperation. In the NIE argument, common enforcement mechanisms are needed to reduce transaction costs. In the NIS argument, effective communication and cooperation is limited to meaning-giving structures common to all parties. In neither perspective, the degree of difference in structures that are not common is relevant. We propose an alternative metaphor, institutional overlap, to capture the effects of institutional diversity on IB transactions. We argue that such a concept differs from institutional distance in being agency-centered, sensitive to intra-country variation, non-additive, and driving the thickness rather than the costs of transactions.