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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2002

S.W. Ricky Lee and Xingjia Huang

This paper introduces a simple computational model for the analysis on the solder ball shear testing conditions. Both two‐dimensional (2‐D) and three‐dimensional (3‐D…

Abstract

This paper introduces a simple computational model for the analysis on the solder ball shear testing conditions. Both two‐dimensional (2‐D) and three‐dimensional (3‐D) finite element models are used to investigate the effect of shear ram speed on the solder ball shear strength of plastic ball grid array (PBGA) packages. An effective thickness is identified for the 2‐D finite element analysis. By using this effective thickness as a scale factor, it is shown that the 2D model is feasible for the study of 3‐D problems. The computational model is validated by experimental data in terms of load‐displacement curves. The results from both testing and modeling indicate that the shear ram speed has a substantial effect on the solder ball shear strength. In general, faster ram speed can result in higher ball shear strength. Therefore, the characterization of solder ball shear strength is loading rate‐dependent.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 April 2008

Jeffery C.C. Lo, B.F. Jia, Z. Liu, J. Zhu and S.W. Ricky Lee

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the lead‐free solder joint reliability of a variety of surface mount components assembled onto printed circuit boards (PCBs) under…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the lead‐free solder joint reliability of a variety of surface mount components assembled onto printed circuit boards (PCBs) under a number of different tests.

Design/methodology/approach

Lead‐free solder with a composition of Sn96.5‐Ag3.0‐Cu0.5 was used in a surface mount reflow process. Different types of surface mount dummy components with a daisy chain, such as CBGAs, BGAs, PLCCs, CSPs, and QFNs, were assembled onto PCBs. Both the mechanical and thermo‐mechanical reliability of the solder joints were evaluated by several tests. The experiments included package shear, package pull, three‐point bending and accelerated thermal cycling testing for 2,000 cycles. The packages were examined by X‐ray and C‐SAM before the reliability tests were carried out. The maximum load and the corresponding load‐displacement curve were recorded in the mechanical test.

Findings

The results from the mechanical tests show the major failure mode is on the copper pad. Weibull analysis shows that the characteristic lives of most packages are between 1,100 and 2,400 cycles. For the CBGA, the characteristic life of 96 cycles is relatively short, due to the serious CTE mismatch. Cross‐section inspection shows failures occur at the solder joint. Copper pad failure is also observed.

Originality/value

This paper provides both the mechanical and thermal‐mechanical reliability of lead‐free solder joints. The experimental data are very useful in the lead‐free SMT industries.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

S.‐W. Ricky Lee and John H. Lau

In this paper, a computational analysis is presented for the comparison of wafer level chip scale package‐on‐build‐up PCB assemblies with various solders and microvia…

Abstract

In this paper, a computational analysis is presented for the comparison of wafer level chip scale package‐on‐build‐up PCB assemblies with various solders and microvia configurations. The printed circuit board of the assembly has one build‐up layer on one side. For comparison, the board with two build‐up layers on the same side is studied as well. Furthermore, two solder joint materials, namely, 62Sn–2Ag–36Pb and 96.5Sn–3.5Ag are studied for comparison. The assembly is simulated by a finite element model and the model is analyzed under thermal cyclic loading. A comprehensive stress analysis is performed and comparisons are made for assembly deformation, stress/strain ranges, and creep responses.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1998

S.‐W. Ricky Lee and John H. Lau

A computational model was established in this study to simulate cavity‐down plastic ball grid array (PBGA) assemblies. Stress analysis was performed to investigate the…

Abstract

A computational model was established in this study to simulate cavity‐down plastic ball grid array (PBGA) assemblies. Stress analysis was performed to investigate the solder joint reliability of a PBGA‐PCB (printed circuit board) assembly. The packages under investigation had two different body sizes and two kinds of ball population. The diagonal cross‐section of the assembly was modeled by plane‐strain elements and was subjected to a uniform thermal loading. The solder joints were stressed due to the mismatch of the assembly’s coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). The accumulated effective plastic strain was evaluated as an index for the reliability of solder joints. Effects on solder joint reliability such as package size and ball population were identified. Furthermore, it was found that, unlike conventional PBGA assemblies, the outermost solder ball has the highest plastic strain for all cases in the present study. This peculiar phenomenon was further discussed with the consideration of package deformation.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2004

Eric C.C. Yan, S.W. Ricky Lee and X. Huang

This paper presents an experimental study to assess the reliability of solder ball attachment to the bond pads of PBGA substrate for various plating schemes. The basic…

Abstract

This paper presents an experimental study to assess the reliability of solder ball attachment to the bond pads of PBGA substrate for various plating schemes. The basic structure of the under bump metallisation is Cu/Ni/Au. Three different kinds of electroless plating solutions are used to deposit the Ni layer, namely, Ni‐B, Ni‐P (5 per cent), and Ni‐P (10 per cent). Also, conventional electrolytic Ni/Au plating is performed to provide a benchmark. After solder ball attachment, mechanical tests are conducted to characterize the ball shear strength for comparison. Furthermore, some specimens are subjected to multiple reflows to investigate the thermal aging effect.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Wei Liu, Yanhong Tian, Lei Yang, Chunqing Wang and Lining Sun

The purpose of this paper is to investigate oxidation and the Au‐Sn reaction of laser reflowed (LR) micro‐solder joints when different protective atmospheres were applied.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate oxidation and the Au‐Sn reaction of laser reflowed (LR) micro‐solder joints when different protective atmospheres were applied.

Design/methodology/approach

A N2 atmosphere at room temperature, 60°C, 100°C and 130°C, or an air atmosphere at room temperature were utilized in this study. The solder balls were composed of Sn‐2.0Ag‐0.75Cu‐3.0Bi, and 120 μm in diameter. The surface finish of one pad of the joints was 4.0 μm Au/0.1 μm NiFe/0.01 μm Ta, another pad was made of Cu plated with 3.0 μm Au. The laser reflow process time was controlled to within 10 ms. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) was used to identify the oxidation condition of LR solder joints with or without protection from a N2 atmosphere at room temperature. The appearance and cross‐sections of the joints protected by a N2 atmosphere at different temperatures were evaluated using SEM analysis.

Findings

Oxidation of LR solder joints from an air atmosphere was extremely severe, and the surfaces of solder were rough as compared with joints protected by a N2 atmosphere. Au‐rich phases and needle‐like AuSn4 intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed at the interfaces of the solder and the pads. As the temperature of the N2 atmosphere was increased above 100°C, almost all of the Au‐rich phases disappeared. More needle‐like AuSn4 IMCs formed at the interfaces, as compared with that in joints protected by a N2 atmosphere at room temperature and 60°C. In addition, the orientation of the IMCs had clearly changed.

Originality/value

The results may provide a guide for controlling oxidation and the Au‐Sn reaction of micro‐solder joints during the LR process, and improving the properties of joints between solder and pads with Au surface finishes, by regulating the protective atmosphere.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 19 September 2012

Amanda Bateman

Purpose – This chapter demonstrates the social organization practices evident in early childhood disputes in order to promote a greater understanding of the role of…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter demonstrates the social organization practices evident in early childhood disputes in order to promote a greater understanding of the role of non-verbal, embodied actions within the dispute process. In doing so, this chapter offers insight into children's co-construction of disputes and has practical implications for early childhood teachers.

Methodology – Ethnomethodology (EM), conversation analysis (CA) and membership categorization analysis (MCA) are applied to the current study of children's disputes in order to offer insight into the sequences of social organization processes evident in children's disagreements.

Findings – This chapter presents a detailed analysis of the everyday disputes which four-year-old children engage in during their morning playtime at a primary school in Wales, UK. It reveals the children's use of physical gestures to support their verbal actions in order to maximize intersubjectivity between the participants. This joint understanding was necessary during the social organization process.

Practical implications – Managing children's physical disputes within an educational context is recognized as a very difficult aspect of a teacher's routine as the timing and level of intervention are so subjective (Bateman, 2011a). This chapter offers insight into the organization of physical disputes between young children, and so enables teachers to make an informed decision in their practice.

Details

Disputes in Everyday Life: Social and Moral Orders of Children and Young People
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-877-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 July 2013

Wei Chiat Leong, Mohd Zulkifly Abdullah, Chu Yee Khor and Dadan Ramdan

The flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) can be an alternative to the rigid printed circuit board because of its excellent flexibility, twistability, and light weight…

Abstract

Purpose

The flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) can be an alternative to the rigid printed circuit board because of its excellent flexibility, twistability, and light weight. Using FPCB to construct personal computer (PC) motherboard is still rare. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the fluid‐structure interaction (FSI) behaviors of the newly proposed FPCB motherboard under fan‐flow condition in the PC casings.

Design/methodology/approach

The deflection and stress induced, which are usually ignored in the traditional rigid motherboard, are the main concern in the current FPCB motherboard studies. Only a few studies have been conducted on the effect of inlet locations, effect of inlet sizes, effect of multi‐inlets, and effect of a two‐fan system. These numerical analyses are performed using the fluid flow solver FLUENT and the structural solver ABAQUS; they are real‐time online coupled by Mesh‐based Parallel Code Coupling Interface (MpCCI).

Findings

A smaller inlet size can cause higher deflection and stress fluctuations, but the fluctuations can be reduced by incorporating the multi‐inlets design. In addition, the inlet locations and two‐fan system can prominently affect the magnitudes of the deflection and stress induced.

Practical implications

The current study provides better understanding and allows designers to be aware of the FSI phenomenon when dealing with the FPCB motherboard. Although the present study primarily focuses on the motherboard, the findings could also contribute valuable information for other FPCB applications.

Originality/value

The present study extends the FSI investigation from the previous novel approach of FPCB motherboard, and uniquely explores the behaviors of the FPCB motherboard inside different PC casings.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

Mohd Sharizal Abdul Aziz, Mohd Zulkifly Abdullah and Chu Yee Khor

– The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of offset angle in wave soldering by using thermal fluid structure interaction modeling with experimental validation.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of offset angle in wave soldering by using thermal fluid structure interaction modeling with experimental validation.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used a thermal coupling approach that adopted mesh-based parallel code coupling interface between finite volume-and finite element-based software (ABAQUS). A 3D single pin-through-hole (PTH) connector with five offset angles (0 to 20°) on a printed circuit board (PCB) was built and meshed by using computational fluid dynamics preprocessing software called GAMBIT. An implicit volume of fluid technique with a second-order upwind scheme was also applied to track the flow front of solder material (Sn63Pb37) when passing through the solder pot during wave soldering. The structural solver and ABAQUS analyzed the temperature distribution, displacement and von Mises stress of the PTH connector. The predicted results were validated by the experimental solder profile.

Findings

The simulation revealed that the PTH offset angle had a significant effect on the filling of molten solder through the PCB. The 0° angle yielded the best filling profile, filling time, lowest displacement and thermal stress. The simulation result was similar to the experimental result.

Practical implications

This study provides a better understanding of the process control in wave soldering for PCB assembly.

Originality/value

This study provides fundamental guidelines and references for the thermal coupling method to address reliability issues during wave soldering. It also enhances understanding of capillary flow and PTH joint issues to achieve high reliability in PCB assembly industries.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 September 2021

Clare Holdsworth

Abstract

Details

The Social Life of Busyness
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-699-2

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