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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2011

L.S. Chuah, Z. Hassan, S.S. Tneh and S.G. Teo

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the n‐ZnO/p‐Si Schottky photodiodes.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the n‐ZnO/p‐Si Schottky photodiodes.

Design/methodology/approach

A Zn film was deposited on silicon substrate by dc sputtering deposition technology from high purity zinc (Zn) targets. Then, the Zn films were then annealed under flowing oxygen (O2) gas environment in the furnace. ZnO nanorods morphologies have been successfully prepared through a simple method. No catalyst is required.

Findings

The structures and morphologies of the products were characterized in detail by using X‐ray diffraction, energy dispersive X‐ray, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). According to experimental results, the current‐voltage characteristics of the device show the typical rectifying behaviour of Schottky diodes. The UV photocurrent measurement was performed using an UV lamp under a reverse bias.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates that the n‐ZnO/p‐Si diodes exhibit strong rectifying conduct described by the current‐voltage (I‐V) measurement under a dark and illumination conditions.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2011

L.S. Chuah, Z. Hassan, S.S. Tneh, M.A. Ahmad, S.K. Mohd Bakhori and Y. Yusof

The purpose of this paper is to propose a simple physical evaporation route in which catalyst‐free zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoscrewdrivers were deposited on silicon (Si) (111…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a simple physical evaporation route in which catalyst‐free zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoscrewdrivers were deposited on silicon (Si) (111) substrates.

Design/methodology/approach

Prior to the deposition, the Si (111) wafer was cut into pieces of 2×2 cm2. Then, the wafers were dipped for 1 min into mixture buffered oxide etchant to remove native oxide. Then, the samples were rinsed in an ultrasonic bath cleaned with boiling acetone, ethanol, and de‐ionized (DI) water for 10 min. Lastly, the wafers were rinsed in 25 ml DI water in stirred and then were blown dry with nitrogen. In this technique, the starting material is high‐purity metallic zinc (Zn) powder (99.99 per cent pure). Following, the Zn films were then annealed under air environment in the furnace at 500°C for 1 h deprived of any catalysts.

Findings

These ZnO samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy, high‐resolution X‐ray diffraction (HR‐XRD), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Atomic force microscope (AFM) images were applied to ascertain surface morphology of produced ZnO nanoscrewdrivers. XRD pattern confirmed that the ZnO nanoscrewdrivers were of polycrystalline structure in universe with a hexagonal close packed type and c‐axis is perpendicular to the substrate. The peak at 34° correspond to the reflection planes of ZnO(002) crystallographic plane is perceived. The AFM surface images disclosed that the surfaces of produced ZnO thin films are not smooth. The PL spectrum of as‐synthesized nanoscrewdrivers shows a UV emission peak at 380 nm and a broad green emission peak at 500 nm.

Originality/value

The paper reports on a simple physical evaporation route, ZnO nanoscrewdrivers were synthesized via the thermal evaporation of the high‐purity Zn powders and annealed at 500°C under air atmosphere without introducing any hetero‐metal catalysts or other carrier gases approach.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Mubeen Zafar, Muhammad Naeem Awais, Muhammad Asif, Amir Razaq and Gul Amin

The purpose of this research work is to harvest energy using the piezoelectric properties of ZnO nanowires (NW). Fabrication and characterization of the piezoelectric…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research work is to harvest energy using the piezoelectric properties of ZnO nanowires (NW). Fabrication and characterization of the piezoelectric nanogenerator (NG), based on Al/ZnO/Au structure without using hosting layer, were done to harvest energy. The proposed method has full potential to harvest the cost-effective energy.

Design/methodology/approach

ZnO NW were fabricated between the thin layers of Al- and Au-coated substrates for the development of piezoelectric NG. To grow ZnO NW, ZnO seed layer was prepared on the Al-coated substrate, and then ZnO NW were grown by aqueous chemical growth method. Finally, Au top electrode was used to conclude the Al/ZnO/Au NG structure. The Al and Au electrodes were used to establish the ohmic and Schottky contacts with ZnO NW, respectively.

Findings

Surface morphology of the fabricated device was done by using scanning electron microscopy, and electrical characterization of the sample was performed with digital oscilloscope, picoammeter and voltmeter. The energy harvesting experiment was performed to excite the presented device. The fabricated piezoelectric-sensitive device revealed the maximum open circuit voltage up to 5 V and maximum short circuit current up to 30 nA, with a maximum power of 150 nW. Consequently, it was also shown that the output of the fabricated device was increased by applying the stress. The presented work will help for the openings to capture the mechanical energy from the surroundings to power up the nano/micro-devices. This research work shows that NGs have the competency to build the self-powered nanosystems. It has potential applications in biosensing and personal electronics.

Originality/value

The fabrication of simple and cost-effective piezoelectric NG is done with a structure of Al/ZnO/Au without using hosting layer. The presented method elucidates an efficient and cost-effective approach to harvest the mechanical energy from the native environment.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1985

Klaus Fritz

Der Streit um die 35 Stunden‐Woche in der Bundes‐republik Deutschland, der tatsächlich zu den härtesten sozialen Auseinandersetzungen geführt hat, liegt nun einige Zeit…

Abstract

Der Streit um die 35 Stunden‐Woche in der Bundes‐republik Deutschland, der tatsächlich zu den härtesten sozialen Auseinandersetzungen geführt hat, liegt nun einige Zeit zurück. Weder die Untemehmerseite noch die Gewerkschaft kann sich als Sieger feiern lassen. Aber eines ist gelungen, ein entscheidender Durchbruch in der Tarif‐ und Arbeitszeit‐politik, eine Belebung der Diskussion um flexiblere Arbeitszeitformen ist ausgelöst. Diese Entwicklung wird sich auch in anderen europäischen Ländern fortsetzen. Denn einerseits sind viele Arbeitgeber von der seltsamen Vorstellung abgebracht, dass es sich bei der bisher geltenden Regelarbeitszeit von 40 Stunden in der Woche um eine festgelegte Grösse handelt, andererseits wurde den Gewerkschaften zu der Einsicht verholfen, dass nicht immer alles für alle gleich geregelt sein muss.

Details

The Tourist Review, vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0251-3102

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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2011

Joyce Koe Hwee Nga and Soo Wai Mun

The direct selling industry is experiencing phenomenal growth in Malaysia. The Domestic Trade, Cooperatives and Consumerism Ministry projects that there will be a 20…

Abstract

Purpose

The direct selling industry is experiencing phenomenal growth in Malaysia. The Domestic Trade, Cooperatives and Consumerism Ministry projects that there will be a 20 percent increase in volume of direct sales growth to RM5.5 billion in 2010, RM6.2 billion in 2011 and RM7 billion in 2012. The Direct Selling Act 1993 has been reinforced to accord protection to potential consumers. With the real wages in Malaysia decreasing and increasing unemployment especially among fresh graduates there may be a greater incentive to explore multilevel marketing (MLM) to supplement their income and maintain their desired modern lifestyle. However, the perception of MLM has in the past been tainted by unscrupulous pyramid and Ponzi schemes which aims at quick profits and are not sustainable. This paper aims to investigate the influence of perception of MLM companies and agent attributes on the willingness to undertake MLM as a career among youth.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample of this study comprised 218 students pursuing business and management degrees at a private higher education institution in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Methodologically, this study developed statistically valid and reliable scales for all the constructs of this study namely perception of attributes of MLM companies (general, schemes and service) an agents (general and trust) as well as willingness to undertake MLM as a career option.

Findings

The findings indicate that all MLM company and agent attributes have a significant influence on the willingness to undertake MLM as a career option except MLM schemes. General agent attributes displayed a significant negative influence.

Practical implications

MLM companies need to make their schemes more understandable and transparent to solidify the legitimacy and sustainability as the employer of choice.

Originality/value

The paper shows that MLM remains a viable career option for youth and they need to be equipped with adequate training in personal selling, entrepreneurship and soft skills. MLM companies can tap and nurture this pool of young talent to meet their human resource needs for future growth of this industry in Malaysia.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

Keywords

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