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Article
Publication date: 20 January 2020

Yasushi Suzuki, S.M. Sohrab Uddin and A.K.M. Ramizul Islam

The skyrocketing rise of Islamic banking is noticeable in not only Islamic countries but also non-Islamic countries during the past few decades. Many conventional banks…

Abstract

Purpose

The skyrocketing rise of Islamic banking is noticeable in not only Islamic countries but also non-Islamic countries during the past few decades. Many conventional banks have started Islamic banking generally by maintaining separate branches/windows and occasionally by pursuing a complete conversion strategy. Following the global trend, two of the full-fledged Islamic banks adopted a conversion strategy consecutively in 2004 and 2008 in Bangladesh. The number of the conversion case is still limited. At this backdrop, this study aims to identify the incentives in the conversion strategy into Islamic banks.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the secondary data from the annual reports of the sample banks for both pre- and post-conversion periods, this study adopts the “case study” approach upon the comparison with the performance of conventional banks and other types of Islamic banks.

Findings

It is apparent that higher reserve requirement for conventional banks provides the incentive for the conversion into Islamic banks given with less reserve requirement. Under the protective regulatory framework, these converted Islamic banks may have enjoyed the rent for learning during the initial phase after the conversion, even though majority of the funds of these banks are collected from high-cost mudaraba time deposits. Basically, the credit strategy of the converted banks has been quite conservative, resulting in the concentrated portfolio selection on the asset-backed financing. However, the recent engagement of these banks in the Shari'ah-based participatory financing makes their performance a bit vulnerable.

Research limitations/implications

It is becoming difficult to justify a protective regulatory framework for incubating infant Islamic banks if the rent for learning given under the framework would not encourage them to challenge and absorb the risk and uncertainty associated with Shari’ah-based participatory financing. The current mode of profit–loss sharing (PLS) makes it difficult for the regulators to create an appropriate incentive for Islamic banks to challenge the equity-based financing.

Originality/value

The number of the conversion case is limited. Less has been done to investigate the reasons why the conventional banks opt for the conversion into Islamic banks, particularly in Bangladesh.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 May 2019

Yasushi Suzuki, S.M. Sohrab Uddin and Pramono Sigit

This paper aims to draw upon existing debate over “financial sector rent” (bank rent) to analyze the current pattern of financing of Bangladeshi and Indonesian Islamic…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to draw upon existing debate over “financial sector rent” (bank rent) to analyze the current pattern of financing of Bangladeshi and Indonesian Islamic banks during the period of 2011 and 2015.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical evidence through a comparative approach of analyzing the performance of Islamic banks with that of conventional banks in respective countries – two of the largest countries where majority of the population are Muslims – is drawn to demonstrate the objective.

Findings

While Islamic banks in Bangladesh are primarily concentrating on the murabaha (mark-up contract) mode of financing, some transactions under musharaka (partnership/equity-based contract) are observed in the Indonesian Islamic banking sector. This anomaly in Indonesia can be explained by the nature of their musharaka financing which is not of the purely “participatory” financing type. As a result, we can observe the quasi-murabaha syndrome in Indonesian Islamic banking sector. The concentration of asset-based financing including consumers’ financing (hire purchase) in the credit portfolio gives Islamic banks relatively higher Islamic bank rent opportunity for protecting their “franchise value” as Sharīʿah-compliant (Islamic law-compliant) lenders. However, Indonesian Islamic banks share a still infant Islamic banking market, and enjoy less rent opportunity under a severe competition with conventional banks.

Research limitations/implications

The bank rent approach suggests that the syndrome observed both in Bangladesh and Indonesia can be ironically justifiable. Moreover, the mode of profit-and-loss sharing provides, in practice, an idea of the difficulty in managing the participatory financing embedded with high credit risk. Under this scenario, it is necessary for Islamic scholars and the regulatory authority to design an appropriate financial architecture, enabling Islamic banks to avail the benefit from a wider variety of Sharīʿah-based Islamic financing.

Originality/value

This paper expands the newly emerged concept of “Islamic bank rent” to make sense of the murabaha syndrome in Bangladesh and the quasi-murabaha syndrome in Indonesia. This approach also contributes to clarifying the unique risk and cost to be compensated with the spreads that Islamic banks are expected to earn.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Mohammad Dulal Miah, Yasushi Suzuki and S. M. Sohrab Uddin

This paper aims to assess the probable impact of COVID-19 on the Islamic banking system in Bangladesh. More specifically, it attempts to test the hypothesis that Islamic…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess the probable impact of COVID-19 on the Islamic banking system in Bangladesh. More specifically, it attempts to test the hypothesis that Islamic banks are exposed to increased risk because of their role as a provider of “merchant capital” including financing for trade, commerce and working capital, which are believed to be severely disrupted by the COVID-19.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws upon the Marxian tradition on the identification of the circuit of “merchant capital” separated from the circuit of “interest-bearing capital.” Moreover, the research adopts the balance sheet approach to trace the sectoral distribution of investment as well as sources of income of Islamic banks.

Findings

The research supports the hypothesis that the investment pattern of Islamic banks is skewed toward the trade and merchant’s financing. More than two-third of Islamic banks’ investment, and income thereof, is concentrated on working capital and trade finance. As these sectors are largely vulnerable to the economic shock resulting from COVID-19, Islamic banks in Bangladesh are likely to be affected through this channel.

Research limitations/implications

The research focuses only on Islamic banks in Bangladesh. Further study can assess the impact of COVID-19 on conventional and Islamic banks in other countries to find similarities and differences with the findings of the current research.

Practical implications

The finding of this research will be useful for bank managers, policymakers and users of financial services. In particular, this study provides important information useful for regulators in devising appropriate policies which aim to mitigate the adverse impact of COVID-19.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that attempts to examine the impact of COVID-19 on Islamic banking system in Bangladesh, a country where Islamic banks occupy one-third of the total banking system’s assets.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 12 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Yasushi Suzuki and S. M. Sohrab Uddin

– This paper aims to assess recent trends in lending modes and to address the reasons for and consequences of changes in Bangladesh’s Islamic banking sector.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess recent trends in lending modes and to address the reasons for and consequences of changes in Bangladesh’s Islamic banking sector.

Design/methodology/approach

Theoretical discourse is used to generate an underpinning for the issues covered by the study. In addition, empirical evidence from the banking sector, including the information derived from interviews with the staff of three Islamic banks, is presented to achieve the research objectives.

Findings

The findings clearly demonstrate that the Islamic banking sector has experienced a paradigm shift from participatory financing to asset-based financing. In particular, the murabaha mode of financing dominates the current lending structure, which follows the general trend of the global Islamic banking sector.

Research limitations/implications

It is necessary to concentrate on the potential negative outcomes of the trade-based murabaha mode of financing in a developing country such as Bangladesh, as banks have less incentive under protective rent (profit) opportunities to train the experts to screen and monitor projects in other socially desirable sectors such as agriculture and manufacturing including the small and medium enterprises.

Originality/value

Despite substantial growth of the Islamic banking sector, less research has been conducted to shed analytical light on the operations of Islamic banks from the perspective of loan disbursement to identify the disparities, if any, in between theory and practice in countries where both Islamic and conventional banks operate simultaneously. Using country-specific evidence, this study contributes to the debate by highlighting the paradigm shift of Islamic banks from participatory financing to the dominance of asset-based murabaha and other modes of lending, by identifying the fundamental causes that contribute to such a shift and by highlighting the consequences of such changes.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 June 2014

Yasushi Suzuki and S.M. Sohrab Uddin

This paper aims to draw on the bank rent approach to evaluate the existing pattern of financing of Islamic banks and to propose a fairly new conceptualization of Islamic…

3216

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to draw on the bank rent approach to evaluate the existing pattern of financing of Islamic banks and to propose a fairly new conceptualization of Islamic bank rent.

Design/methodology/approach

The bank rent theory is adopted to generate the theoretical underpinnings of the issue. After that, empirical evidence from the banking sector of Bangladesh is used to support the arguments.

Findings

Repeated transactions under murabaha are observed in the Islamic banking sector of Bangladesh. The asset-based financing gives the Bangladeshi Islamic banks relatively higher Islamic bank rent opportunity for protecting their “franchise value” as Shari’ah-compliant lenders, while responding to the periodic volatility in transaction costs of profit-and-loss sharing.

Research limitations/implications

The bank rent approach suggests that the murabaha syndrome can be ironically justifiable. On the other hand, the current profit-and-loss sharing risk provides an idea of the difficulty in assuming the participatory financing with higher credit risk in practice. Islamic scholars and the regulatory authority need to design an appropriate financial architecture which can create different levels of rent opportunities for Islamic banks to avail the benefit from the variety of Islamic financing as declared by Islamic Shari’ah.

Originality/value

This paper introduces a fairly new concept of “Islamic bank rent” to make sense of the murabaha syndrome. This approach also contributes to clarifying the unique risk and cost to be compensated with the spreads that Islamic banks are expected to earn. To draw empirical evidence, as far as it could be ascertained, the data of both Islamic banks and conventional banks with Islamic banking windows/branches are used for the first time.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 August 2021

Islam Mohamed Kamal

This paper aims to propose an Islamic compliant approach that deals with the prepayment rebate on debts resulting from cost-plus sales and their accompanied sale-based…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose an Islamic compliant approach that deals with the prepayment rebate on debts resulting from cost-plus sales and their accompanied sale-based financing contracts. The proposed approach uses the time value of money concept without charging excessive fees from the debtor in the early settlement of debts.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a qualitative analysis via analyzing and reviewing relevant literature. A quantitative analysis is subsequently used with a proposed computation that addresses prepayment rebate accompanied by debts resulting from cost-plus sales.

Findings

The proposed approach results in a rebate amount for the debtor greater than those rebate amounts resulting from either conventional finance techniques or current Islamic finance practices.

Research limitations/implications

The application of the descending rebate proposed computation in this paper is restricted to cost-plus sale and their accompanied sale-based financing contracts only. The computation does not address any agreement or deal that may involve a rebate without a selling transaction.

Originality/value

The paper criticizes the prevailing practices for computing rebates in the case of debt prepayment, whether those nominated by conventional finance or others currently employed by most Islamic financial institutions. The paper also introduces a new rebate computation aimed to comply with Islamic finance's real context.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 12 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

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