The objective of this study was to test Ting‐Toomey's (1988a) theory on conflict face‐negotiation. More specifically, the study examined the relationship between face…
The objective of this study was to test Ting‐Toomey's (1988a) theory on conflict face‐negotiation. More specifically, the study examined the relationship between face maintenance dimensions and conflict styles in Japan, China, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United States. The results were summarized as follows: (1) Cultural variability of individualism‐collectivism influences two face maintenance dimensions—self‐face concern and other‐face concern; (2) Cultural variability influences conflict styles, with U.S. members using a higher degree of dominating conflict style than their Japanese and Korean cohorts, and the Chinese and Taiwanese members using a higher degree of obliging and avoiding conflict management styles than their U.S. counterparts; (3) Overall, face maintenance dimensions served as better predictors to conflict styles rather than conflict styles to face dimensions; (4) Self‐face maintenance was associated strongly with dominating conflict style, and other‐face maintenance was associated strongly with avoiding, integrating, and compromising styles of conflict management. Directions for future testing of the conflict face‐negotiation theory were proffered.
This project focuses specifically on how intercultural negotiating differences are evidenced communicatively. Evidence suggests that negotiators deal differently with internationals than domestics. Therefore, it is important to move beyond within‐culture comparisons as a basis for predicting intercultural negotiation processes. This paper tests empirically the endurance of culturally‐associated negotiation styles in inter‐cultural negotiations between Americans and Taiwanese. Results suggest that culture does exert some global effects in face‐to‐face encounters with cultural outsiders. Other aspects of negotiation are managed locally, so that predicted cultural differences do not emerge in interaction.
This study uses Hall's (1976) theory of low/high context culture with theories of interpersonal adaptation (Gudykunst, 1985; Patterson, 1983) to test communication…
This study uses Hall's (1976) theory of low/high context culture with theories of interpersonal adaptation (Gudykunst, 1985; Patterson, 1983) to test communication preferences, flexibility, and effectiveness in same‐ and mixed‐culture negotiation. Ninety‐three same‐culture low context (Israel, Germany, Sweden, and U.S.), 101 same‐culture high context (Hong Kong, Japan, Russia, Thailand), and 48 mixed‐culture mixed context (U.S.‐Japan, U.S.‐Hong Kong) dyads negotiated a 1 ½ hour simulation. Transcripts were content coded for direct and indirect integrative sequences and analyzed with hierarchical linear regression. Supporting the theory, results revealed more indirect integrative sequences in high context dyads and more direct integrative sequences in low context and mixed context dyads. Direct integrative sequences predicted joint gains for mixed context dyads.
Based on the collectivism‐individualism structure, the present study compared organizational conflict management behaviors between Korea (a collectivistic culture) and the…
Based on the collectivism‐individualism structure, the present study compared organizational conflict management behaviors between Korea (a collectivistic culture) and the U.S. (an individualistic culture). Employing a three‐way factorial design (Culture type x Relational distance x Power relationship), the present study registered robust effects of culture type in determining one's organizational conflict management behaviors. Specifically, Koreans are found to be extensive users of solution‐orientation strategies, while Americans prefer to use either non‐confrontation or control strategies in dealing with organizational conflicts. Moreover, the data also indicated that Koreans are more sensitive in exercising power when facing conflicts with subordinates in the organization. On the other hand, the effect of relational distance (ingroup vs. outgroup) in determining one's choice of organizational conflict management styles is found to be minimal. Implications of present findings for future intercultural communication research are also discussed.
States that the major reasons for difficulties in cross‐cultural communication stem from the fact that actors from different cultures have different understandings…
States that the major reasons for difficulties in cross‐cultural communication stem from the fact that actors from different cultures have different understandings regarding the interaction process and different styles of dialogue. Suggests that better understanding of communication within other cultures is the key to success. Uses past literature to suggest a number of cultural variability constructs concerning preferred interaction behaviours and the common themes they share. Presents three case studies to illustrate this.
In this article, the author begins with the assumptions that 1) groups are becoming an increasingly popular way of dealing with organizational challenges and problems and…
In this article, the author begins with the assumptions that 1) groups are becoming an increasingly popular way of dealing with organizational challenges and problems and 2) organizations are becoming increasingly multicultural in their membership. Dr. Proehl seeks to demonstrate that the traditional ways of working with groups are not effective when the membership is multicultural. To support this contention, she identifies six commonly accepted assumptions about how to develop high performing groups and then challenges each assumption from a crosscultural perspective. The author closes the article by offering suggestions for working effectively with multicultural groups.
This paper presents an analysis of interview data and field notes from participant observation collected during a four‐month period to discover different work‐related…
This paper presents an analysis of interview data and field notes from participant observation collected during a four‐month period to discover different work‐related cultural assumptions between Chinese and American co‐workers in a multicultural organization. The paper also addresses how those different cultural assumptions which guide the ways Chinese and American workers conceptualize their jobs and job behaviors lead to conflict as the employees go about their daily business. The contrasting cultural assumptions discussed in the paper are (1) Chinese and American views of the role of manager and the practice of “managing,” (2) Chinese and American conceptualizations of good service, and (3) Chinese and American perspectives of compensation. Finally, the paper discusses some theoretical and methodological implications of the current study and its research method for future studies of cultural and conflict in multicultural contexts.
Social media usage is becoming ubiquitous across the world and communicators, either corporate, independent or activist are increasingly adopting the new medium. This…
Social media usage is becoming ubiquitous across the world and communicators, either corporate, independent or activist are increasingly adopting the new medium. This chapter focuses on the uses of social media for marketing communications, in particular for public relations and corporate social responsibility (CSR) by Pfizer’s European offices. In doing so it evaluates the relationship between public relations and CSR as well as reviews some of the uses of social media for healthcare communications and CSR.
Using a deductive approach and a methodology that combines qualitative content analysis aimed at identifying communication themes and social media audits on brand integration and communication coherence, this chapter aims to identify how Pfizer’s European offices use social media to communicate online.
To establish the corporate line and branding general guidelines for Pfizer, we have recorded from the company’s official website (www.pfizer.com) its corporate overview and corporate responsibility information, embedded into the ‘About us’ section of the website. From the home page, social media links were then sought. To ensure all links were recorded the researchers used two gateways, one using the social media links on the website and one through each country’s website and their social media links on their home page. The Pfizer official accounts were excluded from this analysis, the interest being on the country uses of social media and not Pfizer’s official general channels.
General traffic and engagement data automatically reported by each social media platforms such as number of tweets, followers, fans, and number of views were recorded manually. For more insight into Twitter activity FollerMe was then used to capture and record each account’s most recent activity as it enabled the discovery of each account’s creation date and the most frequently used words and hashtags in its tweets. It also helped assess the levels of performance of each country on Twitter by looking at the reported ratios of replies, mentions, tweets with links, hashtags or media to the last 100 tweets sent from the each account. For Facebook and YouTube data, only the publicly reported data was recorded. The text in the Twitter bios and about sections was also recorded and compared with the company’s corporate and CSR descriptions included on the main website.
Out of the 20 countries that do have a Pfizer country office, only 10 of them have a social media presence. Turkey and Spain have four social media channels each and Belgium has three. All the other countries are present on only one social media platform. They show an overall integration and coordination of messages with themes mirrored from one platform to another. The channels also show an overall compliance and consistency with the brand, most of them displaying bespoke backgrounds, bios and links to the country website.
When it comes to social media integration, the accounts are poorly integrated and interlinked. Moreover, although social media provides a platform for dialogue, two out of the three platforms analysed have very little user interaction. This high concern for message control can be indicative of a variety of elements: a lack of certainty/security in handling social media, a risk-averse attitude towards social media, a lack of training of staff about how to handle social media or perhaps a lack of resources.
The platforms used have all different functions and address different target audiences. YouTube proves to excel as a public information/CSR medium for the general public, the most popular content fitting into those categories. Twitter is a corporate communications environment by excellence, a true mouth-piece of the organization. Finally, Facebook is Pfizer’s user engagement environment but within Pfizer’s own comfort and rules, the presence of a policy document making the boundaries of communication very clear.
Although looking only at one company and its social media communication practices and although it uses only publicly reported data, this chapter raises a variety of questions about the use of social media by big, multinational corporations, the resources they allocate and the amount to which they perceive these channels as anything more than just another company mouth-piece. It also raises questions about how companies choose to portray themselves on social media in comparison to joining conversations, commenting on current trends and celebrating their partners and employees. Perhaps future research could explore these aspects in more depth.
Practical implications and originality/value
Pfizer who declares itself the ‘world’s largest research-based pharmaceutical company’ is currently among the most influential companies in the world, occupying currently the 148th position in the Global Fortune 500 list. Due to its position within the industry, Pfizer has been the subject of previous research materials including marketing and health communications; however, no study yet has analysed Pfizer’s uses of social media. By analysing the social media communications of Pfizer in Europe and by pointing to the inconsistencies between country accounts, this chapter raises further questions about social media strategy and its implementation by corporations.
The build‐operate‐transfer (BOT) arrangement is becoming one of the prevailing ways for infrastructure development in China to meet the needs of China's future economic…
The build‐operate‐transfer (BOT) arrangement is becoming one of the prevailing ways for infrastructure development in China to meet the needs of China's future economic growth and development. Despite tremendous opportunities, the undertaking of infrastructure business in China involves many risks and problems which are mainly caused by China's embryonic legal structure and immature economic market. Further strategies in risk allocation and management are especially important for successful investments in China. Choosing the right path for a BOT project investment is crucial since each project involves different legal rights, different obligations and different risk implications. The present paper describes the structuring and risk allocation, as well as the Government guarantees in a China BOT transport project, the Shanghai Yan'an Donglu Second Tunnel (YD2nd Tunnel). It is also the first BOT project implemented in Shanghai. The project features and the guarantees provided by the Government are described in the present paper.