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The purpose of this paper is to study the structural and optical characterization of Alx Iny Ga1−x−y N quaternary epilayers, which were grown on c‐plane (0001) sapphire…
The purpose of this paper is to study the structural and optical characterization of Alx Iny Ga1−x−y N quaternary epilayers, which were grown on c‐plane (0001) sapphire substrates with AlN as buffer layers using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy technique with indium (In) mole fraction y ranging from 0.0 to 0.1 and constant aluminum (Al) mole fraction x=0.06.
High‐resolution X‐ray diffraction rocking curve (HRXRD‐RC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X‐ray spectrometry (EDX), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy have been measured on quaternary Alx Iny Ga1−x−y N thin films at room temperature.
HRXRD‐RC measurements confirmed that the Alx Iny Ga1−x−y N alloys had wurtzite structure. SEM images, element composition analysis by EDX, provided the evidence to show the existence of defects inside the samples contaminated by silicon from previous growth leading to nonuniformity of the epilayers, which caused decreased in the quality of the samples. PL spectra show reducing of the integrated intensity and an increasing red shift with increasing in content with reference to the ternary sample Al0.06Ga0.94N. The existence of a large amount of nonradiative recombination centers are responsible for the reduced the luminescence and the red shift provided evidence to an increase in composition inside the Alx Iny Ga1−x−y N quaternary alloys. Photoluminescence is used to determine the behavior of the near band edge emission represent the energy band gap of the quaternary films. The energy band gap decreases with increasing In composition from 0.01 to 0.1 mole fraction. This trend is expected since the incorporation of in reduced the energy band gap of ternary Al0.06Ga0.94N (3.529 eV). We have also investigated the bowing parameter of the variation of energy band gaps and found it to be very sensitive on in composition. A value of b=10.95 have been obtain for our quaternary Alx Iny Ga1−x−y N alloys.
This study on quaternary samples described in this paper, clearly indicates that the present of defects due to impurity contaminations has a dominant role in determining the structural and optical properties of Alx Iny Ga1−x−y N quaternary alloys.
The purpose of this paper is to propose a simple physical evaporation route in which catalyst‐free zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoscrewdrivers were deposited on silicon (Si) (111…
The purpose of this paper is to propose a simple physical evaporation route in which catalyst‐free zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoscrewdrivers were deposited on silicon (Si) (111) substrates.
Prior to the deposition, the Si (111) wafer was cut into pieces of 2×2 cm2. Then, the wafers were dipped for 1 min into mixture buffered oxide etchant to remove native oxide. Then, the samples were rinsed in an ultrasonic bath cleaned with boiling acetone, ethanol, and de‐ionized (DI) water for 10 min. Lastly, the wafers were rinsed in 25 ml DI water in stirred and then were blown dry with nitrogen. In this technique, the starting material is high‐purity metallic zinc (Zn) powder (99.99 per cent pure). Following, the Zn films were then annealed under air environment in the furnace at 500°C for 1 h deprived of any catalysts.
These ZnO samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy, high‐resolution X‐ray diffraction (HR‐XRD), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Atomic force microscope (AFM) images were applied to ascertain surface morphology of produced ZnO nanoscrewdrivers. XRD pattern confirmed that the ZnO nanoscrewdrivers were of polycrystalline structure in universe with a hexagonal close packed type and c‐axis is perpendicular to the substrate. The peak at 34° correspond to the reflection planes of ZnO(002) crystallographic plane is perceived. The AFM surface images disclosed that the surfaces of produced ZnO thin films are not smooth. The PL spectrum of as‐synthesized nanoscrewdrivers shows a UV emission peak at 380 nm and a broad green emission peak at 500 nm.
The paper reports on a simple physical evaporation route, ZnO nanoscrewdrivers were synthesized via the thermal evaporation of the high‐purity Zn powders and annealed at 500°C under air atmosphere without introducing any hetero‐metal catalysts or other carrier gases approach.