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Book part
Publication date: 17 June 2016

Bong Gun Chung

The purpose of this chapter is to critically review the Korean Official Development Assistance (ODA) policy in terms of its context, actors, structures, and values so as…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to critically review the Korean Official Development Assistance (ODA) policy in terms of its context, actors, structures, and values so as to find how these characteristics are reflected in the education ODA of Korea. Previous studies, documents of Korean Government, and ODA-related statistics are reviewed. Self-confident in being transformed from a poor recipient country to a DAC donor, Korean government emphasizes the so-called Korean ODA Model in sharing its economic development knowledge and experiences with the developing countries. Despite the coordination effort by Prime Minister’s Office, government ministries tend to pursue its own ODA policies, while the finance ministry and the ministry of foreign affairs play major roles. As a result Korean ODA is economy-oriented, fragmented, and uncoordinated in planning and implementation. This study has found that such characteristics of Korean ODA are also reflected in the education ODA. For instance, TVET and higher education are the priority, while basic education is neglected, and the education ministry has its own ODA policies and programs. Outside studies on Korean ODA policy is rather scarce, furthermore, critical reviews other than policy advocacy are hard to find, particularly in English. This study will be a good start for further ones to understand the Korean ODA policy including education.

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Post-Education-Forall and Sustainable Development Paradigm: Structural Changes with Diversifying Actors and Norms
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-271-5

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2019

Hoi-Lam Ma, Zhengxu Wang, S.H. Chung and Felix T.S. Chan

The purpose of this paper is to study the impacts of time segment modeling approach for berth allocation and quay crane (QC) assignment on container terminal operations efficiency.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the impacts of time segment modeling approach for berth allocation and quay crane (QC) assignment on container terminal operations efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors model the small time segment modeling approach, based on minutes, which can be a minute, 15 min, etc. Moreover, the authors divided the problem into three sub-problems and proposed a novel three-level genetic algorithm (3LGA) with QC shifting heuristics to deal with the problem. The objective function here is to minimize the total service time by using different time segments for comparison and analysis.

Findings

First, the study shows that by reducing the time segment, the complexity of the problem increases dramatically. Traditional meta-heuristic, such as genetic algorithm, simulated annealing, etc., becomes not very promising. Second, the proposed 3LGA with QC shifting heuristics outperforms the traditional ones. In addition, by using a smaller time segment, the idling time of berth and QC can be reduced significantly. This greatly benefits the container terminal operations efficiency, and customer service level.

Practical implications

Nowadays, transshipment becomes the main business to many container terminals, especially in Southeast Asia (e.g. Hong Kong and Singapore). In these terminals, vessel arrivals are usually very frequent with small handling volume and very short staying time, e.g. 1.5 h. Therefore, a traditional hourly based modeling approach may cause significant berth and QC idling, and consequently cannot meet their practical needs. In this connection, a small time segment modeling approach is requested by industrial practitioners.

Originality/value

In the existing literature, berth allocation and QC assignment are usually in an hourly based approach. However, such modeling induces much idling time and consequently causes low utilization and poor service quality level. Therefore, a novel small time segment modeling approach is proposed with a novel optimization algorithm.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 119 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Abdelrahman E.E. Eltoukhy, Felix T.S. Chan, S.H. Chung, Ben Niu and X.P. Wang

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, to propose an operational model for aircraft maintenance routing problem (AMRP) rather than tactical models that are commonly…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, to propose an operational model for aircraft maintenance routing problem (AMRP) rather than tactical models that are commonly used in the literature. Second, to develop a fast and responsive solution method in order to cope with the frequent changes experienced in the airline industry.

Design/methodology/approach

Two important operational considerations were considered, simultaneously. First one is the maximum flying hours, and second one is the man-power availability. On the other hand, ant colony optimization (ACO), simulated annealing (SA), and genetic algorithm (GA) approaches were proposed to solve the model, and the upper bound was calculated to be the criteria to assess the performance of each meta-heuristic. After attempting to solve the model by these meta-heuristics, the authors noticed further improvement chances in terms of solution quality and computational time. Therefore, a new solution algorithm was proposed, and its performance was validated based on 12 real data from the EgyptAir carrier. Also, the model and experiments were extended to test the effect of the operational considerations on the profit.

Findings

The computational results showed that the proposed solution algorithm outperforms other meta-heuristics in finding a better solution in much less time, whereas the operational considerations improve the profitability of the existing model.

Research limitations/implications

The authors focused on some operational considerations rather than tactical considerations that are commonly used in the literature. One advantage of this is that it improves the profitability of the existing models. On the other hand, identifying future research opportunities should help academic researchers to develop new models and improve the performance of the existing models.

Practical implications

The experiment results showed that the proposed model and solution methods are scalable and can thus be adopted by the airline industry at large.

Originality/value

In the literature, AMRP models were cast with approximated assumption regarding the maintenance issue, while neglecting the man-power availability consideration. However, in this paper, the authors attempted to relax that maintenance assumption, and consider the man-power availability constraints. Since the result showed that these considerations improve the profitability by 5.63 percent in the largest case. The proposed operational considerations are hence significant. Also, the authors utilized ACO, SA, and GA to solve the model for the first time, and developed a new solution algorithm. The value and significance of the new algorithm appeared as follow. First, the solution quality was improved since the average improvement ratio over ACO, SA, and GA goes up to 8.30, 4.45, and 4.00 percent, respectively. Second, the computational time was significantly improved since it does not go beyond 3 seconds in all the 12 real cases, which is considered much lesser compared to ACO, SA, and GA.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 117 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Yu-Cheng Chou, Yi-Hua Fan, Madoka Nakajima and Yi-Lin Liao

The purpose of this paper is to present the use of artificial immune systems (AISs) to solve constrained design optimization problems for active magnetic bearings (AMBs).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the use of artificial immune systems (AISs) to solve constrained design optimization problems for active magnetic bearings (AMBs).

Design/methodology/approach

This research applies the AIS approach, more specifically, a representative clonal selection-based AIS called CLONALG, to the single-objective structural design optimization of AMBs. In addition, when compared with a genetic algorithm (GA) developed in the previous work, the CLONALG fails to produce best solutions when a nearly zero feasible ratio occurs in an AMB design problem. Therefore, an AIS called ARISCO (AIS for constrained optimization) is proposed to address the above issue.

Findings

A total of six AMB design cases are solved by the GA, CLONALG, and ARISCO. Based on the simulation results, in terms of solution quality, the ARISCO is shown to have better overall performance than the CLONALG and GA. In particular, when solving a problem with a nearly zero feasible ratio, the ARISCO and GA perform equally and both outperform the CLONALG.

Originality/value

In summary, the contributions of this paper include: this research applies the AIS approach, more precisely, the CLONALG, to the single-objective structural design optimization of AMBs; the ARISCO overall produces better AMB designs than the CLONALG and a GA developed in the previous work; in situations where a nearly zero feasible ratio occurs, the ARISCO and GA perform equally, and they both outperform the CLONALG.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 33 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Kathirvel Kalaiselvi, Ill-Min Chung, Seung-Hyun Kim and Mayakrishnan Prabakaran

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the inhibitive performance of Coreopsis tinctoria (C. tinctoria) plant extract for the corrosion of mild steel in 0.5 M H2SO4.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the inhibitive performance of Coreopsis tinctoria (C. tinctoria) plant extract for the corrosion of mild steel in 0.5 M H2SO4.

Design/methodology/approach

The inhibition efficiency was studied by weight loss, electrochemical measurements and the surface analysis was done by Raman, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) analysis.

Findings

Maximum inhibition efficiency of C. tinctoria in 0.5 M H2SO4 on mild steel is 80.62 per cent (500 ppm) at 303 ± 1K. The adsorption of the C. tinctoria on the mild steel surface in 0.5 M H2SO4 was found to obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Temperature studies were carried out and the significant parameters, such as change in enthalpy (ΔH°), change in entropy (ΔS°) and change in free energy (ΔG°ads) and heat of adsorption (Qads), were calculated. The productive layer formed on the mild steel surface in 0.5 M H2SO4 were confirmed by the Raman spectral analysis.

Originality/value

This paper provides information on the inhibitive properties of C. tinctoria plant extract which is found to be a good corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 0.5 M H2SO4.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 65 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 19 December 2019

Waqar Ahmed Khan, S.H. Chung, Muhammad Usman Awan and Xin Wen

The purpose of this paper is to conduct a comprehensive review of the noteworthy contributions made in the area of the Feedforward neural network (FNN) to improve its…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to conduct a comprehensive review of the noteworthy contributions made in the area of the Feedforward neural network (FNN) to improve its generalization performance and convergence rate (learning speed); to identify new research directions that will help researchers to design new, simple and efficient algorithms and users to implement optimal designed FNNs for solving complex problems; and to explore the wide applications of the reviewed FNN algorithms in solving real-world management, engineering and health sciences problems and demonstrate the advantages of these algorithms in enhancing decision making for practical operations.

Design/methodology/approach

The FNN has gained much popularity during the last three decades. Therefore, the authors have focused on algorithms proposed during the last three decades. The selected databases were searched with popular keywords: “generalization performance,” “learning rate,” “overfitting” and “fixed and cascade architecture.” Combinations of the keywords were also used to get more relevant results. Duplicated articles in the databases, non-English language, and matched keywords but out of scope, were discarded.

Findings

The authors studied a total of 80 articles and classified them into six categories according to the nature of the algorithms proposed in these articles which aimed at improving the generalization performance and convergence rate of FNNs. To review and discuss all the six categories would result in the paper being too long. Therefore, the authors further divided the six categories into two parts (i.e. Part I and Part II). The current paper, Part I, investigates two categories that focus on learning algorithms (i.e. gradient learning algorithms for network training and gradient-free learning algorithms). Furthermore, the remaining four categories which mainly explore optimization techniques are reviewed in Part II (i.e. optimization algorithms for learning rate, bias and variance (underfitting and overfitting) minimization algorithms, constructive topology neural networks and metaheuristic search algorithms). For the sake of simplicity, the paper entitled “Machine learning facilitated business intelligence (Part II): Neural networks optimization techniques and applications” is referred to as Part II. This results in a division of 80 articles into 38 and 42 for Part I and Part II, respectively. After discussing the FNN algorithms with their technical merits and limitations, along with real-world management, engineering and health sciences applications for each individual category, the authors suggest seven (three in Part I and other four in Part II) new future directions which can contribute to strengthening the literature.

Research limitations/implications

The FNN contributions are numerous and cannot be covered in a single study. The authors remain focused on learning algorithms and optimization techniques, along with their application to real-world problems, proposing to improve the generalization performance and convergence rate of FNNs with the characteristics of computing optimal hyperparameters, connection weights, hidden units, selecting an appropriate network architecture rather than trial and error approaches and avoiding overfitting.

Practical implications

This study will help researchers and practitioners to deeply understand the existing algorithms merits of FNNs with limitations, research gaps, application areas and changes in research studies in the last three decades. Moreover, the user, after having in-depth knowledge by understanding the applications of algorithms in the real world, may apply appropriate FNN algorithms to get optimal results in the shortest possible time, with less effort, for their specific application area problems.

Originality/value

The existing literature surveys are limited in scope due to comparative study of the algorithms, studying algorithms application areas and focusing on specific techniques. This implies that the existing surveys are focused on studying some specific algorithms or their applications (e.g. pruning algorithms, constructive algorithms, etc.). In this work, the authors propose a comprehensive review of different categories, along with their real-world applications, that may affect FNN generalization performance and convergence rate. This makes the classification scheme novel and significant.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 120 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Book part
Publication date: 1 November 2018

Amélie Charles, Rey Dang and Etienne Redor

Numerous empirical studies have been conducted to analyze the impact of board gender diversity (BGD) on firm performance without being able to establish a clear…

Abstract

Numerous empirical studies have been conducted to analyze the impact of board gender diversity (BGD) on firm performance without being able to establish a clear relationship. In this paper, we reassess the relationship between BGD and firm performance by using a quantile regression approach. Our results indicate that BGD matters only across a subset of the firm performance distribution. Moreover, when the possible endogeneity of the relationship between BGD and firm performance is taken into account, there are some conditions under which a positive and significant relationship is observed for the eight lowest quantiles.

Details

International Corporate Governance and Regulation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-536-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Marta M. Vidal Suárez and Esteban García‐Canal

In this paper we analyze the influence of transaction costs on the stock market reaction to global alliance formation. In particular, we analyze to what extent the stock…

Abstract

In this paper we analyze the influence of transaction costs on the stock market reaction to global alliance formation. In particular, we analyze to what extent the stock market reacts negatively to the presence of attributes that increase motivation or coordination costs. We adopt a relational framework, analyzing the direct impact of these attributes not only on transaction costs but also on the potential synergies of the alliance and the incentives to invest in the relationship. Our results show that the stock market reacts negatively to transaction costs only in connection with free riding hazards.

Details

Management Research: Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1536-5433

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Article
Publication date: 10 January 2020

Waqar Ahmed Khan, S.H. Chung, Muhammad Usman Awan and Xin Wen

The purpose of this paper is three-fold: to review the categories explaining mainly optimization algorithms (techniques) in that needed to improve the generalization…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is three-fold: to review the categories explaining mainly optimization algorithms (techniques) in that needed to improve the generalization performance and learning speed of the Feedforward Neural Network (FNN); to discover the change in research trends by analyzing all six categories (i.e. gradient learning algorithms for network training, gradient free learning algorithms, optimization algorithms for learning rate, bias and variance (underfitting and overfitting) minimization algorithms, constructive topology neural networks, metaheuristic search algorithms) collectively; and recommend new research directions for researchers and facilitate users to understand algorithms real-world applications in solving complex management, engineering and health sciences problems.

Design/methodology/approach

The FNN has gained much attention from researchers to make a more informed decision in the last few decades. The literature survey is focused on the learning algorithms and the optimization techniques proposed in the last three decades. This paper (Part II) is an extension of Part I. For the sake of simplicity, the paper entitled “Machine learning facilitated business intelligence (Part I): Neural networks learning algorithms and applications” is referred to as Part I. To make the study consistent with Part I, the approach and survey methodology in this paper are kept similar to those in Part I.

Findings

Combining the work performed in Part I, the authors studied a total of 80 articles through popular keywords searching. The FNN learning algorithms and optimization techniques identified in the selected literature are classified into six categories based on their problem identification, mathematical model, technical reasoning and proposed solution. Previously, in Part I, the two categories focusing on the learning algorithms (i.e. gradient learning algorithms for network training, gradient free learning algorithms) are reviewed with their real-world applications in management, engineering, and health sciences. Therefore, in the current paper, Part II, the remaining four categories, exploring optimization techniques (i.e. optimization algorithms for learning rate, bias and variance (underfitting and overfitting) minimization algorithms, constructive topology neural networks, metaheuristic search algorithms) are studied in detail. The algorithm explanation is made enriched by discussing their technical merits, limitations, and applications in their respective categories. Finally, the authors recommend future new research directions which can contribute to strengthening the literature.

Research limitations/implications

The FNN contributions are rapidly increasing because of its ability to make reliably informed decisions. Like learning algorithms, reviewed in Part I, the focus is to enrich the comprehensive study by reviewing remaining categories focusing on the optimization techniques. However, future efforts may be needed to incorporate other algorithms into identified six categories or suggest new category to continuously monitor the shift in the research trends.

Practical implications

The authors studied the shift in research trend for three decades by collectively analyzing the learning algorithms and optimization techniques with their applications. This may help researchers to identify future research gaps to improve the generalization performance and learning speed, and user to understand the applications areas of the FNN. For instance, research contribution in FNN in the last three decades has changed from complex gradient-based algorithms to gradient free algorithms, trial and error hidden units fixed topology approach to cascade topology, hyperparameters initial guess to analytically calculation and converging algorithms at a global minimum rather than the local minimum.

Originality/value

The existing literature surveys include comparative study of the algorithms, identifying algorithms application areas and focusing on specific techniques in that it may not be able to identify algorithms categories, a shift in research trends over time, application area frequently analyzed, common research gaps and collective future directions. Part I and II attempts to overcome the existing literature surveys limitations by classifying articles into six categories covering a wide range of algorithm proposed to improve the FNN generalization performance and convergence rate. The classification of algorithms into six categories helps to analyze the shift in research trend which makes the classification scheme significant and innovative.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 120 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Abdelrahman E.E. Eltoukhy, Felix T.S. Chan and S.H. Chung

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first to carry out a comprehensive literature review for state of the art regarding airline schedule planning and second to identify…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first to carry out a comprehensive literature review for state of the art regarding airline schedule planning and second to identify some new research directions that might help academic researchers and practitioners.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors mainly focus on the research work appeared in the last three decades. The search process was conducted in database searches using four keywords: “Flight scheduling,” “Fleet assignment,” “Aircraft maintenance routing” (AMR), and “Crew scheduling”. Moreover, the combination of the keywords was used to find the integrated models. Any duplications due to database variety and the articles that were written in non-English language were discarded.

Findings

The authors studied 106 research papers and categorized them into five categories. In addition, according to the model features, subcategories were further identified. Moreover, after discussing up-to-date research work, the authors suggested some future directions in order to contribute to the existing literature.

Research limitations/implications

The presented categories and subcategories were based on the model characteristics rather than the model formulation and solution methodology that are commonly used in the literature. One advantage of this classification is that it might help scholars to deeply understand the main variation between the models. On the other hand, identifying future research opportunities should help academic researchers and practitioners to develop new models and improve the performance of the existing models.

Practical implications

This study proposed some considerations in order to enhance the efficiency of the schedule planning process practically, for example, using the dynamic Stackelberg game strategy for market competition in flight scheduling, considering re-fleeting mechanism under heterogeneous fleet for fleet assignment, and considering the stochastic departure and arrival times for AMR.

Originality/value

In the literature, all the review papers focused only on one category of the five categories. Then, this category was classified according to the model formulation and solution methodology. However, in this work, the authors attempted to propose a comprehensive review for all categories for the first time and develop new classifications for each category. The proposed classifications are hence novel and significant.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 117 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 10000