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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

N.P. Badgujar, Y.E. Bhoge, T.D. Deshpande, B.A. Bhanvase, P.R. Gogate, S.H. Sonawane and R.D. Kulkarni

– The present work aims to deal with ultrasound-assisted organic pigment (phthalocyanine blue and green) dispersion and its comparison with the conventional approach.

Abstract

Purpose

The present work aims to deal with ultrasound-assisted organic pigment (phthalocyanine blue and green) dispersion and its comparison with the conventional approach.

Design/methodology/approach

Ultrasound is expected to give beneficial results based on the strong shear forces generated by cavitational effects. The dispersion quality for preparation using an ultrasound-based method has been compared with dispersion obtained using high-speed dispersion mill. Effects of different operating parameters such as probe diameter and use of surfactants on the physical properties of dispersion and the colour strength have been investigated. Calculations for the energy requirement for two approaches have also been presented.

Findings

The use of sodium dodecyl sulphate and Tween 80 surfactants shows better performance in terms of the colour properties of dispersion prepared in water and organic solvent, respectively. Ultrasound gives better dispersion quality as compared to the conventional approach.

Originality/value

The present work presents a new approach of ultrasound-assisted dispersion of phthalocyanine blue and green pigments. Understanding into the effect of surfactants and type of solvent also presents new important design-related information.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 44 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 5 July 2013

Clement Oluwole Folorunso and Mohd Hamdan Ahmad

Painting of buildings predates civilization. The primary purpose was to add beauty or aesthetics to the built environment. It was also to showcase the level of…

Abstract

Purpose

Painting of buildings predates civilization. The primary purpose was to add beauty or aesthetics to the built environment. It was also to showcase the level of civilization, taste and fashion drive of the people. However, modern findings have proved that paint (when applied as a finishing coat on buildings) can elongate the service life of such buildings due to some characteristic properties it contains and modern additives that are included at production stage. This paper aims to examine some of the properties inherent in paint through which resistance to failure and better performance is enhanced, aesthetics is maintained and maintenance is reduced. It also examines whether these qualities subsist in all environments. Particular attention is given to its resistance to the impact of saline air when used around the Atlantic Ocean.

Design/methodology/approach

The research adopted a qualitative and quantitative approach with empirical analysis in examining the performance of paint used in salt laden environment.

Findings

It shows that paint used in an environment where saline air and salt is prevalent begins to deteriorate after two years and requires repainting as against the established norm of five to seven years (5‐7) in areas that are not exposed to saline air. The impact of saline air is significant at p<0.01.

Practical Implication

Maximum life span of current paint products in the area is determined to provide adequate information for the preparation of maintenance schedule for painted exterior. Paint with higher resistance to salt attack is required to enhance the longevity of painted exterior in areas at close proximity to sources of salt. Specifying current available paint for exterior finish will be uneconomical and non‐compatible with the principle of sustainability.

Originality/value

The authors made a fresh attempt at investigating the life's span of paint used as exterior finish in salt laden area around the Atlantic Ocean due to the peculiarity of the stresses of the tropical region on external finishes. It also compared the result with existing researches. Differences in paint performance are established.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 30 October 2019

Sreya Ghosh and Somnath Pan

This paper aims to propose a reference model based simple strategy for the design of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller using frequency response matching…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a reference model based simple strategy for the design of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller using frequency response matching for high-order stable, integrating and unstable processes that may have time-delay and non-minimum phase zero.

Design/methodology/approach

The reference sensitivity model is designed fulfilling stability conditions of the control system responses such as set-point response, load-disturbance response and noise response along with transient response criteria. The analytical controller thus designed is approximated to a PID controller using a simple formula based on a model-matching technique at low frequency.

Findings

PID controllers are designed for examples with varied dynamics taken from the literature, and the performances of the designed control systems are compared with some methods prevalent in the literature to show the efficacy of the proposed work. Overall, the method gives satisfactory set-point, as well as load-disturbance responses and controller-outputs in all the cases considered.

Originality/value

The method is applicable to high-order processes of various monotonic or oscillating dynamics without requiring process reduction. The PID controller designed considering a reference model with suitable criteria ensuring stability and a modified model matching technique, which provides a stable control system for all these high-order processes.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering , vol. 38 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2020

Tantan Shao, Xiaolong Chen and Lijun Chen

Silane cross-linkers have been used to strengthen the mechanical stabilities and friction resistance of plastic products. Therefore, the effect of silane cross-linkers on…

Abstract

Purpose

Silane cross-linkers have been used to strengthen the mechanical stabilities and friction resistance of plastic products. Therefore, the effect of silane cross-linkers on latex has been studied through preparing modified self-cross-linking long fluorocarbon polyacrylate latex. In this paper, nonionic surfactant alcohol ether glycoside (AEG1000) and anionic polymerizable surfactant 1-allyloxy-3-(4-nonylphenol)-2-propanol polyoxyethylene (10) ether ammonium sulfate (DNS-86) acted as mixed emulsifier and 3-(methacryloyloxy) propyltrimethoxysilane (KH-570) and bis (2-ethylhexyl) maleate (DOM) were used as functional monomers.

Design/methodology/approach

The modified acrylate polymer latex was synthesized through the semi-continuous seeded emulsion polymerization with methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA), dodecafluoroheptyl methacrylate (DFMA) and hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA) as main monomers. Potassium persulfate (KPS) was applied to initiate polymerization reaction, nonionic surfactant AEG1000 and DNS-86 acted as emulsifier, KH-570 and DOM were used as functional monomers, respectively.

Findings

The optimum conditions of synthesizing the modified latex were the following. The mass ratio of monomers containing MMA, BA, DFMA, HPMA, KH-570 and DOM was 13.58:13.58:0.90:1.20:0.15:0.60, the usage of initiator KPS was 0.5% of the total weight of monomers and the amount of emulsifier was 7% of all monomers with AEG1000:DNS-86 = 1:1. The results indicated that the conversion of monomer was 99% and the coagulation was about 2.0%.

Originality/value

The resultant latex was modified silane cross-linker KH-570 and DOM, which positively affected the comprehensive properties of latex and its film. Apart from this, the novel mixed emulsifier was used to improve the size and distribution of latex particles and reduce environmental problems caused by the use of emulsifiers.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2020

Pundalik Pandharinath Mali, Nilesh S. Pawar, Narendra S. Sonawane, Vikas Patil and Rahul Patil

The purpose of this work was to develop a new trispiperazido phosphate-based reactive diluent (diphosphate-piperazine hydroxyl acrylate [DPHA]) and used as a flame…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this work was to develop a new trispiperazido phosphate-based reactive diluent (diphosphate-piperazine hydroxyl acrylate [DPHA]) and used as a flame retardant with an epoxy acrylate (EA) in ultraviolet (UV)-curable wood coating.

Design/methodology/approach

The concentration of reactive diluent was varied from 0% to 20% in the UV-curable formulation with constant photoinitiator concentration. The effect of DPHA concentration on film properties was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, gel content, water absorption and limiting oxygen index.

Findings

The results showed that the viscosity of the prepared formulation decreased by increasing reactive diluent (DPHA) concentration which leads to improving the coating efficiency. A high concentration of reactive diluent (DPHA) of the cured films shows good resistance against stain, mechanical and thermal properties, which results in an increased glass transition temperature (Tg) and cross-linking density of the films.

Originality/value

The new trispiperazido phosphate-based reactive diluent was used in wood coating formulation, which resulted in excellent flame-retardant properties with higher cross-linked density with good stain resistance. This material can provide a wide range of application for coating industries to produce a glossy finish.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 50 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 14 October 2019

Katerina Berezina, Olena Ciftci and Cihan Cobanoglu

Purpose: The purpose of this chapter is to review and critically evaluate robots, artificial intelligence and service automation (RAISA) applications in the restaurant…

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this chapter is to review and critically evaluate robots, artificial intelligence and service automation (RAISA) applications in the restaurant industry to educate professors, graduate students, and industry professionals.

Design/methodology/approach: This chapter is a survey of applications of RAISA in restaurants. The chapter is based on the review of professional and peer-reviewed academic literature, and the industry insight section was prepared based on a 50-minute interview with Mr. Juan Higueros, Chief Operations Officer of Bear Robotics.

Findings: Various case studies presented in this chapter illustrate numerous possibilities for automation: from automating a specific function to complete automation of the front of the house (e.g., Eatsa) or back of the house (e.g., Spyce robotic kitchen). The restaurant industry has already adopted chatbots; voice-activated and biometric technologies; robots as hosts, food runners, chefs, and bartenders; tableside ordering; conveyors; and robotic food delivery.

Practical implications: The chapter presents professors and students with a detailed overview of RAISA in the restaurant industry that will be useful for educational and research purposes. Restaurant owners and managers may also benefit from reading this chapter as they will learn about the current state of technology and opportunities for RAISA implementation.

Originality/value: To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this chapter presents the first systematic and in-depth review of RAISA technologies in the restaurant industry.

Details

Robots, Artificial Intelligence, and Service Automation in Travel, Tourism and Hospitality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-688-0

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2013

J.C. Mandal and C.R. Sonawane

The purpose of this paper is to simulate flow inside differentially heated rotating cavity using two different formulations; one using Navier‐Stokes (NS) equations derived…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to simulate flow inside differentially heated rotating cavity using two different formulations; one using Navier‐Stokes (NS) equations derived in non‐inertial (rotating) frame of reference and the other using NS equations in inertial frame of reference. Then to compare the results obtained from these formulations to find their merits and demerits.

Design/methodology/approach

The NS equations for both non‐inertial and inertial formulations are written in artificial compressibility form before discretizing them by a high resolution finite volume method. The dual time steeping approach of Jameson is used for time accuracy in both the formulations. Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) approach is used for taking care of moving boundary problem arising in the inertial formulation. A newly developed HLLC‐AC Riemann solver for discretizing convective fluxes and central differencing for discretizing viscous fluxes are used in the finite volume approach. Results for both the formulations are first validated with test cases reported in literature. Then the results of the two formulations are compared among themselves.

Findings

Results of the non‐inertial formulation obtained by the proposed method are found to match well with those reported in literature. The results of both the formulations match well for low rotational speeds of the cavity. The discrepancies between the results of the two formulations progressively increase with the increase in rotational speed. Implicit treatment of the source term is found to reduce the discrepancies.

Practical implications

The present approach is useful for accurate prediction of flow feature and heat transfer characteristic in case of applications such as manufacturing of single wafer crystal for semiconductor and in numerous metallurgical processes.

Originality/value

The ALE formulation is used for the first time to simulate a differentially heated rotating cavity problem. The attempt to compare non‐inertial and inertial formulations is also reported for the first time. Implicit treatment of the source term leading to change in solution accuracy is one of the important findings of the present investigation.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2020

Emine Yağız Gürbüz, Halil İbrahim Variyenli, Adnan Sözen, Ataollah Khanlari and Mert Ökten

Heat exchangers (HEXs) are extensively used in many applications such as heating and cooling systems. To increase the thermal performance of HEXs, nano-sized particles…

Abstract

Purpose

Heat exchangers (HEXs) are extensively used in many applications such as heating and cooling systems. To increase the thermal performance of HEXs, nano-sized particles could be added to the base working fluid which can improve the thermophysical properties of the fluid. In addition, further improvement in the thermal performance of nanofluids can be obtained by using two or more different nanoparticles which are known as hybrid nanofluids. This paper aims to improve the thermal efficiency of U-type tubular HEX (THEX) by using CuO-Al2O3/water hybrid nanofluid.

Design/methodology/approach

Numerical simulation has been used to model THEX with various configurations. Also, CuO-Al2O3/water hybrid nanofluid has been experimented in THEX in two various modes including parallel (PTHEX) and counter flow (CTHEX) regarding to the numerical findings. Hybrid nanofluids have been prepared in two particle concentrations and compared with CuO/water nanofluid at the same concentrations and also with water.

Findings

The numerical simulation results showed that adding fins and also using hybrid nanofluid can increase heat transfer rate in HEX. However, adding fins cannot be a good option in U-type THEX with lower diameter because it increases pressure drop notably. Experimental results of this work illustrated that using Al2O3-CuO/water hybrid nanofluid in the THEX improved thermal performance significantly. Maximum enhancement in overall heat transfer coefficient of THEX by using CuO-Al2O3/water nanofluid in 0.5% and 1% concentrations achieved as 9.5% and 12%, respectively.

Originality/value

The obtained findings of the study showed the positive effects of using hybrid type nanofluid in comparison with single type nanofluid. In this study, numerical and experimental analysis have been conducted to investigate the effect of using hybrid type nanofluid in U-type HEX. The obtained results exhibited successful utilization of CuO-Al2O3/water hybrid type nanofluid in HEX. Moreover, it was observed that thermal performance analysis of the nanofluids without any experiment can be done by using numerical method.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 18 January 2021

Saskia Liebner and Claudia Schmaltz

The transformation of the German education system because of the ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (United Nations, 2006) has…

Abstract

The transformation of the German education system because of the ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (United Nations, 2006) has also reached the domain of teacher training. Professional competences and their development are brought into focus (e. g., Trautmann, 2017). Since 2013, all prospective teachers in Germany have to be qualified in the field of heterogeneity, inclusion and diagnostics, mainly in the educational science part of the teacher training programmes (KMK, 2013a, 2013b, 2013c, 2013d, 2013e, 2015). However, there is a great heterogeneity regarding the content and structures of this teacher training for inclusion in Germany. Despite the formal anchoring of inclusion and heterogeneity in teacher training in Germany, an overview of the current status of the curricular implementation of inclusion-oriented teacher training is missing. The aim of this study is to fill this gap and, to do so, investigates in a first step the educational science parts of the curricula. Therefore, the study and examination regulations of all general education teacher training programmes (primary, secondary I and II) at German universities were analyzed by means of qualitative content analysis. The results show differences in the extent of the curricula regarding heterogeneity and inclusion between the states and universities on the one hand and the various study programmes on the other hand.

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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2017

Angelo Corallo, Fabrizio Errico, Laura Fortunato, Maria Elena Latino and Marta Menegoli

Following the triple helix (TH) model and the way knowledge is transferred into the industry domain, this chapter aims to define features interface that should be…

Abstract

Following the triple helix (TH) model and the way knowledge is transferred into the industry domain, this chapter aims to define features interface that should be implemented in order to facilitate the University–Industry (UI) relationship and thus encourage the spin-off creation.

In order to support this relationship, a new business model configuration of an entrepreneurial ecosystem is proposed, aiming at creating a sustainable environment, where business entities can grow. The field of the Governance of Entrepreneurial Ecosystems is also investigated in order to define a framework for launching, developing, and sustaining a company over time.

This chapter presents a case study developed within the University of Salento (Italy). It capitalizes results from three different research analyses, based on questionnaires and interviews with actors of the spin-off network (professors and researchers, graduating students, admin-tech staff of the Technology Transfer Office, spin-offs’ CEOs/Associates, and R&D managers of external companies) and on results coming from scientific publications and regional/national reports in the innovation context.

A research methodology based on semantic network analysis and sentiment analysis has been applied in order to identify which features an interface should implement in order to facilitate the UI relationship and encourage the spin-off creation.

To support the start-up overcoming the “death valley,” the creation of a link between the strategy used to transfer value to the market and the phase of innovation is proposed inside the business model configuration. Some aspects of a governance model of an entrepreneurial ecosystem were also presented in order to support the business evolution of a single business entity and assuring sustainability over time.

Details

Global Opportunities for Entrepreneurial Growth: Coopetition and Knowledge Dynamics within and across Firms
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-502-3

Keywords

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