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A combination of analytical methods was used on printed circuit board coupons to conclude the following: (1) while steam ageing deteriorates solderability of tinned…
A combination of analytical methods was used on printed circuit board coupons to conclude the following: (1) while steam ageing deteriorates solderability of tinned coupons, it does not increase the oxide thickness or tin‐lead ratio of the surface (top 50 Angstroms) of tinned coupons; (2) therefore, some other factor, probably oxidation of the copper or tin/copper intermetallic substrate, determines solderability of the coupons.
The unique advantages of confocal microscopy are used to explore four cases of interest: (i) voids in solder (depth and surface texture determined), (ii) steam vs ambient…
The unique advantages of confocal microscopy are used to explore four cases of interest: (i) voids in solder (depth and surface texture determined), (ii) steam vs ambient aged solder coupons (significant differences detected), (iii) integrated circuit construction (sub‐surface contamination by µm‐size particles observed) and (iv) circuit boards and solder pads (non‐destructive optical sectioning through no‐wash flux layers). It is shown that confocal microscopy strongly complements SEM (scanning electron microscopy); SEM alone presents an incomplete description of a solder surface and in fact can sometimes produce misleading results.
Findings regarding the relationship between biological sex and job stress remain inconsistent. In the present chapter, we suggest that this is due to the overly simplistic…
Findings regarding the relationship between biological sex and job stress remain inconsistent. In the present chapter, we suggest that this is due to the overly simplistic and synonymous treatment of biological sex and gender. Specifically, researchers have operationalized gender as sex, neglecting the inherent complexity of the gender construct. To address this, we take a more nuanced approach and develop a theory around the effects of biological sex and gender on job stress, considering how sex, gender, sex-based prescribed gender roles and work roles interact to create role conflict. We predict that a lack of congruence between any of the aforementioned variables results in various types of role conflict, leading to stress, and requiring coping. Drawing on the literature on role conflict, emotional labor, and facades of conformity, we introduce the concept of gender façades as a coping mechanism. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
This chapter provides an overview of affect, personality, and job satisfaction, focusing on library employees. A reliable and valid measure for each construct is…
This chapter provides an overview of affect, personality, and job satisfaction, focusing on library employees. A reliable and valid measure for each construct is suggested, and an assessment model is provided. The purpose of the study conducted was to examine the three constructs among library employees, how these constructs relate to each other and to work experience, and whether they differ based on library type or department. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, Big Five Inventory, and Brief Index of Affective Job Satisfaction were administered at the various libraries of a research university. Data were analyzed using statistical software. Library employees scored high in positive affect and job satisfaction, and low in negative affect, and were introverted, agreeable, conscientious, emotionally stable, and open to experiences. Across all libraries, public services employees had higher positive affect and job satisfaction, and lower neuroticism, than technical services employees. In both service areas, positive affect was positively correlated with extroversion and job satisfaction, and negative affect with neuroticism. Work experience was correlated with positive affect only among technical services employees. The assessment model may be applied at libraries of any type and size to assess staff and customize resources for employees to meet their unique needs. Several ideas and applications are provided. This study addresses a gap in the literature by exploring how affect, personality, and job satisfaction are all related among library employees. The free measures may be used in any work setting, facilitating intra- and inter-professional comparisons.
Restructuring and downsizing are facts of life and impact on employees via higher stress levels. Describes how a high technology communications organization, Technet Ltd…
Restructuring and downsizing are facts of life and impact on employees via higher stress levels. Describes how a high technology communications organization, Technet Ltd, underwent restructuring when it changed the focus of its businesses and how this affected customer service representatives and their assignments. Reports the results of research carried out to study stress in customer contact employees in the small and medium business offices at Technet Ltd. Describes how the current research was compared with two prior studies in 1989 and 1992, utilizing a modified version of the original questionnaire. Analyses the results according to the literature and the prior studies, and makes conclusions and recommendations.
Librarians have been urged to emphasize social justice and human rights issues in their library mission, but they may find themselves challenged to provide additional…
Librarians have been urged to emphasize social justice and human rights issues in their library mission, but they may find themselves challenged to provide additional services, such as access to legal information for those who cannot afford an attorney. Social justice services in libraries are seldom adequately funded and providing services in this area is labor intensive. In addition, there is an emotional intensity in library services for social justice that is often not considered in the initial enthusiasm of providing services in this area. Yet there seems to be no limit to the need. An interesting and useful perspective on how a public agency such as a library responds in circumstances of limited resources and unlimited demand can be found in the book Street-Level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Service, by Michael Lipsky. In this perspective, lower level civil servants who interact directly with members of the general public exercise a level of discretion in the amount of services provided and how those services are administered. This chapter explores how this can generate tensions between more traditional library bureaucracy and social justice services, such as providing public access to justice resources in law libraries. However, the “street-level” response is evolving into a sustainability perspective as librarians embrace a more social justice–oriented outlook in library service planning.
To examine the relationship between monochronic work behavior (behavior that minimizes interruptions on the job) and Type A behavior, 147 faculty members of a midsized…
To examine the relationship between monochronic work behavior (behavior that minimizes interruptions on the job) and Type A behavior, 147 faculty members of a midsized private university responded to a set of questionnaires which measured monochronic work behaviors, Type A behavior, job‐induced stress, research productivity, and number of working projects. Type A behavior was significantly and positively correlated with monochronic behaviors – in other words, Type As were more likely to use behavioral strategies that reduced polychronic thought. Type A and monochronic behaviors were also significantly correlated with job‐induced stress and number of publications. Contrary to the hypothesis, Type A and monochronic behaviors were also positively and significantly correlated with number of working projects.
The purpose of the study is to identify the information needs of patrons in a large Canadian academic library system by analyzing the types of questions asked through the Library’s “Ask A Librarian” system. The results provide information on specific areas of competencies and training for staff providing virtual reference services.
This article looks at virtual reference data collected between January and April 2012 from a large Canadian academic library and provides an analysis of the types of questions asked by library users. The researchers developed a detailed coding scheme for the analysis of question type and referrals made, and used the qualitative analysis software NVivo™ to code and analyze the data.
The results of this analysis found that patrons often tap into synchronous online library help when they encounter challenges with online library resources. Specific areas of patron training to be developed were also identified. Finally, areas for staff training were uncovered which will help the library provide a consistent level of service to patrons.
This is the first study in the library community to conduct a detailed analysis of the virtual reference transcripts from a large Canadian university using the NVivo™ content analysis software. The study developed and employed more detailed coding categories then has been used in previous studies to provide more information about the questions that patrons are unable to complete on their own. The study also captures detailed information pertaining to referrals.