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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1951

S. WEINBERG

In the summer of 1948 the Royal Society held a Scientific Information Conference which issued a lengthy report. This was discussed about a year later in a lecture by…

Abstract

In the summer of 1948 the Royal Society held a Scientific Information Conference which issued a lengthy report. This was discussed about a year later in a lecture by Professor Egerton to the Royal Society of Arts. His opening remarks were intended to startle the audience and were roughly along the following lines. The present rate of publication of scientific papers is approximately one million per annum, a number which is increasing. By far the biggest proportion of these, possibly up to 90 per cent., have little value other than to publicize the fact of their author's existence, since there is far too common a habit of rushing into print before experience has mellowed what might be an arbitrary or immature opinion. It is probable that not even 1 per cent. will have any value or be studied, say, ten years from their date of publication, and the effect of this welter of paper is that those who have to file or classify the information, and who are not in a position to decide the value of each paper, are, to a great extent, wasting their time.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

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Book part
Publication date: 30 June 2004

Belle Rose Ragins

Lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) employees constitute one of the largest, but least studied, minority groups in the workforce. This article examines what we know, and what…

Abstract

Lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) employees constitute one of the largest, but least studied, minority groups in the workforce. This article examines what we know, and what we need to know, about the career and workplace experiences of this understudied population. The construct of sexual identity is defined, followed by a review of the research on sexual orientation in the workplace. Then an analysis of the differences between LGB employees and other stigmatized groups is presented. Three unique challenges facing LGB employees are identified, and conceptual models are developed that explain underlying processes. Finally, career theories are critically analyzed, and an identity-based longitudinal theory of LGB careers is presented.

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Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-103-3

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Julie A. Deisinger

Four types of calculations are currently being used to identify discrepancies between intellectual ability and achievement. These include deviation from grade level…

Abstract

Four types of calculations are currently being used to identify discrepancies between intellectual ability and achievement. These include deviation from grade level, expectancy formulas, simple standard score differences, and regression-based differences (Fletcher et al., 1994; Gresham, 2001; Sattler, 1992; Van den Broeck, 2002).

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Current Perspectives on Learning Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-287-0

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Birnir Egilsson and Harald Dolles

The sports industry is a forerunner in the international quest for talent as the search by sport clubs and the corresponding self-initiated expatriation of athletes starts…

Abstract

Purpose

The sports industry is a forerunner in the international quest for talent as the search by sport clubs and the corresponding self-initiated expatriation of athletes starts at a very early age. The purpose of this paper is to address this phenomenon by exploring the experiences of talented young Icelandic footballers (soccer players) in their transition from Iceland into senior-level professional football in European leagues across six dimensions – three individual and three cultural.

Design/methodology/approach

Biographical narrative interviews have been conducted with eight Icelandic players moving overseas at a young age with the purpose of advancing their career. To investigate the coping strategies applied, a purposeful sampling approach was chosen, given that half of the participants successfully dealt with transitions in their career, while the other half did not experience the same success.

Findings

As an overall result, the expatriate journey for young footballers is complex, influenced by many events, expectations, conditions and pressures that affect their support web and ability to adjust. Reflecting on the experiences of successful transitions, problem-focused coping strategies have been more effective than emotion-focused coping.

Research limitations/implications

This study highlights some necessary conditions and coping strategies for young self-initiated sports expatriates to cope with the expatriate transition successfully.

Originality/value

The authors contribute to research on expatriation, as this specific group of “young professionals” has not yet been addressed by the research within international human resource management. Our research framework responds to calls in the literature to consider additional stages of player development and an array of individual and cultural factors that may have a significant role in shaping players’ careers abroad.

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Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Staci Zavattaro

The purpose of this paper is to use autoethnography to explore notions of self-identity formation and projection. The author uses the stages of grief as an analytical tool…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use autoethnography to explore notions of self-identity formation and projection. The author uses the stages of grief as an analytical tool to explain athletic identity formation and personal effects when an injury removed that part of her self.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses autoethnography, a self-reflective, qualitative methodology meant to engage the researcher's personal experience, which then is potentially adapted and understood by others in similar situations. Autoethnography might pair personal research with existing analytical frameworks and theories, as this story does.

Findings

–The author realized that losing, even temporarily, self-identifying characteristics (here, athletic identity) affects self-esteem, social interactions, and future motion-based endeavors, for fear of starting the cycle of grief again.

Originality/value

The paper is valuable, as many people are “weekend warrior” athletes that identity as a runner, cyclist, triathlete, weight lifter, or general gymgoer. Someone might sustain an injury that leaves him or her feeling similar to the author – and can help them understand the importance of athletic identity. The paper also shows how a well-known framework, stages of grief, can be used not solely as an explanatory tool but an analytical one as well.

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Abstract

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The Environmental State Under Pressure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-854-5

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2009

Anas N. Al‐Rabadi

The purpose of this paper is to introduce new non‐classical implementations of neural networks (NNs). The developed implementations are performed in the quantum, nano, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce new non‐classical implementations of neural networks (NNs). The developed implementations are performed in the quantum, nano, and optical domains to perform the required neural computing. The various implementations of the new NNs utilizing the introduced architectures are presented, and their extensions for the utilization in the non‐classical neural‐systolic networks are also introduced.

Design/methodology/approach

The introduced neural circuits utilize recent findings in the quantum, nano, and optical fields to implement the functionality of the basic NN. This includes the techniques of many‐valued quantum computing (MVQC), carbon nanotubes (CNT), and linear optics. The extensions of implementations to non‐classical neural‐systolic networks using the introduced neural‐systolic architectures are also presented.

Findings

Novel NN implementations are introduced in this paper. NN implementation using the general scheme of MVQC is presented. The proposed method uses the many‐valued quantum orthonormal computational basis states to implement such computations. Physical implementation of quantum computing (QC) is performed by controlling the potential to yield specific wavefunction as a result of solving the Schrödinger equation that governs the dynamics in the quantum domain. The CNT‐based implementation of logic NNs is also introduced. New implementations of logic NNs are also introduced that utilize new linear optical circuits which use coherent light beams to perform the functionality of the basic logic multiplexer by utilizing the properties of frequency, polarization, and incident angle. The implementations of non‐classical neural‐systolic networks using the introduced quantum, nano, and optical neural architectures are also presented.

Originality/value

The introduced NN implementations form new important directions in the NN realizations using the newly emerging technologies. Since the new quantum and optical implementations have the advantages of very high‐speed and low‐power consumption, and the nano implementation exists in very compact space where CNT‐based field effect transistor switches reliably using much less power than a silicon‐based device, the introduced implementations for non‐classical neural computation are new and interesting for the design in future technologies that require the optimal design specifications of super‐high speed, minimum power consumption, and minimum size, such as in low‐power control of autonomous robots, adiabatic low‐power very‐large‐scale integration circuit design for signal processing applications, QC, and nanotechnology.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2018

Tarvo Vaarmets

Gender inequalities in higher education have attracted interest in the academic literature. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Abstract

Purpose

Gender inequalities in higher education have attracted interest in the academic literature. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The author uses standardized high school final exam results and probit regression analysis to contribute to this highly important discussion.

Findings

Based on secondary, non-survey data, female students tend to outperform males in subjects requiring creativity. Consistent with this comparative advantage, female students also tend to be more affected by their abilities in choosing and preferring the related field of humanities as a higher education. In line with female students’ choices, the results presented in the paper confirm that men are more inclined toward exact and natural sciences, even though they do not prove to have stronger abilities in related subjects. In addition, men are also more influenced by their abilities in obtaining a professional higher education. The choice of social sciences is quite similarly affected by the academic abilities of men and women. The paper also provides evidence that, on average, individuals choose their field of study according to their academic abilities.

Originality/value

For evidence, a data set that makes it possible to relate quantitative measures of very different academic abilities to all major academic disciplines is used in the paper. This unique approach has so far been lacking in the literature due to data limitations. In other words, instead of concentrating on a specific area, such as science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), the author takes a broader view.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1996

Chien Liu

The current crisis of sociological theory is due to our failure to do sociology as a positive science‐our failure to accept both explanation and prediction as the goal of…

Abstract

The current crisis of sociological theory is due to our failure to do sociology as a positive science‐our failure to accept both explanation and prediction as the goal of theorizing, and to use predictive power as the primary criterion for assessing theories. It is argued that sociology as a positive science can advance sociological theory. It is also argued that a positive science of sociology is possible by correcting four major fallacies‐i.e., fallacies concerning controlled experiments, realism of assumptions, subjectivity, and complexity.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2003

Gerard Ryan and Mireia Valverde

Although waiting on the Internet is widely recognised as a crucial factor in the evolution of e‐commerce and the Internet in general, it is not a widespread topic of…

Abstract

Although waiting on the Internet is widely recognised as a crucial factor in the evolution of e‐commerce and the Internet in general, it is not a widespread topic of research. This article identifies and reviews 21 papers based on 13 separate empirical studies on waiting on the Internet. The literature draws from the areas of marketing, system response time studies and quality of service studies. Having reviewed the existing literature, this article proposes an agenda for future research. Recommendations are made to extend the range of research methodologies applied to this topic, to broaden the definition of waiting on the Internet to include other forms of online waiting, and to continue the interdisciplinary approach to research on online waiting.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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