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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2013

S. Venkat Prasat and R. Subramanian

The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of fly ash and graphite particles as low cost reinforcing materials for improved wear resistance, enhanced mechanical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of fly ash and graphite particles as low cost reinforcing materials for improved wear resistance, enhanced mechanical properties and reduction in density of hybrid composites.

Design/methodology/approach

The AlSi10Mg/fly ash/graphite (Al/FA/Gr) hybrid composite was synthesised by stir casting method. The dry sliding wear and friction behaviour of hybrid composites were studied using pin-on-disc machine by varying parameters like load and weight fraction of fly ash, and compared with the base metal alloy and aluminium-graphite composite. The tests were conducted with a constant sliding speed of 2 m/s and sliding distance of 2,400 m.

Findings

The hybrid composites exhibit higher hardness, higher tensile strength and lower density when compared to unreinforced alloy and aluminium-graphite composite. The incorporation of fly ash and graphite particles as reinforcements caused a reduction in the wear rate and coefficient of friction (COF) of the hybrid composites. The improvement in the tribological characteristics occured due to the load carrying capacity of hard fly ash particles and the formation of a lubricating film of graphite between the sliding interfaces. The wear rates and COF of unreinforced aluminium alloy and composites increase with an increase in the applied normal load. The wear rates and COF of hybrid composites decrease with an increase in the fly ash content. 9 wt.% fly ash and 3 wt.% graphite reinforced hybrid composite exhibited the highest wear resistance and lowest COF at all applied loads. Abrasive wear and delamination were dominant in the mild wear regime of aluminium alloy and composites. Due to subsurface deformation and crack propagation, plate-like wear debris were generated during delamination wear. In the severe wear regime, the dominant wear mechanism was adhesive wear with formation of transfer layers.

Practical implications

It is expected that these findings will contribute towards the development of lightweight and low cost aluminium products with improved tribological and mechanical properties.

Originality/value

The wear and friction data have been made available in this article for the use of Al/FA/Gr hybrid composites in tribological applications.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 65 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2012

N. Radhika, R. Subramanian, S. Venkat Prasat and B. Anandavel

Recent trends in material science show a considerable interest in the manufacturing of metal matrix composites to meet the stringent demands of lightweight, high strength…

Abstract

Purpose

Recent trends in material science show a considerable interest in the manufacturing of metal matrix composites to meet the stringent demands of lightweight, high strength and corrosion resistance. Aluminium is the popular matrix metal currently in vogue that can be reinforced with ceramic materials such as particulates to meet the desired property. The purpose of this paper is to fabricate hybrid metal matrix composites to improve the dry sliding wear resistance and to study of the effect of sliding speed, load and reinforcement (alumina and graphite) on wear properties, as well as its contact friction.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study addresses the dry sliding wear behaviour of Al‐Si10Mg alloy reinforced with 3, 6 and 9 wt% of alumina along with 3 wt% of graphite. Stir casting method was used to fabricate the composites. Mechanical properties such as hardness and tensile strength have been evaluated. A pin‐on‐disc wear test apparatus was used to evaluate the wear rate and coefficient of friction by varying the loads of 20, 30 and 40 N, sliding speeds of 1.5 m/s, 2.5 m/s and 3.5 m/s at a constant sliding distance of 2100 m.

Findings

Mechanical properties of hybrid metal matrix composites (HMMCs) have shown significant improvement. The wear rate and coefficient of friction for alloy and composites decreased with increase in sliding speed and increased with increase in applied load. Temperature rise during wearing process for monolithic alloy was larger than that of HMMCs and Al/9% Al2O3/3% Gr composite showing the minimum temperature rise.The worn surfaces of the composites were investigated using scanning electron microscope.

Practical implications

The paper shows that aluminium composites can improve strength and wear resistance.

Originality/value

HMMCs has proven to be useful in improving the dry sliding wear resistance.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 64 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2019

Praveen Kumar Bannaravuri and Anil Kumar Birru

The purpose of this paper is to determine the use of BLA along with SiC as economical reinforcements to enhance the mechanical behavior of hybrid composite. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the use of BLA along with SiC as economical reinforcements to enhance the mechanical behavior of hybrid composite. The purpose of this research is the development of cost-effective aluminum hybrid metal matrix composites.

Design/methodology/approach

The present research work investigation evaluated the mechanical properties of Al-4.5%Cu alloy, Al-4.5Cu/10SiC, Al-4.5Cu/10SiC/2BLA and Al-4.5Cu/10SiC/4BLA composites by the Stir casting method. The fabricated composites were analyzed using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and hardness and tensile test.

Findings

The microstructure modification with the addition of reinforcement particles in the matrix alloy and clear interface in between matrix and particles are observed. The density of the composite increased with the addition of SiC and decreased with the addition of BLA in comparison with that of matrix alloy. The hardness and tensile strength of the single-reinforced composite and hybrid composites improved with the addition of reinforcement particles. The strengthening of composites was due to load-bearing capacity of reinforcement particles over the matrix alloy and increased dislocation density of composites materials. The tensile failure mechanism of the composites is reveled with SEM analysis.

Practical implications

The papers reports the development of cost-effective and light weight aluminum hybrid composites with remarkable enhancement in the mechanical and tribological properties with the addition of BLA as economical reinforcement along with SiC.

Originality/value

The density, hardness and tensile values of fabricated aluminium composites were presented in this paper for the use in the engineering applications where the weight and cost are consider as a primary factors.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2019

Kanwar Pal Singh, Arvind Kumar and Deo Raj Kaushal

This paper aims to the transportation of high concentration slurry through pipelines that will require thorough understanding of physical and rheological properties of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to the transportation of high concentration slurry through pipelines that will require thorough understanding of physical and rheological properties of slurry, as well as its hydraulic flow behavior. In spite of several contributions by the previous researchers, there is still a need to enrich the current understanding of hydraulic conveying through pipeline at various flow parameters. The pilot plant loop tests, particularly at high concentrations, are tedious, time-consuming and complex in nature. Therefore, in the current research the prediction methodology for slurry pipeline design based on rheological model of the slurry is used for calculation of pressure drop and other design parameters.

Design/methodology/approach

It has been established that slurry rheology plays important role in the prediction of pressure drop for laminar and turbulent flow of commercial slurries through pipeline. In the current research fly ash slurry at high concentration is chosen for rheological analysis. The effect of particle size and solid concentration is experimentally tested over the rheological behavior of slurry and based on the rheological data a correlation is developed for calculation of pressure drop in slurry pipeline.

Findings

The present study strongly supports the analytical approach of pressure drop prediction based on the rheological parameters obtained from the bench scale tests. The rheological properties are strongly influenced by particle size distribution (PSD), shear rate and solid mass concentration of the slurry samples. Pressure drop along the pipeline is highly influenced by flow velocity and solid concentration. The presence of coarser particles in the slurry samples also leads to high pressure drop along the pipeline. As the concentration of solid increase the shear stress and shear viscosity increase cause higher pressure drop.

Research limitations/implications

The transportation of slurry in the pipeline is very complex as there are lot of factors that affect the flow behavior of slurry in pipelines. From the vast study of literature it is found that flow behavior of slurry changes with the change in parameters such as solids concentration, flow velocity, PSD, chemical additives and so on. Therefore, the accurate prediction of hydraulic parameter is very difficult. Different slurry samples behave differently depending upon their physical and rheological characteristics. So it is required to study each slurry samples individually that is time-consuming and costly.

Practical implications

Nowadays in the world, long distance slurry pipelines are used for the transportation of highly concentration slurries. Many researchers have carried out an experiment in the design aspects of hydraulic transportation system. Rheological characteristics of slurry also play crucial role in determining important parameters of hydraulic conveying such as head loss in commercial slurry pipeline. The current research is useful for the prediction of pressure drop based on rheological behavior of fly ash slurry at various solid concentrations. The current research is helpful for finding the effect of solid concentration and flow velocity on the flow behavior of slurry.

Social implications

Slurry pipeline transportation has advantages over rail and road transportation because of low energy consumption, economical, less maintenance and eco-friendly nature. Presently majority of the thermal power plants in India and other parts of the world dispose of coal ash at low concentration (20 per cent by weight) to ash ponds using the slurry pipeline. Transporting solids in slurry pipelines at higher concentrations will require a thorough knowledge of pressure drop. In the current research a rheological model is proposed for prediction of pressure drop in the slurry pipeline, which is useful for optimization of flow parameters.

Originality/value

All the experimental work is done on fly ash slurry samples collect from the Jharli thermal power plant from Haryana State of India. Bench scale tests are performed in the water resource laboratory of IIT Delhi for physical and rheological analysis of slurry. It has been shown in the results that up to solid concentration of 50 per cent by mass all the samples behave as non-Newtonian and follows a Herschel–Bulkley model with shear thickening behavior. In the present research all the result outcomes are unique and original and does not copied from anywhere.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

X. Canute and M.C. Majumder

Aluminium metal matrix composites are used in automotive and aerospace industries because of their high performance and weight reduction benefits. The current…

Abstract

Purpose

Aluminium metal matrix composites are used in automotive and aerospace industries because of their high performance and weight reduction benefits. The current investigation aims to focus on the development of the stir cast aluminium-boron carbide composites with enhanced mechanical and tribological properties.

Design/methodology/approach

The aluminium-boron carbide composites are produced by stir casting process. Aluminium alloy A356 is chosen as the matrix material and three sets of composites are produced with different weight fractions of boron carbide particles. Higher particle size (63 µm) of boron carbide is chosen as the reinforcement material. Aluminium-boron carbide composites are tested for mechanical and tribological properties. The effect of process parameters like load, speed and percentage of reinforcement on the wear rate are studied using the pin-on-disc method. The interaction of the process parameters with the wear rate is analysed by DesignExpert software using RSM methodology and desirability analysis. The coded levels for parameters for independent variables used in the experimental design are arranged according to the central composite design. The worn surface of the pin is examined using a scanning electron microscope. The phases and reaction products of the composites are identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis.

Findings

Aluminium-boron carbide composites reveal better mechanical properties compared to monolithic aluminium alloys. Mechanical properties improved with the addition of strontium-based master alloy Al10Sr. The ultimate tensile strength, hardness and compressive strength increase with an increase in the reinforcement content. The wettability of the boron carbide particles in the matrix improved with the addition of potassium flurotitanate to the melt. Uniform dispersion of particles into the alloy during melting is facilitated by the addition of magnesium. Wear resistance is optimal at 8 per cent of boron carbide with a load 20 N and sliding speed of 348 RPM. The wear rate is optimized by the numerical optimization method using desirability analysis. The amount of wear is less in Al-B4C composites when compared to unreinforced aluminium alloy. The wear rate increases with an increase in load and decreases with the sliding speed. The wear resistance increases with an increase in the weight fraction of the boron carbide particles.

Practical implications

The produced Al-B4C composites can retain properties at high temperature. It is used in nuclear and automotive products owing its high specific strength and stiffness. The main applications are neutron absorbers, armour plates, high-performance bicycles, brake pads, sand blasting nozzles and pump seals.

Originality/value

Al/B4C composites have good potential in the development of wear-resistant products.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 70 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Ferit Ficici

The paper aims to describe the Taguchi design method-based abrasive wear modeling of in situ AlB2 flake reinforced Al-4Cu matrix alloy composites.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to describe the Taguchi design method-based abrasive wear modeling of in situ AlB2 flake reinforced Al-4Cu matrix alloy composites.

Design/methodology/approach

The abrasive wear behaviors of the composite samples were investigated using pin-on-disk method where the samples slid against different sizes of SiC abrasive grits under various testing conditions. The orthogonal array, signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of variance were used to study the optimal testing parameters on composite samples.

Findings

The weight loss of composites decreased with increasing grit size and percentage reinforcement and increased with increasing sliding speed. The optimum test condition, at which the minimum weight loss is obtained, has been determined to be A3B3C1 levels of the control factors. Deviations between the actual and the predicted S/N ratios for abrasive weight losses are negligibly small with 99.5 per cent confidence level.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils an identification of Taguchi method-based abrasive wear behavior of AlB2/Al-4Cu metal matrix composites produced by squeeze casting under various testing conditions.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 68 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2014

K. Somasundara Vinoth, R. Subramanian, S. Dharmalingam and B. Anandavel

The purpose of this research paper is to find the optimum parameters, namely, the sliding speed, applied load and percentage of silicon carbide particles (SiCp), under…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research paper is to find the optimum parameters, namely, the sliding speed, applied load and percentage of silicon carbide particles (SiCp), under which AlSi10Mg/SiCp composites experience minimum wear.

Design/methodology/approach

Wear rate (WR) of AlSi10Mg, AlSi10Mg/10SiC and AlSi10Mg/20SiC was measured using pin-on-disk equipment according to ASTM G99 standards. Response surface method was used to design the experiments, model and analyze the tribological behaviour. Tests were conducted as per Box–Beheken design of experiments. The wear mechanisms were observed using scanning electron microscope. Genetic algorithm was used to find the optimum parameters for minimum WR.

Findings

Wear mechanisms underwent changes with variation in applied load, sliding speed and per cent SiCp. An optimum wear condition was obtained when the process parameters, namely, the sliding speed, applied load and percentage of SiCp, were at 4 m/s, 10 N and 20 per cent, respectively. Combined GA-RSM approach was successfully used to predict the minimum WR condition of AlSi10Mg/SiCp composites with an accuracy of 94 per cent.

Originality/value

The tribological behaviour of AlSi10Mg/SiCp composites has been investigated in detail. A statistical WR model is proposed. This paper provides an optimum condition to design the tribo contact between steel and AlSi10Mg/SiCp composites.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 66 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2015

Amit Sharma, Manish Garg and Satnam Singh

The purpose of this paper is to develop hybrid aluminum metal matrix composite by stir casting process, reinforced with graphite and hard boron carbide particles to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop hybrid aluminum metal matrix composite by stir casting process, reinforced with graphite and hard boron carbide particles to enhance the wear resistance. An attempt is made to optimize the wear (weight loss) and coefficient of friction (COF) by considering three factors, i.e. normal load, track diameter and sliding speed which were varied at three different levels.

Design/methodology/approach

The effect of graphite and boron carbide on microhardness was studied by adding them in varying percentages. After determining the best combination of hybrid reinforcements, optimization of wear (weight loss) and COF was carried out at various levels of considered factors. Taguchi design of experiments was used using the software “Minitab 16.1”. ANOVA was used to analyze the effect of various parameters on wear and COF. To validate the results, mathematical modeling was carried out in terms of regression equations and results obtained by regression equations.

Findings

The results revealed that the lower weight percentage of graphite (3 per cent) and boron carbide (1 per cent) significantly improved microhardness of developed composites. Results of ANOVA revealed that normal load was the main contributing factor for wear and COF. The results obtained by regression equations and confirmatory tests were within the results obtained by ANOVA.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, very less work has been reported on optimization of wear and COF using hybrid reinforcement particles of graphite and boron carbide.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 67 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

N.C. Kaushik and R.N. Rao

The purpose of the present study is to analyze the wear behavior of developed aluminum hybrid composites under high-stress conditions through developed power law and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the present study is to analyze the wear behavior of developed aluminum hybrid composites under high-stress conditions through developed power law and quadratic equations.

Design/methodology/approach

The abrasive wear behavior of Al–Mg–Si (Al 6082) alloy reinforced with hard silicon carbide (SiC) and soft graphite (Gr) particulates fabricated by stir casting route was studied at loads of 5-15 N, sliding distance of 75 m and abrasive grit size of 100-200 μm. The power law and quadratic equations were developed to understand the wear behavior with respect to the load applied and the abrasive grit size. The worn surfaces of the test specimens and grit papers were examined under scanning electron microscope.

Findings

The density and hardness of the hybrid composites decreased when compared to Al–SiC composites, whereas the wear properties improved because of the presence of Gr. There was further improvement in the wear properties of the materials because of T6 heat treatment. The change in abrasive wear mechanism was observed at a grit size of 125 μm when traversed from alloy to hybrid composite as indicated in terms of exponents in the power law equation. The worn surfaces of hybrid composite pins were comparable with those of alloy pins.

Practical implications

In the automobile sector, components like cylinder liner, piston, crankshafts, brake drums, etc. also undergo abrasive wear along with sliding against the counter surface in working conditions.

Originality/value

The results prove that better wear resistance was obtained under the abrasion condition.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 69 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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