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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1991

E.A. Selvanathan and S. Selvanathan

The consumption patterns of beer, wine and spirits in the UK are analysed to find reasons for the rapid growth in recent years of wine consumption. Data are presented…

Abstract

The consumption patterns of beer, wine and spirits in the UK are analysed to find reasons for the rapid growth in recent years of wine consumption. Data are presented together with the demand model and estimation results. Consumption of the three beverages is simulated to see the effect of various levels of tax and the effects of changes of preference over time. Growth in income, changing preferences and lower tax rates are found to be possible causes for the growth in wine consumption and the corresponding fall in spirits consumption.

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International Journal of Wine Marketing, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-7541

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Book part
Publication date: 13 November 2014

Boqiong Yang, Stephan Brosig and Jianguo Chen

We compare environmental impacts associated with incoming foreign direct investment versus domestic capital in China. We use aggregate data on Chinese provinces’ economic…

Abstract

We compare environmental impacts associated with incoming foreign direct investment versus domestic capital in China. We use aggregate data on Chinese provinces’ economic and pollution indicators to explore the effects of the financial origin of fixed capital. Our simultaneous models consider three prime channels through which these effects work: economic scale, sectoral composition, and pollution intensity. Results show that emissions associated with foreign financed capital are lower than with domestically financed capital for some but not all of the considered types of pollution.

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Globalization and the Environment of China
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-179-4

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2012

Toseef Azid, Adnan M.S. Alamasi, Junaid Mohammad Khawaja and Mohammad Azeem Qureshi

The purpose of this paper is to highlight how rising food prices influence the degree of poverty.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight how rising food prices influence the degree of poverty.

Design/methodology/approach

This is an empirical study employing the simple regression analysis.

Findings

Besides other variables it has been observed that poverty remains an important determinant of a country like Pakistan.

Research limitations/implications

On the basis of this study a socio‐economic policy can be formulated for a developing country like Pakistan.

Practical implications

A development policy (especially considering the urban and rural population) can be formulated on the basis of this research for the provision of basic needs for a developing and an orthodox economy like Pakistan.

Originality/value

This research is beneficial to researchers, policy makers and social scientists for the enhancement of the level of social welfare and poverty alleviation through its findings.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2009

James J. Fogarty

The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the literature on alcohol consumption, the externality cost of alcohol consumption, and the effectiveness of policy options.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the literature on alcohol consumption, the externality cost of alcohol consumption, and the effectiveness of policy options.

Design/methodology/approach

Evidence on the cost to society of alcohol consumption, the amount of excise tax collected, the demand response of consumers, and the effectiveness of alcohol‐control policies is reviewed.

Findings

Alcohol excise taxes generally, but not everywhere, fail to recover the externality costs placed on society that arise from alcohol consumption. Where externality costs are greater than excise revenue higher excise taxes are one effective and appropriate policy response. Complementary policies to higher excise taxes are likely to include: the provision of more information about harmful effects to consumers, especially the young; greater enforcement of drunk‐driving laws and zero tolerance drunk‐driving laws for young drivers. Restrictions on the opening hours of late night venues may have a modest impact on reducing costs, while advertising restrictions are unlikely to be effective.

Originality/value

Typically. articles on alcohol consider a single issue. This review paper brings together information from both the health stream of alcohol studies and the economics stream of alcohol studies and provides a useful survey and synthesis of the literature.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

David J. Evans and Haluk Sezer

This paper sets out to estimate discount rates for EU members, on a consistent time preference basis, for application in the appraisal of social projects. The value of the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper sets out to estimate discount rates for EU members, on a consistent time preference basis, for application in the appraisal of social projects. The value of the discount rate can have an important influence on the allocation of funds between short‐term and long‐term uses.

Design/methodology/approach

A key component of the social discount rate is the elasticity of marginal utility of consumption (e) and it is estimated from OECD data relating to marginal and average rates of income tax. A tax model based on the principle of equal absolute sacrifice of satisfaction is employed.

Findings

The estimated discount rates, based on social time preference, mostly lie in the range 3‐5.5 per cent. The main source of variation in rates is differential growth in per capita consumption. Estimates of e are reasonably consistent and for 15 of the countries they lie in the range 1.3‐1.6.

Research limitations/implications

For more comprehensive tax information, then additional data from each country's tax authority are required. The research on estimates of e and social time preference rates can be extended to cover non‐European countries.

Practical implications

In the interests of a consistent equitable treatment of future generations, member countries of the EU should employ the same methodology in estimating social discount rates.

Originality/value

This paper applies a practical tax‐based approach to the estimation of e for a large number of European countries. The paper will be of interest to academics specialising in welfare economics and to practitioners involved in social project appraisal.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2008

David Evans

The British government takes equity issues formally into account in its appraisal of social projects and policies. However, evidence on which the measured distributional…

Abstract

Purpose

The British government takes equity issues formally into account in its appraisal of social projects and policies. However, evidence on which the measured distributional welfare weights are based is neither broad enough nor sufficiently reliable. This paper seeks to address these issues by considering a wider body of evidence.

Design/methodology/approach

An important component of the welfare weight measure advocated by HM Treasury is the elasticity of marginal utility of consumption (e). A critical review of existing evidence on e is provided with a view to establishing priority areas for further research. New measures of e are presented based on revealed social values as indicated in specific government policies relating to both foreign aid and proposed income‐related fines for offences. Behavioural evidence based on demand analysis using a co‐integration approach is also presented.

Findings

The results for e are sensitive to the estimation approach adopted. While the evidence based on a revealed social values approach including modified tax‐based results suggests that e is close to unity, the measure currently used by HM Treasury, demand analysis suggests an e value close to 1.5. The evidence based on lifetime consumption behaviour is sensitive to model specification and needs updating.

Originality/value

Modified tax‐based findings on e are presented along with new evidence based on alternative revealed social values approaches. The new evidence from demand analysis is based on an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach to co‐integration. This paper will be of interest to academics specialising in welfare economics and to practitioners involved in social project appraisal.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2013

Athula Naranpanawa, Saroja Selvanathan and Jayatilleke Bandara

There has been growing interest in recent years in modelling various poverty‐related issues. However, there have not been many attempts at empirical estimation of best‐fit…

Abstract

Purpose

There has been growing interest in recent years in modelling various poverty‐related issues. However, there have not been many attempts at empirical estimation of best‐fit income distribution functions with an objective of subsequent use in poverty focused models. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap by empirically estimating best‐fit income distribution functions for different household income groups and computing poverty and inequality indices for Sri Lanka.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors empirically estimated a number of popular distribution functions found in the income distribution literature to find the best‐fit income distribution using household income and expenditure survey data for Sri Lanka and subsequently estimated various poverty and inequality measures.

Findings

The results show that the income distributions of all low‐income household groups follow the beta general probability distribution. The poverty measures derived using these distributions show that among the different income groups, the estate low‐income group has the highest incidence of poverty, followed by the rural low‐income group.

Originality/value

According to the best of the authors' knowledge, empirical estimation of income distribution functions for South Asia has never been attempted. The results of this study, even though based on Sri Lankan data, will be relevant to most developing countries in South Asia and will be very useful in developing poverty alleviation strategies.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 2 March 2020

Robin Roberts, Lorelle Frazer, Scott Weaven and Park Thaichon

This chapter is a descriptive and exploratory study of the challenges and opportunities faced by franchisors in adapting their franchise systems to accommodate cultural…

Abstract

This chapter is a descriptive and exploratory study of the challenges and opportunities faced by franchisors in adapting their franchise systems to accommodate cultural diversity among franchisees. It uses literature on migrant entrepreneurs and cultural diversity in small business settings in the United Kingdom, Europe, and the Americas as a basis for application to a franchising context. Triggered by events in the Australian franchising sector over the past two years, in which franchise systems have been embroiled in controversial and illegal activities undertaken by franchisees – many of whom were business migrants – the research begins to unravel the complexities of utilizing migrant franchisees as vehicles of system growth. Two sources of data provide indicative evidence about the issues associated with migrant franchisees. Firstly, two surveys of franchisors were conducted in 2014 and 2016 to obtain descriptive data about the incidence of migrants as franchisees. Secondly, a series of focus groups provided insights into the challenges and opportunities faced by franchisors in recruiting and managing migrant franchisees. Tentative findings of best practice in accommodating migrant franchisees are revealed. This research begins to fill an important gap in the literature about cultural diversity in franchising.

Details

Entrepreneurial Opportunities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-286-2

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Book part
Publication date: 11 April 2013

Evans S. Osabuohien, Uchenna R. Efobi and Ciliaka M.W. Gitau

Purpose – This study provides insight on how Sub-Sahara African (SSA) countries can ameliorate the impact of environmental pollution in the face of increasing inflow of…

Abstract

Purpose – This study provides insight on how Sub-Sahara African (SSA) countries can ameliorate the impact of environmental pollution in the face of increasing inflow of multinational corporations (MNCs).Design/methodology/approach – An analytical model describing the role of institutions in reducing the environmental impact of MNCs was formulated and analysed for a sample of 43 SSA countries (1996–2010) using descriptive and the System Generalised Method of Moments techniques.Findings – It was found that the ‘tragedy’ of environmental pollution can be ‘managed’ if there are strong institutional framework especially regulatory quality and government effectiveness that will drive environmental policies and make MNCs to comply to the tenets of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in host countries. The study also established that the environmental hazards in the previous year will occur in the current year, but with strong institutions in place, it will be at a decreasing rate. How increase in trade, inflow of MNCs and population growth affect the current extent of environmental pollution was underscored.Research limitation – Aggregated data on the variables were utilised, and thus the results were dependent on the reliability of the data. Examining how MNCs respond to CSR with respect to environmental issues in SSA can be taken up in future studies using micro-data. This will complement this study and further establish the impact of MNCs activities on the environment in SSA.Originality/value of chapter – The relevance of institutions in regulating the behaviours of MNCs with regards to environmental pollution in SSA was emphasised.

Details

Principles and Strategies to Balance Ethical, Social and Environmental Concerns with Corporate Requirements
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-627-9

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 2 April 2020

Sheereen Fauzel

Based on a panel vector error correction model (PVECM), this study aims to investigate the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on tourism development in a selected…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on a panel vector error correction model (PVECM), this study aims to investigate the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on tourism development in a selected group of 17 small island economies during 1995-2018. In the long run, a positive and direct relationship was found between foreign investment and tourists’ arrival. Moreover, economic performance and tourists’ income were also found to be key determinants of tourism development. It is further observed that there is bidirectional causality between the two variables. Hence, one can argue that FDI is a key element for tourism development. So, if the countries can attract more FDI and grow economically, these elements will contribute positively to the sector in the future.

Design/methodology/approach

This work uses rigorous dynamic time series analysis, namely, a dynamic PVECM, which takes into account dynamism and endogeneity issues in tourism modelling. Furthermore, the PVECM is also appropriately suited for integrating short- and long-run analysis.

Findings

The results confirm that FDI has been an important ingredient in the tourism development of the island economies in the long run. Interestingly, a bidirectional causality between FDI and tourism development is validated. Moreover, growth will as well be important. So, if the country can attract more FDI and grow economically, these elements will attract the tourists of the future.

Originality/value

Relatively few studies have rigorously studied the relationships between FDI and tourism development, particularly with respect to developing countries and small island states which rely heavily on tourism as well as FDI. As such existing research has neglected dynamic and reverse causality analysis in their respective FDI-tourism modelling. This study thus attempts to address the above and supplement the literature by investigating the direct and indirect relationship between FDI and tourism development for the case of small island economies over the period 1995-2018. Moreover, the implication of foreign capital inflows on tourism futures will as well be developed.

Details

Journal of Tourism Futures, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-5911

Keywords

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