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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Mica Grujicic, S. Ramaswami and Jennifer Snipes

In the recent work, a new blast-wave impact-mitigation concept involving the use of a protective structure consisting of bimolecular reactants (polyvinyl…

Abstract

Purpose

In the recent work, a new blast-wave impact-mitigation concept involving the use of a protective structure consisting of bimolecular reactants (polyvinyl pyridine+cyclohexyl chloride), capable of undergoing a chemical reaction (to form polyvinyl pyridinium ionic salt) under shockwave loading conditions, was investigated using all-atom reactive equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular-dynamics analyses. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the beneficial shockwave dispersion/attenuation effects offered by the chemical reaction, direct simulations of a fully supported single planar shockwave propagating through the reactive mixture were carried out, and the structure of the shock front examined as a function of the extent of the chemical reaction (i.e. as a function of the strength of the incident shockwave). The results obtained clearly revealed that chemical reactions give rise to considerable broadening of the shockwave front. In the present work, the effect of chemical reactions and the structure of the shockwaves are investigated at the continuum level.

Design/methodology/approach

Specifically, the problem of the (conserved) linear-momentum accompanying the interaction of an incident shockwave with the protective-structure/protected-structure material interface has been investigated, within the steady-wave/structured-shock computational framework, in order to demonstrate and quantify an increase in the time period over which the momentum is transferred and a reduction in the peak loading experienced by the protected structure, both brought about by the occurrence of the chemical reaction (within the protective structure).

Findings

The results obtained clearly revealed the beneficial shock-mitigation effects offered by a protective structure capable of undergoing a chemical reaction under shock-loading conditions.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, the present manuscript is the first report dealing with a continuum-level analysis of the blast-mitigation potential of chemical reactions.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 27 January 2012

Tiziana Russo Spena, Angela Caridà, Maria Colurcio and Monia Melia

The purpose of this paper is to focus on Temporary Shops, a recent communication and distribution innovation used by firms in order to improve interaction with customers…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on Temporary Shops, a recent communication and distribution innovation used by firms in order to improve interaction with customers and to reinforce brand loyalty and equity. The main aim of the study is to frame the Temporary Shops phenomenon in Italy and to analyze its value co‐creation potential.

Design/methodology/approach

The DART model proposed by Prahalad and Ramaswamy has been chosen as the theoretical framework for understanding the Temporary Shops phenomenon. The authors investigate the process of value co‐creation inside the Temporary Shops through its four key building blocks, namely, dialogue, access, risk/benefits and transparency. Through a multiple‐case study, the authors study in‐depth evidence from five leading firms that represent the main Temporary Shops in Italy over the last two years.

Findings

Temporary Shops provide a locus of value co‐creation in which the interactive and experiential relationship between the firm and the customer is engaged and value co‐creation emerges.

Research limitations/implications

There are two main limitations: this study is exploratory and analyzes co‐creation only from the company perspective. Further studies may widen the unit of analysis from firm to customer's network and thus provide further insights about antecedents and implications of the interaction in a multi‐sensory context.

Originality/value

The work contributes to understanding the role of experiential environment in value co‐creation processes, as well as analyzing the contribution of a new distribution phenomenon with respect to co‐creation through the application of the DART model.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Mica Grujicic, Jennifer Snipes and S. Ramaswami

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze a new blast-wave impact-mitigation concept using advanced computational methods and tools. The concept involves the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze a new blast-wave impact-mitigation concept using advanced computational methods and tools. The concept involves the use of a protective structure consisting of bimolecular reactants displaying a number of critical characteristics, including: a high level of thermodynamic stability under ambient conditions (to ensure a long shelf-life of the protective structure); the capability to undergo fast/large-yield chemical reactions under blast-impact induced shock-loading conditions; large negative activation and reaction volumes to provide effective attenuation of the pressure-dominated shockwave stress field through the volumetric-energy storing effects; and a large activation energy for efficient energy dissipation. The case of a particular bimolecular chemical reaction involving polyvinyl pyridine and cyclohexyl chloride as reactants and polyvinyl pyridinium ionic salt as the reaction product is analyzed.

Design/methodology/approach

Direct simulations of single planar shockwave propagations through the reactive mixture are carried out, and the structure of the shock front examined, as a function of the occurrence of the chemical reaction. To properly capture the shockwave-induced initiation of the chemical reactions during an impact event, all the calculations carried out in the present work involved the use of all-atom molecular-level equilibrium and non-equilibrium reactive molecular-dynamics simulations. In other words, atomic bonding is not pre-assigned, but is rather determined dynamically and adaptively using the concepts of the bond order and atomic valence.

Findings

The results obtained clearly reveal that when the chemical reactions are allowed to take place at the shock front and in the shockwave, the resulting shock front undergoes a considerable level of dispersion. Consequently, the (conserved) linear momentum is transferred (during the interaction of the protective-structure borne shockwaves with the protected structure) to the protected structure over a longer time period, while the peak loading experienced by the protected structure is substantially reduced.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, the present work is the first attempt to simulate shock-induced chemical reactions at the molecular level, for purposes of blast-mitigation.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2004

Tao Gao

This paper delves into the mechanism of the contingency framework for foreign entry mode decisions and identifies two essential tasks that jointly determine the outcome of…

Abstract

This paper delves into the mechanism of the contingency framework for foreign entry mode decisions and identifies two essential tasks that jointly determine the outcome of the entry mode decision. It then recognizes a critical weakness in previous research pertaining to the comparison of entry modes along a key decision criterion, the degree of control. Existing studies generally treat equity involvement as the only source of entrant control, while largely ignoring non‐equity sources of control (i.e., bargaining power and trust). Non‐equity sources of control, when underutilized, amount to missed opportunities, increased resource commitments, and heightened risk exposures in foreign markets. Drawing from a pluralism perspective in transaction and relationship governance, the author presents a more integrative method for the ranking of entry modes along the degree of control. The central message is that companies entering foreign markets should make an earnest effort to identify trust and bargaining power situations and fully utilize their control potential in making entry mode decisions.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2004

Paula Caligiuri, Mila Lazarova and Stephan Zehetbauer

Using a sample of 76 US‐based multinational firms, this study tests two hypotheses: whether top management teams' national diversity, and the number of countries of…

Abstract

Using a sample of 76 US‐based multinational firms, this study tests two hypotheses: whether top management teams' national diversity, and the number of countries of operation worldwide are related to other established indicators of internationalization. Results suggest that both hypothesized indicators are aspects of the nomological network for a firm's internationalization.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 23 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Mica Grujicic, Jennifer Snipes and S. Ramaswami

The purpose of this paper is to model a nacre-like composite material, consisting of tablets and polyurea tablet/tablet interfaces, B4C. This composite material is being…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to model a nacre-like composite material, consisting of tablets and polyurea tablet/tablet interfaces, B4C. This composite material is being considered in the construction of the so-called backing-plate, a layer within a multi-functional/multi-layer armor system.

Design/methodology/approach

Considering the basic functions of the backing-plate (i.e. to provide structural support for the ceramic-strike-face and to stop a high-velocity projectile and the accompanying fragments) in such an armor system, the composite-material architecture is optimized with respect to simultaneously achieving high flexural stiffness and high ballistic-penetration resistance. Flexural stiffness and penetration resistance, for a given architecture of the nacre-like composite material, are assessed using a series of transient non-linear dynamics finite-element analyses. The suitability of the optimized composite material for use in backing-plate applications is then evaluated by comparing its performance against that of the rolled homogeneous armor (RHA), a common choice for the backing-plate material.

Findings

The results obtained established: a trade-off between the requirements for a high flexural stiffness and a high ballistic-penetration resistance in the nacre-like composite material; and overall superiority of the subject composite material over the RHA when used in the construction of the backing-plate within multi-functional/multi-layer armor systems.

Originality/value

This study extends the authors previous research on nacre-mimetic armor to optimize the architecture of the armor with respect to its flexural stiffness and ballistic-penetration resistance, so that these properties could be increased over the levels attained in the current choice (RHA) for the backing layer of multi-functional/multi-layer armor.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 18 November 2013

Harun Emre Yildiz

Previous theoretical explanations and empirical analyses of the multinationality-performance relationship have produced mixed arguments and results. Linear and curvilinear…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous theoretical explanations and empirical analyses of the multinationality-performance relationship have produced mixed arguments and results. Linear and curvilinear relationships have been theorized and confirmed empirically. This study aims to reconcile earlier mixed findings by incorporating the role of entry mode choice as a moderating variable.

Design/methodology/approach

Extensive literature survey is conducted in order to provide an explanation for the different performance patterns of internationalization via licensing, joint venture and wholly owned subsidiary.

Findings

Based on the assumptions of Transaction Cost Economics and Organizational Capability perspectives, several research propositions about the multinationality-performance relationship are formulated, which provide a more fine-tuned approach to the performance implications of multinationality.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to multinationality-performance debate by showing that the impact of multinationality depends on the firm-level strategies implemented while going international; to be more precise, the net benefits from multinationality are likely to vary for different modes of foreign market entry.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

Ikechi Ekeledo and K. Sivakumar

This research has two major purposes: developing and testing a resource‐based framework for entry mode choice and ascertaining the extent to which the determinants of…

Abstract

This research has two major purposes: developing and testing a resource‐based framework for entry mode choice and ascertaining the extent to which the determinants of foreign market entry mode choice in the manufacturing sector apply to foreign market entry mode choice in the non‐separable service sector. Using mail survey data collected from top‐level managers of US firms that had been engaged in international business, the article tests a number of research hypotheses concerning foreign market entry mode choice in the manufacturing and service sectors. The managerial and research implications of the findings are delineated and directions for future research are offered.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Mica Grujicic, Jennifer Snipes and S. Ramaswami

In order to help explain experimental findings related to the stabbing- and ballistic-penetration resistance of flexible body-armor, single-yarn pull-out tests, involving…

Abstract

Purpose

In order to help explain experimental findings related to the stabbing- and ballistic-penetration resistance of flexible body-armor, single-yarn pull-out tests, involving specially prepared fabric-type test coupons, are often carried out. The purpose of this paper is to develop a finite-element-based computational framework for the simulation of the single-yarn pull-out test, and applied to the case of Kevlar® KM2 fabric.

Design/methodology/approach

Three conditions of the fabric are considered: neat, i.e, as-woven; polyethylene glycol (PEG)-infiltrated; and shear-thickening fluid (STF)-infiltrated. Due to differences in the three conditions of the fabric, the computational framework had to utilize three different finite-element formulations: standard Lagrangian formulation for the neat fabric; combined Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for the PEG-infiltrated fabric (an Eulerian subdomain had to be used to treat the PEG solvent/dispersant); and combined continuum Lagrangian/discrete-particle formulation for the STF-infiltrated fabric (to account for the interactions of the particles suspended in PEG, which give rise to the STF character of the suspension, with the yarns, the particles had to be treated explicitly).

Findings

The results obtained for the single-yarn pull-out virtual tests are compared with the authors’ experimental counterparts, and a reasonably good agreement is obtained, for all three conditions of the fabric.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, the present work represents the first attempt to simulate single-yarn pull-out tests of Kevlar® KM2 fabric.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Katharina Laufs, Michael Bembom and Christian Schwens

Using arguments from the upper echelons perspective this paper aims to examine the impact of CEO characteristics on small and medium-sized enterprises’ (SMEs’) equity…

Abstract

Purpose

Using arguments from the upper echelons perspective this paper aims to examine the impact of CEO characteristics on small and medium-sized enterprises’ (SMEs’) equity foreign market entry mode choice and how these associations are jointly moderated by geographic experience of the firm and host-country political risk.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical analysis draws on data gathered from German SMEs testing triple-interaction effects between CEO’s age, firm tenure and international experience, geographic experience of the firm (organizational level), and host-country political risk (environmental level).

Findings

Empirical findings validate that the influence of CEO’s age and firm tenure on SME foreign market entry mode choice varies by managers’ level of managerial discretion (i.e. latitude of action) as determined by the SME’s geographic experience and the level of political risks prevailing in the foreign market.

Practical implications

Empirical findings help SME owners and managers to understand how CEO’s age and firm tenure are related with individual’s risk-taking behavior and information-processing demands and how these contingencies vary by the context in which the individual CEO is nested.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the growing body of literature focussing on SME foreign market entry mode choice by emphasizing the important role of CEOs in the decision to internationalize. More specific, this study contributes by an examination of the interactive effect of CEO’s age, firm tenure and international experience, geographic experience of the firm and host-country political risk and, therefore, emphasizes the context and boundary conditions under which the association between CEO characteristics and foreign market entry mode choice is more or less pronounced.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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