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Article
Publication date: 18 July 2020

Hendryk Dittfeld, Kirstin Scholten and Dirk Pieter Van Donk

Risks can easily disrupt the demand–supply match targeted by sales and operations planning (S&OP). As surprisingly little is known of how organizations identify, assess…

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Abstract

Purpose

Risks can easily disrupt the demand–supply match targeted by sales and operations planning (S&OP). As surprisingly little is known of how organizations identify, assess, treat and monitor risks through tactical planning processes, this paper zooms in on the S&OP set-up and process parameters to explore how risks are managed through S&OP.

Design/methodology/approach

A multiple case study analyzes the S&OP processes of seven organizations in the process industry, drawing on 17 in-depth interviews with high-ranking representatives, internal and external documents, and a group meeting with participating organizations.

Findings

The study finds that organizations proactively design their S&OP based on their main risk focus stemming from the planning environment. In turn, such designs proactively support organizations' risk identification, assessment, treatment and monitoring through their S&OP execution. Reactively, a crisis S&OP meeting – making use of the structure of S&OP – can be used as a risk-treatment tool, and S&OP design can be temporarily adapted to deal with emerging risks.

Originality/value

This study is among the first to empirically elucidate risk management through S&OP. S&OP design, execution and adaption are identified as three interconnected strategies that allow organizations to manage risks. The design enables risk management activities in the monthly execution of S&OP. The reactive role of S&OP in risk management is particularly novel.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 51 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 July 2020

Jan Stentoft, Per Vagn Freytag and Ole Stegmann Mikkelsen

The purpose of this paper is to extend the research domain of Sales & Operations Planning (S&OP) beyond the hard issues by focusing on soft issues in S&OP processes. This…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extend the research domain of Sales & Operations Planning (S&OP) beyond the hard issues by focusing on soft issues in S&OP processes. This paper aims to investigate how consciousness of different personality types can affect S&OP processes.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on a single longitudinal case study from a medium-sized enterprise with a data collection period of more than two years. This paper is based on observation and interviews gathered at several stages during pilot implementation and operation phases.

Findings

This paper indicates that a focus on behavior using personality type theory and key behavioral indicators has provided a common framework for understanding how the S&OP process is impacted by different personalities and behavior. This knowledge has increased the awareness of which behavior sustains a silo mentality and which behavior breaks it down. Quotations are used to provide substance of this explorative topic.

Research limitations/implications

As a single case study, this paper only provides results for analytical generalization.

Practical implications

Consciousness of behavioral elements in S&OP processes is proposed here as a complement to key performance indicators as levers to implement and obtain sustained operation of S&OP.

Originality/value

This paper is the first explicitly integrating personality type theory for a better understanding of implementing and operating S&OP processes. This paper contributes with a new understanding of S&OP success factors and how a common language may improve process efficiency.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 51 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 June 2021

Gustavo Bagni, Juliana Keiko Sagawa and Moacir Godinho Filho

This paper aims to detail how a Sales and Operations Planning (S&OP) process can be designed to support the planning requirements of recently introduced products.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to detail how a Sales and Operations Planning (S&OP) process can be designed to support the planning requirements of recently introduced products.

Design/methodology/approach

Design science research was conducted to propose and implement an S&OP model for demand fulfillment after the introduction of new products. The results were analyzed using the CIMO (Context, Intervention, Mechanisms and Outcomes) logic, and two sets of design propositions were formulated.

Findings

An S&OP process for new products can reduce additional costs for market fulfillment by concentrating the planning efforts on new products, aligning organizational efforts, and increasing the sales and supply chain information’s update frequency.

Research limitations/implications

The outcomes of S&OP new products were analyzed in a single organization and are limited to the contextual factors presented.

Practical implications

This paper describes in detail how to organize an S&OP focused on new products. By considering the contextual factors and design propositions, managers can potentially increase the success of new products introduction (NPI) in their context.

Originality/value

A specific S&OP process focused on new products is a viable solution and could co-exist with a traditional S&OP process. Moreover, we identified six contextual factors that influence the outcomes of the S&OP new products.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 52 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 January 2018

Jesper Kristensen and Patrik Jonsson

The purpose of this paper is to describe and categorise how current literature contributes to sales and operations planning (S&OP) research on how contextual variables…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe and categorise how current literature contributes to sales and operations planning (S&OP) research on how contextual variables affect S&OP design and to frame future areas for context-based S&OP research.

Design/methodology/approach

The method used was a systematic literature review. Studies for review were obtained through a keyword search of five relevant databases, manual searches of relevant journals and snowballing of citations in relevant papers. In total, 571 papers published between 2000 and 2017 were assessed, and 68 papers were included in the review.

Findings

The review found that S&OP design depends on industry, dynamic complexity, detail complexity and organisational characteristics. The findings of the literature review suggest that future research should study the roles of industry, complexity, system and process and organisational characteristics in S&OP design.

Research limitations/implications

The findings revealed several gaps in the literature on context-dependent S&OP design. To address these gaps, an agenda for future S&OP contingency research is developed.

Practical implications

The findings revealed which contextual areas and specific S&OP design issues must be considered when designing and implementing S&OP.

Originality/value

This study focussed on identifying relevant research on S&OP design by analysing the contribution of literature to a research framework inspired by contingency-based research of operations and supply chain management.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 March 2022

Andre Tchokogué, Thomas Ngniatedema and Gilles Pache

The purpose of this case study is to develop a complete understanding of the sales and operations planning (S&OP) process implementation effort at ASTRO Inc. and to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this case study is to develop a complete understanding of the sales and operations planning (S&OP) process implementation effort at ASTRO Inc. and to determine the influential factors that led to its success, the interrelationship between them, as well as the level of influence of each factor compared to their counterparts. As we trace the evolution of S&OP in the organizational context, the view that its implementation leads to a positive impact in changing the way companies do business is not in itself novel. To date, there is limited academic investigation on how and why the S&OP process implementation leads to a successful organizational transformation.

Design/methodology/approach

The data used in this case study were collected through semi-structured interviews with selected employees and through documentary analyses based on the archives at ASTRO Inc., a large North American company, for the period from 2016 to 2018. The paper adopts a methodology based on a retrospective study and interviews.

Findings

The analysis shows that the S&OP process design and its implementation required efforts on many distinct but complementary fronts to be successful. However, the level of influence varies across the organizational enablers that contribute to this success. Its successful implementation is fundamentally dependent on the managers' ability to create mindset changes in the organizational culture, and to plan and coordinate the S&OP process deployment. The key enablers need to be skillfully combined, taking into account the contextual variables, namely, the company's internal context, the company's external context and the specific characteristics of the industry in which the company belongs.

Originality/value

The current study provides a better understanding of the implementation of the S&OP process and highlights the key enablers that led to its successful implementation. It provides practical managerial guidelines for designing, deploying and using an S&OP process in response to and in anticipation of customer demands, and competitive pressures.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 January 2022

Marcelo Seeling, Tobias Kreuter, Luiz Felipe Scavarda, Antonio Márcio Tavares Thomé and Bernd Hellingrath

This paper aims to offer evidence-based findings on the under-researched role of finance in the sales and operations planning (S&OP) process, aiming to guide academics and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to offer evidence-based findings on the under-researched role of finance in the sales and operations planning (S&OP) process, aiming to guide academics and practitioners towards successful S&OP implementations.

Design/methodology/approach

The research builds upon a multiple case study, embracing five Latin American subsidiaries of four global manufacturing corporations from the consumer goods, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Following an exploratory approach, the case study results are analysed in within- and cross-case analyses.

Findings

The research findings are synthesised into a framework, demonstrating relevant benefits from the engagement of finance along the S&OP process and the implications of its interactions with traditional S&OP functions as sales, marketing and operations. The paper shows how finance adds value in supporting the process, enabling decisions on costs, margins, capital expenditures and return on investments. Finance strengthens S&OP when assessing demand- and supply-related risks and facilitates comparing the functional business areas' plans to budget. While finance participation is highlighted as necessary for supporting successful S&OP implementations, it also receives valuable inputs in return, characterising a two-way communication role that benefits the entire organisation.

Originality/value

This is the first research paper focusing on empirically exploring the role of finance within S&OP, going beyond initial insights from practice and academia. It provides practitioners and scholars with an in-depth, evidence-based view of finance's integration along the S&OP process.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 September 2011

S. Vali-Shariatpanahi, S. Noroozi and J. Vinney

This paper presents the results from a study of the in-plane (interlamina) shear characteristics of specific CFRP with a particular balanced lay-up of 12 ply cured…

Abstract

This paper presents the results from a study of the in-plane (interlamina) shear characteristics of specific CFRP with a particular balanced lay-up of 12 ply cured laminates. This study involved a detailed experimental program to determine the material properties. The material properties were used for the failure analysis of a new type of fastener joint for composite laminates, which has a potential use in the aerospace industry. Twenty shear tests were carried out using a minimum of 6 specimens for every lay-up. Although some thickness tolerances issues were caused by using different laminate lay-ups, all other geometric parameters were kept similar. Ply failures were observed for 45°/90°, 45°, 90° specimens. An FE model was also developed for each particular lay-up and compared against the test data. It was also used to determine why each coupon failed in a certain way. The FE model uses 2D unsymmetrical material properties with shell elements representing the thickness. In terms of boundary conditions the model was constrained at one end of the specimen and in two directions with a compressive load applied at the other end.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2015

Linea Kjellsdotter Ivert, Iskra Dukovska-Popovska, Anna Fredriksson, Heidi C. Dreyer and Riikka Kaipia

– The purpose of this paper is to understand how companies design sales and operations planning (S & OP) contingent on the planning environment (PE).

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand how companies design sales and operations planning (S & OP) contingent on the planning environment (PE).

Design/methodology/approach

On the basis of the literature, the paper creates an analytical framework identifying the main constructs related to the PE and S & OP design, which is the basis for gathering and analysing qualitative data from eight cases in the food industry. The findings highlight the relations between S & OP and the PE, and are used for generating three propositions.

Findings

Responding to the complex and uncertain PE, the companies set up S & OP on a stock-keeping unit (SKU) level, with the possibility of re-planning and a flexible planning horizon, thus differing from what has generally been suggested in the literature. In addition, the companies are aligning the inputs, activities, and outcomes of the S & OP process to the PE. Particularly important environmental contingencies are uncertainty connected to demand and supply, frequent product launches, and production network complexity. Product-related variables have a lower impact on the S & OP design.

Research limitations/implications

The present study is limited to one industry only and a comparison between industries with larger data sets would be valuable in future studies. The study selected cases based on their S & OP maturity; further studies need to explore the effect of the alignment of S & OP and the PE on the planning performance.

Originality/value

In the literature, S & OP is presented as a generic process with a strict formal design that is equal for all companies. The study provides insights into how companies adjust S & OP according to the PE.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 45 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Shao Hung Goh and Stephen Eldridge

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the implementation and performance benefits of sales and operations planning (S & OP) within organizations in Asia…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the implementation and performance benefits of sales and operations planning (S & OP) within organizations in Asia Pacific.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study method was used, with two companies selected. The first company had recently commenced S & OP and applied it to facilitate new product introduction, while the second had integrated its supplier into an existing S & OP program. Supply chain performance data were collected and analyzed in the context of an S & OP maturity framework.

Findings

Both cases show significant improvements in supply chain performance. In one case, the implementation of a common form of S & OP resulted in a 67 percent reduction in order lead time for newly introduced products. The second case demonstrated a 30 percent reduction in inventory levels and a 52 percent improvement in forecast accuracy through more advanced S & OP processes.

Research limitations/implications

This paper studies just two companies and is not intended to be representative of outcomes at all companies implementing S & OP. Further studies are required for a more generalized picture of S & OP implementations in the Asia Pacific region to emerge.

Practical implications

The findings illustrate the potential quantitative benefits of adopting S & OP and the circumstances under which these benefits may be achieved. The results are also supportive of the notion of a maturity model for S & OP implementations.

Originality/value

This paper strengthens the link between practitioner and academic literature by providing empirical evidence of the benefits of S & OP. Furthermore, the findings are derived from the Asia Pacific region for which there have been few academic studies on S & OP to date.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 45 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 December 2019

Effat Hatefnia, Esmat Hossini and Mitra Rahimzadeh

Using the PRECEDE model, the purpose of this paper is to determine the predictors of mothers’ performance in daily consumption of fruit and vegetables (FV) in rural preschoolers.

Abstract

Purpose

Using the PRECEDE model, the purpose of this paper is to determine the predictors of mothers’ performance in daily consumption of fruit and vegetables (FV) in rural preschoolers.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was carried out on 350 mothers of preschool children who had health records in the rural health-care centers of Iran. To collect data, a researcher-made questionnaire based on the PRECEDE model was used. The data were analyzed using the SPSS 19 software.

Findings

The results showed that 11.42 percent of the mothers observed the FV intake for their children recommended by WHO. The independent t-test showed a significant difference between the mean scores of predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors.

Originality/value

This study showed that the rate of FV intake by preschool children in rural areas was much lower than the recommended WHO rate. To promote behavior, attention to the predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors seems to be necessary.

Details

Health Education, vol. 120 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

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