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Article
Publication date: 8 March 2018

Mohd Rashid, Umesh S. Waware, Afidah A. Rahim and A.M.S. Hamouda

The purpose of this study is to compare the inhibitive effect of polyaniline (PAni) and N-cetyl-N,N,N trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)-stabilized PAni in a hydrochloric…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to compare the inhibitive effect of polyaniline (PAni) and N-cetyl-N,N,N trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)-stabilized PAni in a hydrochloric acid (HCl) medium.

Design/methodology/approach

PAni has been deposited potentiodynamically on mild steel in the presence of CTAB as a stabilizing agent to achieve high corrosion inhibition performance by the polymer deposition. The corrosion inhibition studies of CTAB-stabilized PAni inhibitor in 0.1 M HCl acidic solution was carried out by electrochemical methods, namely, open-circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique.

Findings

The results of electrochemical studies have shown that the CTAB-stabilized PAni inhibitor has higher corrosion efficiency than PAni on mild steel in 0.1 M HCl solution. The maximum per cent efficiency evaluated using the potentiodynamic polarization method is approximately 91.9.

Originality/value

CTAB-stabilized PAni has never been studied as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in an acidic medium. The investigations demonstrate relatively the better corrosion inhibition efficiency and high dispersion of the polymer in the acidic medium.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 65 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2008

A.P. Srikanth, V. Raman, S. Tamilselvi, S. Nanjundan and N. Rajendran

This paper aims to investigate the protection efficiency of a thin film of electrochemically synthesized conducting polymers, such as poly m‐toluidine, poly N‐methyl…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the protection efficiency of a thin film of electrochemically synthesized conducting polymers, such as poly m‐toluidine, poly N‐methyl aniline, and its copolymer, poly (aniline‐co‐N‐methyl aniline) (PANINMA), on plain carbon steel in 0.1 M HCl. It also attempts to compare the protection efficiency of these compounds with polyaniline (PANI)‐coated carbon steel.

Design/methodology/approach

The green coloured and adherent coatings were obtained by cyclic voltammetry during sequential scanning of the potential region between −0.6 and 1.6 V at a scan rate of 10 mVs−1. Potentiodynamic polarization measurement (DC) was used to obtain an estimate of the corrosion rate and protection efficiency for these electrodeposited polymers on the carbon steel. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) also were obtained to characterize the deposited coatings.

Findings

It was observed that these polymer coatings showed better protection efficiency than the PANI coating. Of the compounds studied, the copolymer PANINMA coating showed higher protection efficiency than other coatings. The SEM observations revealed that the compact continuous dense morphology of PANINMA provided better protection than other coatings.

Originality/value

This paper explains the protection efficiency of the substituted and copolymer coatings of PANI on carbon steel.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 55 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2005

R. Ravichandran, S. Nanjundan and N. Rajendran

Copper and its alloys are widely used in industries because of their good resistance to corrosion and are often used in cooling water systems. Brass has been widely used…

Abstract

Purpose

Copper and its alloys are widely used in industries because of their good resistance to corrosion and are often used in cooling water systems. Brass has been widely used for shipboard condensers, power plant condensers and petrochemical heat exchangers. Brass is susceptible to the corrosion process known as dezincification by means of which brass looses its valuable physical and mechanical properties leading to failure of structure. The aim of this investigation was to control the dezincification of brass in 3 per cent NaCl solution using benzotriazole (BTA) derivatives.

Design/methodology/approach

BTA derivatives namely 1‐hydroxymethylbenzotriazole (HBTA) and N,N‐dibenzotriazol‐l‐ylmethylamine(ABTA) were synthesised and their inhibition behaviour on brass in 3 per cent NaCl solution was investigated by the weight‐loss method, potentiodynamic polarisation, electrochemical impedance and solution analysis techniques. The morphology of the brass after corrosion in the presence and absence of the BTA derivatives was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Findings

Potentiodynamic polarisation studies showed that the BTA derivatives investigated were mixed type inhibitors, inhibiting the corrosion of brass by blocking the active sites of the brass surface. Changes in the impedance parameters (charge transfer resistance and double layer capacitance) were related to the adsorption of BTA derivatives on the brass surface, leading to the formation of a protective film. Solution analysis revealed that the BTA derivatives excellently controlled the corrosion of brass. SEM micrographs showed the formation of compact surface film on the brass surface in the presence of inhibitors, thereby providing better corrosion inhibition.

Originality/value

Contributes to research on corrosion protection for copper and its alloys.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 52 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

D. Behera, H. Satapathy and A.K. Banthia

To evaluate the performance of a reactive diluent, nonylphenyl methacrylate (NPM) for toughness improvement of bisphenol‐a‐glycidyl dimethacrylate (BisGMA) and to optimise…

Abstract

Purpose

To evaluate the performance of a reactive diluent, nonylphenyl methacrylate (NPM) for toughness improvement of bisphenol‐a‐glycidyl dimethacrylate (BisGMA) and to optimise the results of such a modification.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve desirable rheological and physico‐mechanical properties of BisGMA/NPM network, various compositions were made by incorporating different concentrations of NPM. The effect of concentration on the impact and the adhesive strengths of the unmodified and modified BisGMA networks were characterised.

Findings

The modification of BisGMA resin using NPM showed significant enhancement of the impact and the adhesive strengths over the unmodified one. The modification caused a chemical linkage between NPM and BisGMA resin, which led not only to a phase separation but also to establishing the intrinsically strong chemical bonds across the NPM phase/resin matrix interphase, which was responsible for the improvement of the impact and adhesive strength. The optimum results were obtained at 10/h (parts per 100 parts of BisGMA resin) of modifier.

Research limitations/implications

The reactive diluent, used in the present context was synthesised from nonyl phenol, methacrylic acid and benzoyl chloride in methyl ethyl ketone using triethylamine as base.

Practical implications

The method of modification developed provides a simple and practical solution for improving the rheological and physico‐mechanical properties of BisGMA network.

Originality/value

The method developed is a novel one for enhancing the rheological and physico‐mechanical properties of BisGMA network diluted with NPM resin and may find numerous applications in surface coating and adhesive.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2007

Mashal Sheban, Muna Abu‐Dalo, Ayman Ababneh and Silvana Andreescu

The aim of this research was to develop corrosion protection systems for reinforced concrete structures under chloride attack. Benzotriazole (BTA) and BTA derivatives were…

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Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this research was to develop corrosion protection systems for reinforced concrete structures under chloride attack. Benzotriazole (BTA) and BTA derivatives were used as corrosion protection materials for the steel.

Design/methodology/approach

The effect of BTA and four other BTA derivatives on the corrosion resistance of steel in simulated concrete pore (SCP) solutions was studied. BTA derivatives were used as two separate protection systems: inhibition and pickling protection systems. The experiments were performed in SCP solutions which simulated concrete with and without severe chloride attacks. Electrochemical techniques, i.e. potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to assess the steel corrosion protection systems.

Findings

The potentiodynamic polarization studies showed an increase in the pitting potential for all protection systems tested. In addition, a large increase in the steel solution interfacial resistance was observed by electrochemical impedance studies (EIS) due to the formation of steel‐BTA derivatives complex on the surface. This film was formed on the steel surface with either mono‐or bi‐dentate bonds between the triazolic nitrogen ring and the steel surface as shown by the FTIR.

Research limitations/implications

BTA derivatives provided good protection for steel in SCP solutions, indicating their applicability in reinforced concrete structures. However, tests using reinforced concrete samples are required to study possible interactions between steel, BTA derivatives and concrete constitutes, e.g. sand, gravel, cement and chemical admixtures. These BTA‐based systems also should be studied under carbonation attack.

Originality/value

BTA derivatives provided a good protection for steel in the SCP solutions, and this indicates the applicability to use them in reinforced concrete structures.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 54 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2007

H. Satapathy and A.K. Banthia

To synthesise and characterise homo and copolymer of 4‐nonylphenyl methacrylate (NPMA) and styrene and to determine monomer reactivity ratios by the application of…

Abstract

Purpose

To synthesise and characterise homo and copolymer of 4‐nonylphenyl methacrylate (NPMA) and styrene and to determine monomer reactivity ratios by the application of conventional linearisation methods such as Finemann‐Ross (F‐R) and Kelen‐Tudos (K‐T) methods.

Design/methodology/approach

New methacrylic monomer, NPMA with a pendant nonylphenyl group was copolymerised with styrene. All monomer and polymers (homo and copolymer) are characterised and subsequently the monomer reactivity ratio was determined.

Findings

The monomer reactivity ratios were determined by application of conventional linearisation methods such as F‐R (r1=0.41±0.05; r2=3.47±0.31), K‐T (r1=0.43±0.19; r2=3.54±0.09) methods. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the polymer in nitrogen reveals that it posses very good thermal stability in comparison to alkyl acrylates due to presence of pendant nonylphnyl group.

Research limitations/implications

New methacrylic monomer, NPMA was synthesised by reacting nonylphenol dissolved in methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) with methacryloyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine as a base. Copolymers of NPMA with styrene were synthesised in MEK using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as initiator under nitrogen atmosphere at different feed composition.

Practical implications

The method developed is a simple and easy method of copolymerisation of styrene with methacrylate to obtain copolymer of better properties.

Originality/value

The method developed is a novel method for enhancing the thermal, as well as surface adhesion, properties which has several applications in surface coatings and adhesives.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Lin Liu, Xiaona Pan, Jinjuan Xing and Jianhua Qian

This paper aims to evaluate the inhibition efficiency of thiadiazole derivatives, such as 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (DMTD), 5-methly-2-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the inhibition efficiency of thiadiazole derivatives, such as 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (DMTD), 5-methly-2-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MMTD) and 2,5-dithiododecyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole (DDTD), in 50 mg/L hydrogen sulfide for silver strip.

Design/methodology/approach

Evaluation was carried out by corrosion-inhibiting test, electrochemical measurement and surface analysis techniques. 3D surface profiler, atom force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis were applied and finally confirmed the existence of the adsorbed film.

Findings

The electrochemical measurement showed that the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing inhibitor concentration in 50 mg/L hydrogen sulfide solution, while the corrosion rate and the corrosion current decrease. Weight-gained measurements also indicated that inhibitor decreases the corrosion rate in the studied solution. The adsorption of DMTD and MMTD on the silver surface obeys Temkin’s adsorption isotherm, but the adsorption of DDTD follows Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm. That means that the inhibition mechanism is different between DMTD, MMTD and DDTD. The ΔG0ad values of DMTD, MMTD and DDTD were −37.47, −37.29 and −38.69 kJ/mol, respectively. It showed that there was an adsorption bond between silver surface and inhibitor, and the adsorption belongs to chemical adsorption.

Originality/value

The inhibitors have an excellent inhibition efficiency, and the best inhibition efficiency is 91.76 per cent. Inhibitors can effectively inhibit metal corrosion in the oil and gas.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 62 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

D. Behera, H. Satapathy and A.K. Banthia

To prepare and characterise vinyl ester (Bisphenol‐A‐glycidyldimethacrylate (BisGMA)) prepolymer via a new synthetic route involving the esterification of methacrylic acid…

Abstract

Purpose

To prepare and characterise vinyl ester (Bisphenol‐A‐glycidyldimethacrylate (BisGMA)) prepolymer via a new synthetic route involving the esterification of methacrylic acid and epoxy resin.

Design/methodology/approach

BisGMA prepolymer was synthesised from methacrylic acid and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol‐A‐type epoxy resin. The compound synthesised was then purified and characterised.

Findings

BisGMA prepolymer was synthesised from methacrylic acid and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol‐A‐type epoxy resin using triphenylphosphine as a catalyst and hydroxy toluene as a stabiliser. The synthesised compound was then purified by normal phase liquid chromatography and was analysed by proton NMR and reverse phase HPLC. The cure kinetics of the purified resin was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) using NETZSCH thermo kinetics software.

Research limitations/implications

The preparation, purification and kinetics study of the prepolymer described in the present investigation may be useful for preparation, purification and kinetics study of the other vinyl esters by a new synthetic route. Also, the polymer supports based on BisGMA have acceptable mechanical properties, chemical stability and are suitable for dental restoratives, fissure sealants, coatings, adhesives, moulding compounds, structural laminates, electrical applications and military/aerospace applications.

Practical implications

The method for the preparation, purification and kinetics study of the prepolymer is simple and provides a simple and practical solution for some other vinyl esters.

Originality/value

This is a novel method for synthesis and purification of BisGMA and may be useful for the synthesis and purification of other vinyl esters.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2007

D. Behera, H. Satapathy and A.K. Banthia

This paper seeks to prepare and characterise vinyl ester (bisphenol‐A‐glycidyldimethacrylate (BisGMA)) prepolymer via a new synthetic route by the esterification of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to prepare and characterise vinyl ester (bisphenol‐A‐glycidyldimethacrylate (BisGMA)) prepolymer via a new synthetic route by the esterification of methacrylic acid and epoxy resin

Design/methodology/approach

BisGMA prepolymer was synthesised from methacrylic acid and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol‐A (BPA) type epoxy resin. The synthesised compound was then purified and characterised.

Findings

BisGMA prepolymer was synthesised from methacrylic acid and diglycidyl ether of BPA‐type epoxy resin using triphenylphosphine as a catalyst and hydroxytoluene as a stabiliser. The synthesised compound was then purified by normal phase liquid chromatography and was analysed by proton NMR and reverse phase HPLC. The cure kinetics of the purified resin were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry using NETZSCH thermokinetics software.

Research limitations/implications

The preparation, purification and kinetics study of the prepolymer described in the present investigation may be useful for preparation, purification and kinetics study of the other vinyl esters by a new synthetic route. Also, the polymers supports based on bisphenol‐A‐glycidyldimethacrylate have acceptable mechanical properties, chemical stability and are suitable for dental restoratives, fissure sealants, coatings, adhesives, moulding compounds, structural laminates, electrical applications and military/aerospace applications.

Practical implications

The method for the preparation, purification and kinetics study of the prepolymer is simple and the above method provides a simple and practical solution for some other vinyl esters.

Originality/value

This is a novel method for synthesis and purification of BisGMA and may be useful for the synthesis and purification of other vinyl esters.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Loganathan Appaia and Shalini Kandaswamy

The purpose of this paper is to determine single sampling plans (SSPs) by attributes when the number of nonconformities is distributed according to a zero-inflated Poisson…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine single sampling plans (SSPs) by attributes when the number of nonconformities is distributed according to a zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) distribution.

Design/methodology/approach

Manufacturing processes have now-a-days been aligned properly and are monitored well, so that the occurrence of nonconformities would be a rare phenomenon. The information related to number of nonconformities per product will have more number of zeros. Under such circumstances, the appropriate probability distribution of the number of nonconformities is a ZIP distribution. The operating characteristic function of the sampling plan is derived.

Findings

Parameters of the sampling plans are obtained for some sets of values of (p 1, α, p 2, β). Numerical examples are given to illustrate the selection of SSPs under ZIP distribution and to study its advantages over Poisson SSP.

Originality/value

Results obtained in this paper are original and has been done for the first time in this regard. Parameters of the sampling plans are essential to make decisions either to accept or reject the lots based on the inspection of the samples.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 31 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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