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Aquariums include exhibits and enclosures of freshwater and marine plant and animal species. Notes that a rapid expansion in the number of aquariums has occurred over the…
Aquariums include exhibits and enclosures of freshwater and marine plant and animal species. Notes that a rapid expansion in the number of aquariums has occurred over the last ten years and in addition the complexity of exhibits and activities is also expanding in an aquarium “explosion.” Points out that increasing interest in the environment and in marine life has led to significant economic success for aquariums. This is part of a trend in “entertainment and recreation involving animals” which also includes theme parks and zoos. Similar in many ways to museums and galleries, aquariums display species within restricted conditions. Lists various Internet addresses of aquariums using the Internet to take advantage of presentation techniques and wider audiences.
Explores the issue of changing URLs and provides a brief analysis of the degree to which change is occurring. Examines the range of potential solutions and provides…
Explores the issue of changing URLs and provides a brief analysis of the degree to which change is occurring. Examines the range of potential solutions and provides discussion concerning the reasons for outdated and inaccurate URLs.
Provides a guide to the increasing number of zoos and associated sites now using the Internet. Investigates the multiple roles of the Internet for zoos, their staff and visitors, in helping them to communicate science and provide a cultural service to the public, in addition to serving as a means of marketing and publicity.
The aim of this paper is to provide an easy method of extrusion freeforming to fabricate microwave electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) crystals. EBG crystals are periodic…
The aim of this paper is to provide an easy method of extrusion freeforming to fabricate microwave electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) crystals. EBG crystals are periodic dielectric structures that can block wave propagation and generate a bandgap. These crystals can be used in high capability antennae, electromagnetic wave semiconductors, microresonators, high‐reflectivity mirrors and polarizing beam splitters.
The effects of extrusion process parameters and paste characteristics were investigated. Finally, one‐period and two‐period woodpile EBG crystals with bandgaps in the frequency region of 90‐110 GHz were fabricated and the bandgap was measured.
The filament diameter is influenced by whether extrusion is carried out with or without a substrate and by the free fall‐distance from the nozzle. The quality of lattice structures is dependent on paste flow and properties. A ceramic paste with 60 vol. % (the fraction of ceramic powder based on solvent‐free polymer) was well suited to fabrication. The solvent content also influenced the fabrication. The experimental results show that under ∼12 per cent solvent mass fraction in the paste and relatively high extrusion ram velocity (more than 0.014 mm/s) at a pressure of 14 MPa, samples with high quality were fabricated.
This paper demonstrates that the rapid prototyping method of extrusion freeforming can be applied for the fabrication of EBG crystals from ceramic powders and the important factors which influence the product quality are identified.
Through consultation with people living with dementia and carers, this paper aims to identify skills that patients and carers feel need to be developed in the workforce…
Through consultation with people living with dementia and carers, this paper aims to identify skills that patients and carers feel need to be developed in the workforce. This work is part of a project to develop competencies for the West Midlands dementia workforce.
People living with a dementia and carers were contacted through cafés, a carers' group and memory group, and two people contributed interviews to the analysis. All materials were analysed qualitatively using thematic analysis.
Feedback was received from 69 individuals. In total, six major themes were identified: knowledge about dementia, person centred care, communication, relationships, support and helping people engage in activities.
It is argued that people living with dementia and carers bring unique and valuable perspectives to an analysis of the skills of the dementia workforce, which grounds the required skills in the relationship between the worker and the person and family they are working with. This different emphasis needs to be considered and addressed throughout dementia training and education.
The scaling up of promising, innovative integration projects presents challenges to social and health care systems. Evidence that a new service provides (cost) effective…
The scaling up of promising, innovative integration projects presents challenges to social and health care systems. Evidence that a new service provides (cost) effective care in a (pilot) locality can often leave us some way from understanding how the innovation worked and what was crucial about the context to achieve the goals evidenced when applied to other localities. Even unpacking the “black box” of the innovation can still leave gaps in understanding with regard to scaling it up. Theory-led approaches are increasingly proposed as a means of helping to address this knowledge gap in understanding implementation. Our particular interest here is exploring the potential use of theory to help with understanding scaling up integration models across sites. The theory under consideration is Normalisation Process Theory (NPT).
The article draws on a natural experiment providing a range of data from two sites working to scale up a well-thought-of, innovative integrated, primary care-based dementia service to other primary care sites. This provided an opportunity to use NPT as a means of framing understanding to explore what the theory adds to considering issues contributing to the success or failure of such a scaling up project.
NPT offers a framework to potentially develop greater consistency in understanding the roll out of models of integrated care. The knowledge gained here and through further application of NPT could be applied to inform evaluation and planning of scaling-up programmes in the future.
The research was limited in the data collected from the case study; nevertheless, in the context of an exploration of the use of the theory, the observations provided a practical context in which to begin to examine the usefulness of NPT prior to embarking on its use in more expensive, larger-scale studies.
NPT provides a promising framework to better understand the detail of integrated service models from the point of view of what may contribute to their successful scaling up.
NPT potentially provides a helpful framework to understand and manage efforts to have new integrated service models more widely adopted in practice and to help ensure that models which are effective in the small scale develop effectively when scaled up.
This paper examines the use of NPT as a theory to guide understanding of scaling up promising innovative integration service models.
The High Court judgments in the two appeal cases relating to the sale of cream containing boric acid will be read with considerable satisfaction by those who consider that the protection of the health of the people is a matter of greater importance than the protection of the interests of a trade. In one case the Westminster City Council appealed against the decision of a Metropolitan Police magistrate who had dismissed a summons taken out by the Council under the third Section of the Act of 1875 for the sale of “preserved cream” containing 23·8 grains of boric acid per pound, and in the other the vendors of a sample of “preserved cream” containing 19·7 grains of boric acid per pound, appealed against their conviction under the same Section of the Act by the Kensington justices. In the first case the appeal was allowed and the case was remitted to the magistrate with a direction to convict; and in the second the appeal was dismissed, the Divisional Court, consisting of Justices Ridley, Bray and Avory being unanimous in both cases.
The important initiative from the Department of Health (Working Group on Copying Letters to Patients, 2002) to require that letters between clinicians should be copied to…
The important initiative from the Department of Health (Working Group on Copying Letters to Patients, 2002) to require that letters between clinicians should be copied to the patient has not been implemented as widely as was intended. There have been concerns about logistics and fears that patients might be confused or frightened by communications they are not equipped to understand. Yet, modifications of the system to allow patients the choice to receive or not receive such letters and suitable training for clinicians offer safeguards. There is no doubt that copying letters provides an inexpensive mechanism for involving patients in their own care and treatment, offering transparency and confirming respect for equality in the relationship between patient and clinician. This paper reports experience with copying letters to patients and families with dementia. The process was warmly received by patients and carers, including families in a black and minority ethnic (BME) community, and few adverse comments were made. The routine application of this initiative will have benefits for the quality of service experience for older people, including those with dementia.