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Article
Publication date: 19 April 2011

Sonia Arora, Sudesh Jood and N. Khetarpaul

Probiotic fermented foods are fast being recognized as health foods. Most of such foods are based on dairy products but little research work is available on coarse cereals…

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Abstract

Purpose

Probiotic fermented foods are fast being recognized as health foods. Most of such foods are based on dairy products but little research work is available on coarse cereals and millets, which constitute the staple foods in developing countries. This paper aims to determine the effect of germination and fementation on nutrient composition of pearl millet based food blends.

Design/methodology/approach

Indigenously developed pearl millet based food blends containing raw and germinated pearl millet flour, whey powder and tomato pulp (2:1:1w/w) were autoclaved, cooled and fermented with 5 percent Lactobacillus acidophilus curd which supplied 106cells/ml to the slurry at 37°C for 12 h. The unfermented blends, after autoclaving, served as controls. The developed food blends were subjected to nutritional evaluation by using the standard methods of analysis. The data were statistically analysed.

Findings

Pearl millet based, germinated, autoclaved and fermented, food blend maintained adequate cell viability (8.64 cfu g‐1) as compared to non‐germinated food blend. Germination and probiotic fermentation caused significant improvement in the contents of thiamine, niacin, total lysine, protein fractions, sugars, soluble dietary fibre and in vitro availability of Ca, Fe and Zn of food blends.

Practical implications

Research is currently aimed at developing probiotic millet based food mixture, which had enhanced nutrient profile. Hence, it can be considered for commercialization after establishing its health/therapeutic implications among the population.

Originality/value

Dairy foods have preferentially been used as the carrier medium for probiotics. This paper explores the possibility of using staple foods as the carrier medium. The consumption of such food mixtures containing viable probiotic bacteria should be enhanced among consumers in term of their role in health maintenance and disease prevention.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 113 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2005

Shalini Hooda and Sudesh Jood

Wheat is considered nutritionally poor, due to deficiency of essential amino acids such as lysine and threonine, whereas fenugreek (Trigonella faenum graecum L.) flour has…

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Abstract

Purpose

Wheat is considered nutritionally poor, due to deficiency of essential amino acids such as lysine and threonine, whereas fenugreek (Trigonella faenum graecum L.) flour has a high protein content (25 per cent), lysins (5.7g/16gN), soluble (20 per cent) and insoluble (28 per cent) dietary fibre besides being rich in calcium, iron and beta‐carotene. Fenugreek seeds contain 20 per cent soluble fibre (gum), which can act as functional agent in wheat dough. The presence of bitter saponins in fenugreek seeds limits their acceptability in foods. However, it has been possible to debitter fenugreek seeds by using various domestic processing methods. Therefore, their use can be exploited as functional and nutritional food as well as therapeutic agents. Hence, in the present study efforts have been made to develop wheat‐fenugreek‐based health bread.

Design/methodology/approach

In commonly grown varieties of wheat, namely WH‐423, and fenugreek namely Pusa, early bunching was obtained. Fenugreek seeds were divided into three portions. One portion was left unprocessed (raw), while the other two portions were soaked (12hr at 37C) and germinated (48hr at 37C) separately. Soaked and germinated samples were dried at 55‐60C. Dried samples of raw, soaked and germinated seeds were ground to fine powder. Fenugreek seed powder (raw, soaked and germinated) was blended separately with wheat flour at different levels, namely 5, 10, 15 and 20 per cent. Breads from control and supplemented flours were baked in replicates. Baking, organoleptic and nutritional characteristics were analysed in the control and supplemented breads. The data were statistically analyzed in complete randomized design for analysis of variance according to the standard method.

Findings

Supplementation of wheat flour with fenugreek flour from 5 to 20 per cent levels increased the protein, lysine, minerals and fibre contents of bread. Additions of fenugreek (raw, soaked and germinated) up to the level of 15 per cent produced bread with a satisfactory loaf volume and other sensory quality attributes (crumb colour, crumb texture, taste etc.), whereas the 20 per cent level of supplementation caused a depression effect in loaf volume and the breads were found to be bitter in taste, However, among the various supplemented breads, germinated fenugreek flour‐supplemented bread at 15 per cent level showed satisfactory baking and organoleptic characteristics and contained an appreciable amount of protein (24 per cent), total lysine (3.02g/100g protein), dietary fibre (12.04 per cent) and minerals.

Practical implications

Fast food are becoming as popular, as in developing countries. Keeping this fact in view, in the present study, health breads were prepared. The developed product had good acceptability, was nutritionally rich and had therapeutic value. So, these can be considered for commercialization.

Originality/value

As fenugreek seeds contain 20 per cent soluble fibre (gum), and 5.7g/16gN lysine contents, the soluble fibre of fenugreek seeds has been reported to reduce blood sugar and cholesterol levels. Therefore, their use can be exploited in the development of health foods.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 July 2019

Dipika Agrahar-Murugkar and Preeti Dixit-Bajpai

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of calcium-rich ingredients such as sesame, skimmed milk powder, moringa leaves, cumin seeds and finger millet on flour…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of calcium-rich ingredients such as sesame, skimmed milk powder, moringa leaves, cumin seeds and finger millet on flour, dough and breads with the objective of developing bread with higher calcium content and to investigate whether it maintains quality traits that guarantee its acceptability by consumers by testing textural, scanning electron microscopy and nutritional and sensorial parameters.

Design/methodology/approach

Refined flour was fortified with skimmed milk powder (SMP), sesame, moringa leaves and cumin (T1), SMP, sesame and malted finger millet (T2) and SMP and sesame (T3). Refined flour dough and breads served as control (C). The physicochemical, textural, scanning electron microscopy, nutritional and sensory parameters of flour, dough and breads were evaluated.

Findings

Significantly (p < 0.01) higher stickiness values of dough were obtained by refined flour dough-C (50.3 N); refined flour dough fortified with SMP and sesame - T3 (42.2 N); Refined flour dough fortified with sesame, SMP and malted finger millet -T2 (38.4 N); and refined flour dough fortified with sesame, SMP, moringa leaves and cumin -T1 (33.5 N). Oven spring in breads was 1.4 in C and decreased significantly (p < 0.01) to T3-1.0, T1-0.9 and T2-0.8. Chewiness values of T3 (4.1) was similar to C bread, whereas T1 and T2 showed significantly (p < 0.01) lower values. Scanning electron microscopy images of bread microstructure showed fortification of bread resulted in intermittent but more prominent gluten structure in test breads than control. The highest calcium content was observed in T1 (268 mg/100 g), followed by T2 (231 mg/100 g) and T3 (211 mg/100 g). The incorporation of dried moringa leaves and cumin seeds enhanced the appearance, aroma, taste and flavor of T1.

Research limitations/implications

The study shows that texturally and sensorially acceptable nutritious breads can be produced through natural fortification. Nutrients from naturally fortified foods are better absorbed and assimilated by the body. Calcium-fortified breads, each with its own distinctive taste and texture, showed high values in the sensory evaluation test.

Originality/value

The incorporation of calcium and protein-rich ingredients such as SMP, moringa leaves, cumin, malted finger millet and sesame would yield calcium enriched breads superior to the commonly consumed plain refined wheat flour bread with respect to textural, nutritional, functional and sensory attributes and have high potential to alleviate calcium deficiency in vulnerable groups.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 April 2021

Aaqib Nisar, Nusrat Jan, Amir Gull, Farooq Ahmad Masoodi, Tawheed Amin, Omar Bashir and Sajad Mohd Wani

The demand for functional foods has been increasing tremendously throughout the globe and keeping in view the health beneficial properties of apricot fruit. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

The demand for functional foods has been increasing tremendously throughout the globe and keeping in view the health beneficial properties of apricot fruit. The purpose of this study is to develop wheat flour based cookies enriched with apricot pulp powder in order to improve nutraceutical properties of cookies and dilution of gluten at the same time.

Design/methodology/approach

Cookies were prepared from wheat flour blended with apricot pulp powder at 0, 10, 15, 20 and 25% level and evaluated for proximate, functional, rheological, nutraceutical and sensory properties.

Findings

Fibre content of apricot powder-incorporated cookies (3.23%) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher at 25% level than control (1.64%). The water absorption and oil absorption capacities decreased significantly (p < 0.05) upon increasing level of apricot pulp powder. The ß-carotene content, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content increased significantly (p < 0.05) upon incorporation of apricot pulp powder. The thickness of cookies increased, however, diameter and spread ratio decreased with increase in the levels of apricot pulp powder. Lightness (L*) value decreased, while redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) increased when incorporated with apricot pulp powder. Cookies having 25% apricot pulp powder showed maximum hardness and overall acceptability.

Originality/value

To the best of our knowledge, the scientific literature on incorporation of apricot pulp powder in bakery products is scanty. As such the present research has a tremendous scope for the food industries to produce functional bakery products with antioxidant properties and diluted the gluten content at the same time.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Neetu Miglani, Kiran Bains and Simranpreet Kaur Bhathal

The study aims to design metabolic syndrome (MetS) ingredient mix with optimum amino acid makeup using key foods with reported functional properties and study the efficacy…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to design metabolic syndrome (MetS) ingredient mix with optimum amino acid makeup using key foods with reported functional properties and study the efficacy of this mix to alleviate the symptoms of MetS among adult men and women with MetS.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 25 MetS-specific ingredient mixes that included wheat flour, common legumes, fenugreek and flaxseeds were formulated by correcting their amino acid score. The suitability of these mixes was tested for the preparation of chapati (an unleavened Indian bread). Owing to its highest lysine content, the ingredient mix of whole wheat flour, oat flour, soybean, flaxseeds and fenugreek seeds was selected for the 12-week supplementation trial among patients with MetS.

Findings

The sensory scores of chapatis made using nine ingredient mixes was comparable with those of chapati made from whole wheat flour (control). The test chapatis had a significantly (p = 0.05) higher protein, ash, fibre and fat content, and lysine was also higher (591-1,006 mg/100 g) than the control chapatis (314 mg). Positive and significant changes in the anthropometry, body composition, fasting blood glucose levels, blood pressure and lipid profile of the patients with MS was seen after consumption of the selected ingredient mix.

Originality/value

Keeping in view the traditional vegetarian Indian meals which usually take care of including foods from different sources to improve their protein quality, the concern for providing protein quality to prevent metabolic abnormalities is significant for a large lacto-vegetarian population in India which depends on plant foods for obtaining essential amino acids. Obtaining optimum protein quality from meals along with maintaining a physically active lifestyle may help people have the appropriate fat to lean mass proportion which may have a protective role against MetS.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 48 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Imran Pasha, Sehrish Hussain, Muhammad Issa Khan and Nadia Akram

The purpose of this paper is a study designed to utilize Vigna mungo L. (black gram) flour to improve the protein quality of wheat through supplementation. Wheat is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is a study designed to utilize Vigna mungo L. (black gram) flour to improve the protein quality of wheat through supplementation. Wheat is utilized as a cereal crop all over the world, but its protein quality is inferior owing to the deficiency of amino acids like lysine.

Design/methodology/approach

Black gram seeds were roasted and germinated and then incorporated at 10, 15 and 20 per cent level in wheat flour. The composite flour was evaluated for its chemical composition, physiochemical properties and rheological characteristics, and cookies were developed from the composite flour.

Findings

Chemical composition of composite flour revealed significant results (p < 0.05). The level of crude protein increased from 9.69 to 11.79 per cent, while ash and crude fat content enhanced from 0.33 to 1.80 per cent and 1.13 to 2.40 per cent, respectively. There was a significant effect (p < 0.05) on the sedimentation value by the addition of black gram in wheat flour. Water absorption of composite flour was higher than control (52.21 per cent), as maximum value was observed in flour having 15 per cent germinated black gram flour (69.45 per cent). Dough development time also increased from 2.90 min to 4.80 min. The pasting properties revealed significant results for all the parameters. Cookies were developed from composite flour, and sensory evaluation has shown that addition of pulse flour at 15 per cent yields cookies with better hedonic response.

Originality/value

The black gram is a locally grown legume crop, but there is a lack of systematic approach for its chemical composition and product development. Scientists are in urge to explore such economical and assessable food ingredients to cope with the nutritional deficiencies prevailing in the developing societies. In this regard, black gram has been recognized as a rich source of nutrients, so it can be exploited to improve wheat protein quality.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 45 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 September 2011

Ritika B. Yadav, Baljeet S. Yadav and Deepu Chaudhary

The purpose of this paper is to study the utilization of the rice bran protein concentrate (RBPC) in biscuits to upgrade the nutritional quality.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the utilization of the rice bran protein concentrate (RBPC) in biscuits to upgrade the nutritional quality.

Design/methodology/approach

Extraction of rice bran protein concentrate (RBPC) from defatted rice bran was standardized using alkali extraction method. Defatted rice bran and RBPC were analyzed for their proximate composition. RBPC was analyzed for its bulk density, foaming capacity (FC), emulsion activity (EA), and water and oil absorption capacity. RBPC was incorporated in biscuits at 5, 10 and 15 per cent levels. The biscuits were analyzed for their physicochemical, fracture strength (texture analyzer) and sensory attributes (nine‐point hedonic scale) to assess their acceptability.

Findings

The maximum yield of 13.2 per cent for RBPC was obtained at alkaline pH of 11, temperature of 60°C and extraction time of 60 minutes. The bulk density, foaming capacity, emulsifying ability, water and oil absorption capacity of RBPC were 0.4 g/ml, 11 per cent, 40 per cent, 2.9 ml/g and 2.3 ml/g respectively. The protein content of biscuits increased significantly from 7.3 per cent in control biscuits to 15.4 per cent in the 15 per cent RBPC supplemented biscuits with their fracture strength also significantly higher than the control biscuits (p<0.05). Replacement of refined wheat flour up to 10 per cent RBPC produced protein‐enriched biscuits with desirable overall acceptability.

Originality/value

Rice bran protein concentrate can be beneficially utilized to formulate protein enriched biscuits with enhanced nutritional value especially for malnourished or undernourished people.

Article
Publication date: 18 March 2019

Esther Gyedu-Akoto, Stephen Yaw Opoku and Emmanuel Ofosu-Agyei

Refined wheat flour is a key ingredient for preparing biscuits because of its gluten content. However, biscuits prepared from refined flour are characterised with low…

Abstract

Purpose

Refined wheat flour is a key ingredient for preparing biscuits because of its gluten content. However, biscuits prepared from refined flour are characterised with low proteins, fat and mineral content. This study aims to improve the nutritive and sensory values of biscuits using roasted coffee and dry kola powders.

Design/methodology

The powders were incorporated into biscuits at different levels of 5, 10, 15 and 20 per cent. Proximate and sensory analyses were conducted on the products obtained to determine the effects of the powders on the products.

Findings

The coffee biscuits had carbohydrate, protein, fat and energy contents of 57.0-69.5 per cent, 3.3-5.5 per cent, 20.4-31.8 per cent and 389-404 kcal/g, respectively, while those of the kola biscuits were 67.0-70.5 per cent, 1.5-3.5 per cent, 20.4-23.8 per cent and 384-395 kcal/g, respectively. Sensory evaluation of both products showed that coffee significantly improved sensory attributes such as flavour (p = 0.03) and colour (p = 0.00). Thus coffee powder can be used to enhance both the nutritional and sensory qualities of biscuits.

Originality/value

This study was to promote the use of coffee and kola in locally produced baked products and meet consumer demand for healthy and natural foods.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Meena Goswami, B. D. Sharma, S. K. Mendiratta, Vikas Pathak, R. R. Kumar, Suman Talukdar and Heena Sharma

The purpose of this study is to standardize baking time–temperature processing of nutritional carabeef cookies to improve carabeef meat consumption for malnourished women…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to standardize baking time–temperature processing of nutritional carabeef cookies to improve carabeef meat consumption for malnourished women and children.

Design/methodology/approach

Preliminary trails were done to optimize carabeef powder level replacing refined wheat flour to develop carabeef cookies. The selected carabeef cookies on the basis of sensory evaluation were baked at three different baking time–temperature combinations viz. 150-160°C for 35-40 minutes, 170-180°C for 25-30 minutes and 190-200°C for 15-20 minutes. These three treatments were evaluated for various physicochemical properties, proximate analysis, color values, instrumental texture parameters and sensory evaluation.

Findings

Mean pH, diameter and proximate parameters like moisture, protein, fat and ash percentage had no significant difference at a higher baking temperature, whereas mean cooking yield, thickness values decreased, while spread ratio values increased significantly. Instrumental textural parameters, such as hardness, shear force and adhesiveness values increased significantly. Mean yellowness values had no significant difference, whereas mean redness, hue angle and chroma values increased in significant (p < 0.05) manner with a higher baking temperature and lower time combinations. All sensory attributes scores decreased at a higher baking temperature. Carabeef cookies containing 50 per cent carabeef powder and baked at 150-160°C for 35-40 minutes were selected as best treatment.

Research limitations/implications

The experiment can be further carried out to improve functional properties with the addition of various fiber sources and fat replacers.

Originality/value

Cookies as snack foods have played a vital role in life of human as antiquity and are very much relished by large section of society. The incorporation of carabeef meat may be a very good option to cope up with malnutrition and hunger as well as to improve the consumption pattern of highly nutritional buffalo meat. Carabeef cookies baked at an optimum temperature–time combination had higher nutritional content and acceptability and, thus, could be commercialized to improve socio-economic status and health of consumers.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 45 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2018

Demelash Hailu Mitiku, Solomon Abera, Nugusse Bussa and Tilahun Abera

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of partial substitution of wheat flour with sweet potato flour on the nutrient composition and sensory properties of bread.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of partial substitution of wheat flour with sweet potato flour on the nutrient composition and sensory properties of bread.

Design/methodology/approach

Sweet potato flour was blended with wheat flour at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 percent levels of substitution for bread production. Proximate, minerals and antinutritional factors of the breads were investigated using AOAC methods. Sensory evaluation was carried out by a panel of 50 consumers. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and means were separated by Tukey’s comparison test at p <0.05. Results were reported as mean ± SD.

Findings

The nutritional and sensory quality of bread made from wheat flour supplemented with sweet potato flour at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 percent was investigated. Blending of sweet potato flour with wheat flour had significantly decreased the protein content (4.76–7.78 percent) while the ash (1.35–3.07 percent), crude fiber (0.24–1.03), carbohydrate contents (88.39–90.45 percent), iron, zinc, phosphorus and vitamin A contents were significantly increased ( p<0.05) with increasing sweet potato flour in the formulations. The tannin and phytate contents of the composite breads were low. Sensory evaluation of the breads revealed a mild reduction of the bread’s general acceptability with increase in the substitution level by sweet potato flour.

Originality/value

This study showed that the wheat flour used in making breads could be substituted with up to 15 percent sweet potato flour without compromising its nutritional quality, with only a mild reduction in sensory quality.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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