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Achieving the elimination of racial differences in test performance, as set forth in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), requires education policies that engage…
Achieving the elimination of racial differences in test performance, as set forth in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), requires education policies that engage the reality that African American test performances are not only about race but also about gender and residential status. In an effort to inform education policymaking with research that explores race–gender and residential inequality, I assess the growth of reading gaps in school and non-school contexts using a national and city sample of children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal, Kindergarten Cohort 1998–1999. I found that inequality in test performances was greater in the city than elsewhere, and African American boys shoulder a disproportionate educational burden related to city residency and enrollment in city schools. Additionally, children in city neighborhoods – where drugs and burglary are big problems – experience large shortfalls in reading in school and non-school contexts. I conclude with a discussion of the study’s implications for future educational policy, practice, and research, especially NCLB, which mandates that public schools achieve parity among racial groups by the end of the 2013–2014 academic year.
Demographic faultlines (i.e., potential subgroup splits based on demographic attributes) have been argued to have effects over and above those of diversity. Yet…
Demographic faultlines (i.e., potential subgroup splits based on demographic attributes) have been argued to have effects over and above those of diversity. Yet, faultlines, much like diversity, do not seem to have positive or negative effects on performance per se, but to be affected by contextual variables as well as intermediate outcomes, such as relationship conflict. Relationship conflicts, a major threat to teamwork, are particularly likely to arise between subgroups. Thus, with the objective to shed some light on why and how exactly faultlines impact group outcome, we investigate the effect of faultline strength and distance on performance through relationship conflict as well as the effect of faultline strength on performance via relationship conflict, contingent on the level of faultline distance. To test our hypotheses we used data gathered in a laboratory setting with 267 graduate students. Results provide strong support for the extension of the faultline model.
Clarissa J. Humphreys and Graham J. Towl
Known good die, flip chip and chip scale packages are technologies that offer variousadvantages to the board manufacturer. A discussion of the different types of package…
Known good die, flip chip and chip scale packages are technologies that offer various advantages to the board manufacturer. A discussion of the different types of package options, their methods of assembly, test and performance comparisons can help to resolve the general direction a manufacturer might pursue for next generation systems. This paper attempts to give a perspective as well as highlighting the areas of concern with the different options.
This chapter reviews recent theoretical developments and empirical research, to examine the causes and consequences of identity processes in relation to collaboration in…
This chapter reviews recent theoretical developments and empirical research, to examine the causes and consequences of identity processes in relation to collaboration in work groups and group performance. Our central proposition is that identification in work groups can have beneficial as well as detrimental effects, depending on the nature of the shared identity, and the content of distinctive group norms. First, we examine some of the complications stemming from the fact that identification in work settings typically involves groups that can be defined at different levels of inclusiveness and where people can be seen as having multiple cross-cutting identities. Then, we move on to show that processes of identification affect the way people view their co-workers and supervisors, causing the same objective behavior to be interpreted and responded to in a fundamentally different way. Finally, we examine how normative expectations about prototypical group behavior determine group processes and group outcomes, with the consequence that identification and commitment can affect work motivation and collective performance in different ways, depending on the content of distinctive group norms.
In this chapter, we introduce a theoretical model to explain under which conditions different insights or approaches within a team do not necessarily undermine team…
In this chapter, we introduce a theoretical model to explain under which conditions different insights or approaches within a team do not necessarily undermine team cohesiveness or prevent the development of a common team identity, and can in fact even reinforce each other. We will review a program of research that examined the formation of a common identity in new collaborations, as well as the extent to which teams accept newcomers who possess unique resources. We show that clarity and congruence determine the likelihood that team members will maintain a common identity while they effectively use the differences among them and accommodate to team changes.
Libby Weber, Kyle J. Mayer and Rui Wu
The goal of interfirm contract research is to examine how formal contracts impact transaction success, firm relationships, and ultimately individual and collaborative firm…
The goal of interfirm contract research is to examine how formal contracts impact transaction success, firm relationships, and ultimately individual and collaborative firm performance when two or more firms interact. Most contract literature uses an economic lens to examine contracts: the property rights perspective, agency theory, and TCE. Property rights-based contract research (Coase, 1960; Demsetz, 1967; Alchian & Demsetz, 1973; Cheung, 1969) examines how efficient property rights assignment mitigates ex ante hazards. Similarly, agency theory-based contract research (e.g., Ross, 1973; Jensen & Meckling, 1976; Harris & Raviv, 1979) investigates how incentive alignment between the principal and agent leads to the mitigation of ex ante hazards. In contrast, TCE-based research (Williamson, 1975, 1985) examines contractual safeguards to mitigate both ex ante and ex post hazards (e.g., Joskow, 1985, 1987, 1990; Crocker & Reynolds, 1993). Because the three economic perspectives dominate, most research addresses how contracts are used to mitigate ex ante or ex post hazards. Therefore, many topics still need to be investigated to enhance our understanding of interfirm contracting.
Customer demand is driving the evolution of electronic equipment towards smaller devices with increased performance and more features. At the same time, product price…
Customer demand is driving the evolution of electronic equipment towards smaller devices with increased performance and more features. At the same time, product price should remain at a sufficiently low level with assembly process yields and throughput high. These somewhat contradictory requirements are difficult to fulfil with conventional SMD technology. Therefore, much attention is paid to packages offering small‐size and high I/O counts as well as excellent electrical properties, such as chip scale packages (CSP) and flip‐chip. CSP offers an IC in a package, which provides robustness for handling and, in some cases, decreases thermally induced stresses, and, most importantly, is SMT compatible. On the other hand, flip‐chip has the ultimate electrical performance and the smallest “package” size, with the capability of very high I/O counts. In this paper, the impacts of both CSP and flip‐chip technologies on product development and manufacturing processes is addressed.
Muhammad Aqeel, Humaira Jami and Ammar Ahmed
The purpose of this paper is to establish the reliability and validity of an expended scale with translation, adaptation and cross-language validation of the student…
The purpose of this paper is to establish the reliability and validity of an expended scale with translation, adaptation and cross-language validation of the student: thinking about my homework (STP) (Bareno, 1997; Hoover-Dempsey et al., 1999; Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler, 2005).
Response items rating are made from four-point Likert-type scales ranging from the 1 (never) to 4 (always). This study includes two versions of the scale: mother’s school involvement version (STPM) and father’s school Involvement version (STPF). Both versions have been translated from English language into Urdu language with a sample of 200 students. Standard back translation method was used for translation and adaption of the scale (Brislin, 1976; Hambleton, 1994). The ages of the students ranged from 12 to 18 years.
The overall scale has good internal consistency reliability. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to explore covert and novel configuration of these versions (father’s school involvement and mother’s school involvement). Results revealed that mother’s school involvement consisted of 21 items, and father’s school involvement consisted of 22 items.
The investigated scale provides assessment of father’s and mother’s school involvement, respectively, in order to achieve better understanding of family’s role in academics.