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Book part
Publication date: 28 November 2017

Ebba Olofsson

This chapter aims to understand how the role and status of Sámi women in kinship system and in reindeer herding were transformed over time in Norway and Sweden. What is…

Abstract

This chapter aims to understand how the role and status of Sámi women in kinship system and in reindeer herding were transformed over time in Norway and Sweden. What is the reason for considering men as reindeer herders and not women? Has it always been men who play a more important role in reindeer herding and so have higher status in Sámi society than women? This has not always been the case. Reindeer herding has instead become a dominant male occupation with the implementation of the nation-states’ reindeer herding legislation. Gender roles in Sámi communities are changing and new strategies for surviving and maintaining a Sámi identity are being formed. Many women in reindeer herding Sámi communities are now working as wage-labourers and professionals, bringing in money to the family. Their income often facilitates the continuation and transformation of subsistence practices, and power relations. This chapter proposes that the ascribed ethnic identity of Sámi women became linked to the identity of their brothers and husbands with the implementation of modern legislation, and still is, although Sweden is striving to be a gender equalitarian society.

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Global Currents in Gender and Feminisms
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-484-2

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Book part
Publication date: 16 August 2014

Eivind Å. Skille

Purpose – This chapter explores how various types of sports provided by the Sámi sport organisation in Norway (SVL-N) contribute to the construction of Sámi ethnic…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter explores how various types of sports provided by the Sámi sport organisation in Norway (SVL-N) contribute to the construction of Sámi ethnic identity.

Design/methodology/approach – Analysis of policy documents and literature of Sámi sport, and field work into Sami sport contexts were conducted. Based on the theoretical framework of identity as a result of ethnic boundaries, the analysis focuses upon identity work within Sámi contexts, compared with identity work across Sámi and Norwegian contexts.

Findings – Both unique Sami sports, such as reindeer racing and lassoing, and ‘universal sport’, such as football and cross-country skiing, provide opportunities for the construction of ethnic identity. Identity work within Sámi contexts focused on the internal cultural elements, while identity work in universal sports focused on the differences in comparison with Norwegian sport. However, refinements were revealed.

Research limitations/implications – The main limitation of this study is lack of empirical evidence provided by the athletes in Sámi sports.

Originality/value – This chapter provides an overview of Sámi sports and various approaches to ethnic identification through sport. The emphasis is on how a theoretical approach focusing on ethnic boundaries is supplemented by an approach acknowledging the cultural material within specific ethnic contexts.

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Native Games: Indigenous Peoples and Sports in the Post-Colonial World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-592-0

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Article
Publication date: 13 January 2012

Geir Grenersen

The Sámis are the indigenous population of Northern Scandinavia. When the oppressive policy against the Sámi population in Norway was lightened during the 1960s, many Sámi

Abstract

Purpose

The Sámis are the indigenous population of Northern Scandinavia. When the oppressive policy against the Sámi population in Norway was lightened during the 1960s, many Sámi communities established language and cultural centers for documentation and development of their language and cultural heritage as the oral tradition lost its ground in the modernization process. This paper aims to discuss how Sámi cultural centers use documentation both as a way of remembering the past and as a political strategy in order to produce evidence for land and water claims.

Design/methodology/approach

The Sámi centers are many‐faceted institutions and document theory is suggested as a theoretical perspective in order to analyze why these institutions were established and how they are functioning today.

Findings

Two cases are presented. The first shows how the centers use documentation as a technique for restoring the past. The second is a ruling in the Norwegian High Court that shows a new turn in what can be accepted as documents proving indigenous land and water claims.

Originality/value

This article is an attempt to introduce document theory as an analytical tool for analyzing the documentation processes in indigenous cultural centers.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 68 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Geir Grenersen, Kjell Kemi and Steinar Nilsen

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the following questions: what is the origin of the concepts of documents and documentation? Are there a need for these concepts in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the following questions: what is the origin of the concepts of documents and documentation? Are there a need for these concepts in every culture? Who gives the terms for their definitions, and what are the consequences of different terminology?

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use interdisciplinary methodology, combining document and information theory and Sámi linguistics. The aim of this paper is to discuss documentation from the perspective of the Sámi, with some examples from other indigenous groups.

Findings

Oral accounts, legends, traditional songs and traces in the landscape are seen as documents and documentation in Sámi and other indigenous cultures. The paper presents different theories in order to interpret and understand the specific information content in indigenous forms of documentation.

Practical implications

Indigenous ways of documentation have been accepted as valid proof of ownership or the right to extensive use of land resources. When no written records exist, oral testimonies and the landscape itself can be seen as documenting traditional use and has been accepted as evidence in high courts in Norway and Canada. The authors have also seen that the rich Sámi snow terminology is used as concepts in different fields of natural sciences.

Originality/value

The Sámi understanding of the concepts of document and documentation contributes to the traditional information and documentation disciplines by introducing ways of seeing natural phenomenon as fundamental forms of information.

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2021

Carina Ren and Kirsten Thisted

The study aims to explore the concept of the indigenous and how Greenlandic and Sámi indigeneities is expressed, made sense of and contested within a Nordic context by…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to explore the concept of the indigenous and how Greenlandic and Sámi indigeneities is expressed, made sense of and contested within a Nordic context by using the Eurovision Song Contest as a branding platform.

Design/methodology/approach

Initiating with an introduction of the historical and political contexts of Sámi and Greenlandic Inuit indigeneity, the study compares lyrics, stage performances and artefacts of two Sámi and Greenlandic contributions into the European Song Contest. This is used to discuss the situated ways in which indigenous identity and culture are branded.

Findings

The study shows how seemingly “similar” indigenous identity positions take on very different expressions and meanings as Arctic, indigenous and global identity discourses manifest themselves and intertwine in a Greenlandic and Sámi context. This indicates, as we discuss, that indigeneity in a Nordic context is tightly connected to historical and political specificities.

Research limitations/implications

The study argues against a “one size fits all” approach to defining the indigenous and even more so attempts to “pinning down” universal indigenous issues or challenges.

Practical implications

The study highlights how decisions on whether or how to use the indigenous in place or destination branding processes should always be sensitive to its historical and political contexts.

Originality/value

By focusing on the most prevalent European indigenous groups, the Sámi from the Northern parts of Norway and Greenlandic Inuit, rather than existing nation states, this study expands on current research on Eurovision and nation branding. By exploring the role of the indigenous in place branding, this study also contributes to the existing place branding literature, which overwhelmingly relates to the branding of whole nations or to specific places within nations, such as capital cities.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2008

Maria Ude´n

The purpose of this paper is to investigate an entrepreneurial process with unusual characteristics, focusing on Sámi micro and mezo level entrepreneurial logics and terms.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate an entrepreneurial process with unusual characteristics, focusing on Sámi micro and mezo level entrepreneurial logics and terms.

Design/methodology/approach

The case study is a Sámi community in Sweden, where a gender equality project developed into involvement with global innovations systems, in advanced networking development. The paper builds on ethnological methodology and an interactive approach. Market signalling theory is applied, uniquely for this paper, to public funding decisions.

Findings

The paper found anticipation among Sámi of mobile ICT to take over the key role in herding, from the present mechanized and motorized era. The many‐faceted entrepreneurial process contradicts a fundamental split between survival and self expression mode for economic strategy taken for granted in, e.g. Richard Florida's theory on the creative class. Regarding public funding for research and entrepreneurial initiatives, the paper finds that the national level has made itself accessible, while the regional level administrator has pushed the initiative to “other” markets.

Research limitations/implications

Conclusions cannot be but provisional based on one case. As very few cases of this type are known the findings are yet of value for the design of further research and policy.

Originality/value

Indigenous peoples' and women's roles in the information society are not self‐evident. The case shows fruitful possibilities. Turning to market signaling theory prepares for further development of quantitative evaluation, e.g. equal opportunity and inclusion policy implementation, and has not previously been done in relation to this case.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Jan Åge Riseth

This paper aims to reflect on the Sámi reindeer industry, which, in spite of a low economic return, contrasts with other primary industries in not displaying a population decline.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to reflect on the Sámi reindeer industry, which, in spite of a low economic return, contrasts with other primary industries in not displaying a population decline.

Design/methodology/approach

The project in this paper is based on two major hypotheses: the life form hypothesis: reindeer management has a particular value for the performers, being the condition for an active choice of staying within the industry; the capital hypothesis: lacking recognition of the resources of the reindeer‐managing Sámi is/has been limiting their establishment in capital requiring undertakings.

Findings

In the paper there are indications that the reindeer‐managing Sámi practices are in a Weberian sense a substantial rationality. Analysis at hand indicates close connections between landscape, management type, and type of rationality in reindeer management.

Practical implications

The project in the paper analyses the economy of reindeer management in chosen regions by both quantitative and qualitative studies, focusing on the household level. For the quantitative analyses the creation and extent of value streams in the households of reindeer management and near surroundings are focused. In the qualitative analyses the point of departure is decision situations and strategic choices with reindeer‐managing Sámi. Comparative analyses will be undertaken to explore representation of the regional studies.

Originality/value

The paper shows that the design is original and the outcome is expected to have a potential for changing the focus of current policies.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 108 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 5 November 2020

Silvia Mazzetto and Roula El-Khoury

By looking at a selection of iconic modern projects designed by or commissioned to the prominent but not well-examined architect Sami Abdul Baki both in Lebanon and Kuwait…

Abstract

Purpose

By looking at a selection of iconic modern projects designed by or commissioned to the prominent but not well-examined architect Sami Abdul Baki both in Lebanon and Kuwait during his most productive years in the 50s, this paper attempts to identify first main trends, influences and ideologies that shaped these works at the peak of modern architectural development in the region. Through these examples, the paper then aims at retracing predominant trajectories of intellectual capital exchange and transfer of knowledge between Lebanon and Kuwait. These can go far beyond their territorial boundaries, without claiming a single grand-narrative that describes the modern architectural development in any of the two countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The data collected from discourse analysis, interviews and biographical notes were mapped into a schematic diagram illustrating a complex network of connections and multidisciplinary involvement in projects.

Findings

However, the outcome did not generate a dominant theme for the projects or expertise of the architect.

Originality/value

It is very likely that Sami Abdul Baki's strong political dimension and quality as a mediator or facilitator in addition to his strong network of contacts played a significant role in the project commissions that he has won as an architect/engineer in Kuwait, Lebanon, Germany and other countries.

Details

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2020

Katarina Parfa Koskinen

The study is an elaboration on how a graduate student discursively navigates a research identity through lived experiences as an Indigenous Sámi and writings on…

Abstract

Purpose

The study is an elaboration on how a graduate student discursively navigates a research identity through lived experiences as an Indigenous Sámi and writings on Indigenous, as well as other suitable research paradigms informing research on digital technologies in education. The guiding question is how a strategy of inquiry to be used in a PhD study on remote 1–9 Sámi language education can be informed by an Indigenous research paradigm. What philosophical guidelines are needed in navigating a sensitive field of investigation shaped by historical atrocities, discrimination and racist assumptions towards the Sámi people and other Indigenous, marginalised groups?

Design/methodology/approach

A dialogical approach has been used between readings of mainly Indigenous scholars' writings on the topic and anecdotes illustrating personal experiences from a lived life as Sámi.

Findings

Through this process, a researcher identity has developed, informed by the views from an Indigenous research paradigm that humans are ontologically equal to other entities, and epistemologically knowledge constitutes of relationships between different entities. This makes relationality a central feature of an Indigenous epistemology –not only between people but also including, for example, ideas, history, ancestors, future, artefacts and spirituality – which links epistemology to ontology. The axiological issue of accountability works holistically as “glue”.

Originality/value

Elucidating underlying arguments and motives behind both an Indigenous research paradigm and the development of researcher identity when designing and planning research is rarely done, which provides the originality of the present contribution.

Details

The International Journal of Information and Learning Technology, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4880

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Article
Publication date: 5 April 2013

Sylvia van de Bunt‐Kokhuis and David Weir

The purpose of this paper is to highlight how future teaching in business schools will probably take place in an online (here called 24/7) classroom, where culturally…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight how future teaching in business schools will probably take place in an online (here called 24/7) classroom, where culturally diverse e‐learners around the globe meet. Technologies such as iPhone, iPad and a variety of social media, to mention but a few, give management learners of any age easy 24/7 access to information. Depending on the quality of the materials and the competences and cross‐cultural sensibilities of the teachers and trainers, this information may support the progress of e‐learning in business schools. At the same time, easy online access to knowledge and educational structures is not, in practice, equally available yet across cultures, and this will be documented with comparative cases from the Arab world and African learning communities.

Design/methodology/approach

This article contributes to multicultural education by identifying various barriers in the online management classroom. It combines theories from educational and cross‐cultural leadership studies, as well as e‐learning studies.

Findings

The outcomes of this analysis show how technical, language and cross‐cultural barriers still hinder particular adult learners to benefit from the “24/7 business school”. It is concluded that by understanding and serving a wide range of culturally diverse e‐learners in business schools, the stewardship role of the business school teacher is key.

Originality/value

The interplay between technical, language and cultural barriers in the online business school is rarely reflected upon. It is the intention of the authors to trigger a broad discussion process by focusing on culturally diverse management learners and by connecting with innovative educational insights across histories and cultures.

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