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The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects of alternative ingredients in three different gluten-free breads (GFBs) available in the UK market with regard to…
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects of alternative ingredients in three different gluten-free breads (GFBs) available in the UK market with regard to their quality attributes and consumer preference.
Three different GFB samples purchased from a UK retailer were visually assessed. Their quality attributes and consumer acceptability were analysed via an untrained taste panel (n=35) on Day 1. Texture was compared using a texture analyser on Days 1 and 8, to examine the differences between samples and the effects of ingredients towards staling.
Results from visual inspection showed that ingredients affected the appearance of samples, in terms of crumb structure, and both crumb and crust colour. Firmness and springiness were significantly different (p<0.05, p=0.007) between samples on Days 1 and 8 although no significant difference existed within each individual sample. Sensory analysis showed no significant differences between samples with respect to denseness, chewiness, crumbliness, dryness and overall preference.
The ingredient combination in each bread differed, and thus it is not clear if the results are due to the incorporation of individual ingredient or a combination of them.
Results of this study will help food industry to make an easier decision on gluten-free ingredients.
It will help people with coeliac disease and those who wish to remove gluten from their diets.
Overall, the study showed that the use of different ingredients affected the appearance, firmness and springiness of three GFBs available in the UK market. However, it did not affect denseness, chewiness, crumbliness, dryness or consumer preference. This indicates that a number of ingredient combinations are possible in the manufacturing of acceptable GFB.
The aim of this study was to compare the organoleptic attributes and meltability of selected, commercial dairy-free imitation cheeses (DFICs) with those of their dairy…
The aim of this study was to compare the organoleptic attributes and meltability of selected, commercial dairy-free imitation cheeses (DFICs) with those of their dairy counterparts to thus determine whether commercial DFIC needs to be further developed.
Market research was conducted to determine the availability of DFICs in the United Kingdom (UK) and thus select the varieties to assess. Mild cheddar was chosen for its popularity wide availability in the United Kingdom and Italian-style hard cheese for its complex organoleptic profile. The organoleptic attributes and melting properties of the chosen DFIC products were assessed by using descriptive sensory evaluation and their meltability was assessed using the Arnott test, respectively.
109 different DFICs were found; most of them (74%) presented coconut oil as their primary ingredient. None of the assessed DFICs assessed could mimic the organoleptic attributes of their dairy counterparts accurately; however, one of the non-dairy mild cheddar samples was regarded as potentially acceptable by the assessors of the sensory evaluation assessors. Nonetheless, the meltability of this sample was significantly lower than that of mild cheddar cheese.
The findings indicate that, to obtain products that can mimic the organoleptic attributes and meltability of cheese more accurately, further development is required for the DFIC varieties assessed.
No academic publications have explored and investigated commercial DFICs with similar ingredients to those found in commercial DFICs; the commercial importance of these products may augment in the short term owing to the reported growth in the number of vegan individuals in the UK and in Europe.
Although accounting professors around the globe have addressed various social aspects of accounting, very rarely does that research address the concerns of students. This…
Although accounting professors around the globe have addressed various social aspects of accounting, very rarely does that research address the concerns of students. This is despite the fact that students are the focus of the educational mission of most universities. In an effort to address this gap, this chapter extends the field of social accounting to an issue critical to students: the cost of accounting textbooks in the United States. Textbook cost is drawing increasing attention from public interest groups and government regulators as costs are growing at a more rapid rate than many other costs, and constitute a significant portion of the total cost of obtaining a higher education degree. For accounting students, these costs are exacerbated by the fact that accounting textbooks are among the most expensive of any major, and they are being revised with increasing frequency – which eliminates students’ ability to buy less expensive used books – often with little or no discernible benefit to students. We argue that in some subfields of accounting – especially managerial/cost and introductory courses – topics are relatively stable, and that frequent textbook revisions are unnecessarily costly for our students, many of whom, along with their families, are making significant financial sacrifices to earn their degrees. In this study, we provide background on the textbook pricing issue, include data from a survey of accounting faculty demonstrating that they consider the revisions too frequent, document the increasing frequency of accounting textbook revisions over recent decades, analyze content in a leading accounting textbook, and discuss options for reducing the cost of accounting textbooks, including following student activists’ lead in advocating for open-source, free textbooks.
Whereas most societal commentators continue to review the historical patterns of men’s leadership in search of models for 21st-century success, few have begun to…
Whereas most societal commentators continue to review the historical patterns of men’s leadership in search of models for 21st-century success, few have begun to recognize, let alone appreciate, the equivalent patterns of women’s leadership and the future contributions that women could potentially make as leaders. What could and are women bringing to society as global leaders? Why at this moment in history is there such a marked increase in the number of women leaders? Are we entering an era in which both male and female leaders will shape history, both symbolically and in reality? And if so, will we discover that women, on average, lead in different ways than men, or will we learn that role (global leader) explains more than gender? This chapter reveals the accelerating trends of women joining men in senior leadership positions, establishes the relationship of women leaders to our overall understanding of global leadership, and sets forth an agenda to accomplish much needed research and understanding.