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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Mariia Molodchik and Carlos Maria Jardon

The purpose of this paper is to theoretically justify the link between the endowment of intellectual capital (IC) and product novelty, and to find empirical evidence for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to theoretically justify the link between the endowment of intellectual capital (IC) and product novelty, and to find empirical evidence for such a link for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Russian business environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The study implements an intellectual capital-based view and the concept of novelty proposed by Schumpeter to highlight the crucial role of knowledge for transition to a higher level of competition. Drawing on a literature review, the authors determine three specific components of IC: foreign human capital, information and communication technology (ICT) capital developed at an international level and cooperation with foreign partners in order to pinpoint a premier position on the next level of the market. For empirical testing of the proposed model, a data set comprising more than 1,400 Russian manufacturing SMEs was used. Estimations were performed with the help of a principal component analysis and ordinal logistic regression.

Findings

The findings reveal that higher (IC) endowment promotes the level of product novelty. For Russian manufacturing SMEs, the most important is R&D capital. At the same time, ICT capital developed at an international level and cooperation with foreign partners contribute significantly to the probability of transition to a new market level.

Research limitations/implications

The study employs cross-sectional data that restrict the analysis of innovation dynamics.

Practical implications

The study appears to have policy implications for the development of governmental programmes for Russian SMEs such as the creation of IC awareness, training for IC management, special programmes for R&D support and ICT capital accumulation.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a new approach for investigating the “knowledge-innovation” link, shifting the focus from a general analysis of product innovation to a level of novelty for product innovation. This is the first empirical study of the relationship between IC components and the level of product novelty for SMEs in the context of the Russian business environment.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2017

Ekaterina Miettinen

This study increases understanding of the influence of Russian culture and society on travel practices during Soviet times and now, through the subjective experiences of…

Abstract

This study increases understanding of the influence of Russian culture and society on travel practices during Soviet times and now, through the subjective experiences of Russian women. Based on the life-history narratives concerning travel of Russian women who lived in the USSR and worked for the government, the study explores features of traveling during Soviet and Russian times: norms and rules, gender aspects, Russianness and habitus. Both culture and governmental restrictions and societal rules affected how women traveled in Soviet times. This study demonstrates how historical and social contexts and habitus were significant for women in the past and continue to be so in the present, as well as how they have affected these women’s travel practices. By drawing on social reality, gender literature, Bourdieu’s concept of habitus, and sociohistoric patterning of consumption from the research domain of consumer culture theory, this study seeks to fill the gap in understanding the significance of these aspects for travel practices.

Details

Consumer Behavior in Tourism and Hospitality Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-690-7

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Dirk Meissner and Pavel Rudnik

Foresight is frequently used to establish science and technology investment priorities and develop corresponding technology and innovation support programmes. In the light…

Abstract

Purpose

Foresight is frequently used to establish science and technology investment priorities and develop corresponding technology and innovation support programmes. In the light of technology and innovation policy, many individual Foresight studies are undertaken which are separate and little linked with the broader policy scope and ambition. This paper aims to look at an approach towards a consistent Foresight system which is linked closely to science, technology and innovation policy.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides an in-depth case study of the Russian Foresight system. The case study is based on desk research and extensive experience of the authors with the system.

Findings

Russia has developed a systematic approach towards organising Foresight which involves and serves multiple stakeholders, including government, ministries, federal and regional agencies, higher education institutions, public research institutes, state-owned companies and private businesses and a large range of associations. Under the auspicious of a dedicated commission, targeted Foresight is undertaken with clearly defined scope for each. The paper finds that the Russian system is unique in its organisational structure and in the integration of Foresight with science, technology and innovation policy measures.

Originality/value

The paper describes all facets of the Russian Foresight system which has not been done before. It also outlines the practical steps to further develop and leverage the system.

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2013

Olga E. Annushkina and Renata Trinca Colonel

The purpose of this paper is to address the internationalization of Russian multinationals by critically challenging existing assumptions about “springboard” foreign…

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1173

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the internationalization of Russian multinationals by critically challenging existing assumptions about “springboard” foreign market selection by emerging market firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors studied foreign market selection decisions for 497 international merger and acquisition (M&A) and joint venture (JV) deals completed by Russian multinational enterprises (MNEs) between 1997 and 2009. The statistical model tests the impact of the geographic, political and economic distances of the host country from Russia on Russian MNEs' foreign market selection decisions.

Findings

Contrary to existing assumptions, the host country's geographic closeness to Russia, and its being an ex‐USSR republic or a tax haven, positively affected the country's probability of attracting an M&A or JV deal by a Russian MNE, while the similar level of economic development did not significantly influence the MNEs' foreign market selection decisions. The patterns of significance among the explanatory variables vary for Russian MNEs operating in the natural resources industries.

Research limitations/implications

Further studies may extend the observation period, enlarge the database with Greenfield and export deals by Russian MNEs, and add cross‐country cultural distances to the explanatory variables.

Practical implications

Russian managers should consider the “distances” that might influence firms' foreign investment decisions. This paper also allows host country governments willing to formulate policies aimed at the attraction of Russian outward foreign direct investments to obtain a better understanding of Russian MNEs' international strategies.

Originality/value

One of the few quantitative studies on the topic, this research suggests that Russian MNEs choose their own means of foreign market selection, combining gradual and leapfrog approaches to internationalization.

Details

Critical perspectives on international business, vol. 9 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

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Article
Publication date: 5 January 2015

Evgeniya Balabanova, Azer Efendiev, Mats Ehrnrooth and Alexei Koveshnikov

– The purpose of this paper is to examine managerial styles of Russian managers in the context of institutional and economic environment of contemporary Russia.

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2157

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine managerial styles of Russian managers in the context of institutional and economic environment of contemporary Russia.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a sample of 482 line and middle managers covering eight geographic regions, 14 industries and 80 organizations in Russia.

Findings

Employing factor and cluster analyses the paper identifies four distinct managerial styles: paternalistic, exploitative, performance oriented and passive. In addition, the paper analyzes a number of contingent characteristics of these typological Russian managers such as their age, career development, regional, industrial and organizational presence.

Originality/value

The analysis enriches the understanding of managerial style idiosyncrasy, heterogeneity and evolution in Russia. The identified plurality of managerial styles, differentially related to a number of contingency variables, indicates that it pays off for western companies to avoid using stereotypical ideas when dealing with their Russian counterparts and employ conscious strategies when recruiting managers to their Russian operations instead.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2015

Gøril Voldnes and Kjell Grønhaug

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how buyers and sellers in cross-cultural business relationships manage cultural differences to ensure functional, successful…

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1024

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how buyers and sellers in cross-cultural business relationships manage cultural differences to ensure functional, successful business relationships. Failure to consider specific cultural issues may lead to the failure of business ventures crossing national borders. To succeed in today’s global business market, it is critically important to understand and manage cultural differences. Adapting to each other’s cultures is one way of managing cultural differences between business actors.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative, explorative approach examining both sides of the exchange dyad was adopted to obtain insight into adaptation as perceived by both buyer and seller.

Findings

The results of this study indicate that mainly Norwegian sellers adapt to the Russian culture and way of conducting business. This is explained by power asymmetry between partners, as well as cultural barriers and lack of cultural sensitivity from the Norwegian partners. Still, the business relationships function well.

Practical implications

Knowledge of and applying strategies for managing cultural differences should be helpful for business managers engaged or planning to engage in business ventures with Russia and Norway – especially those doing so for the first time.

Originality/value

The study provides new and important information about West-East business relationships and how to manage cultural differences in cross-cultural business relationships. The study shows that business relationships can function well in spite of the absence of some factors previously found to have detrimental effects on these relationships. In addition, the study investigates both sides of the buyer-seller dyad, which is a limitation in previous studies of adaptation.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Book part
Publication date: 3 September 2019

James D. White

While working on the final draft of Das Kapital Volume I, Marx discovered that the assumption that he had previously held: as it circulated capital extended its sphere of…

Abstract

While working on the final draft of Das Kapital Volume I, Marx discovered that the assumption that he had previously held: as it circulated capital extended its sphere of operation and at the same time absorbed earlier forms of economic organization was not supported by empirical evidence. From 1869 he began to study how in fact capital began to circulate in Russia, a country which had begun to create a capitalist economy after the liberation of the peasantry in 1861. Marx was aided in this project by Nikolai Danielson, who sent him materials on the Russian economy and who himself made a study of contemporary trends in Russian economic development. Marx contributed to the article Danielson published in 1880 on this subject. One of the works Marx acquired was the book by Vorontsov, who concurred with Danielson that only some features of capitalism were present in the Russian economy and that peasants were dispossessed without being re-deployed in capitalist enterprises. Marx died without incorporating his Russian material into the second volume of Das Kapital. Engels failed to see any problem with the circulation of capital and published the manuscripts as he found them, dispersing Marx’s Russian materials. Unlike Danielson, Engels was convinced that Russia’s economic development did not differ in any way from that of Western Europe, a conviction shared by Plekhanov and Lenin, who classed Danielson and Vorontsov as “narodniki.” Lenin’s book The Development of Capitalism in Russia is a polemic against Danielson and Vorontsov, but does not directly address the points they made.

Details

Class History and Class Practices in the Periphery of Capitalism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-592-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2008

Asta Salmi and Elmira Sharafutdinova

This paper aims to focus on interactions between old and new cultural influences, investigating consumer preferences for a new type of product – the mobile phone – by…

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4635

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on interactions between old and new cultural influences, investigating consumer preferences for a new type of product – the mobile phone – by looking at the cultural and socio‐economic factors that affect these preferences.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 22 Russian experts in design and marketing were interviewed in the spring of 2005. The paper takes the viewpoint of Western firms interested in Russian (mobile phone) markets.

Findings

The study shows that the general features (high power distance, femininity, high uncertainty avoidance) characterizing Russian culture affect preferred mobile phone design. Long‐term values are seen, for example, in family orientation, which affects the use of mobile phones. Changing cultural and socio‐economic features are seen in the strict division of consumers into distinct segments. Current aspects of society, such as high level of street crime, are apparent in the desired features of products. The emerging Russian markets seem to consist of very different consumer groups and simultaneously represent both old and new cultural features and norms. Design has become a central tool for affecting product marketing, and an influential community of designers and a design industry are emerging.

Practical implications

Cooperation with the local designers can provide an important competitive edge and support when promoting both industrial and consumer goods in Russia's emerging markets.

Originality/value

Design was earlier neglected and it has only recently started to play a more significant role in production and marketing of products in Russia. Designers can now act as important intermediaries between Russian markets and Western marketers.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 23 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2016

Desislava Dikova, Andrei Panibratov, Anna Veselova and Lyubov Ermolaeva

The purpose of this paper is to advance knowledge about factors that influence the location of Russian foreign direct investments. In particular, it focusses on the role…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to advance knowledge about factors that influence the location of Russian foreign direct investments. In particular, it focusses on the role of institutional distance (represented by corruption perception distance, political distance and cultural distance) as a moderator of the relationships between traditional investment motives and the number of M&A deals made by Russian companies in a specific country.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is conducted on panel data of Russian cross-border M&As launched in 46 countries during the period 2007-2013. The final data set includes 322 observations. Due to the nature of dependent variable and the results of pre-tests, negative binomial regression is used in the main analysis.

Findings

The key finding of the study reveals the importance of institutional distance, in particular, the moderating effect of different dimensions of institutional distance on the relationships between internationalization motives and the number of Russian M&As. Corruption, political and cultural differences show different effects in terms of both direction and strength, but all three were found to be significant.

Research limitations/implications

The major concern stems from the type of secondary data used in the paper. This indicates the necessity to improve data collection methods which could allow for better transparency of Russian foreign investments, would facilitate more sophisticated research and probably more accurate business forecasts.

Originality/value

By conducting a systematic examination of Russian cross-border M&As the authors contribute to the literature on emerging markets firms by addressing the important yet under-researched domain of Russian foreign direct investments. Building on the macroeconomic and institutional logic proposed in this study, future research on Russian cross-border activities could add to the understanding by providing more generalizable and critical evidence. The study provides a point of departure from prior studies on Russian outward FDI which the authors hope to inspire future research to further analyze the drivers of Russian M&As and foreign investments in general.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Book part
Publication date: 11 November 2014

Snejina Michailova and Kseniya Nechayeva

This paper examines how personal networks influence the internationalization process of Russian multinational corporations.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines how personal networks influence the internationalization process of Russian multinational corporations.

Design/methodology/approach

We identify and review 78 articles published in five International Business journals that address the role of networking and relationships in firm internationalization. We then use the network perspective to examine how Russian multinationals internationalize.

Findings

Combining the key conclusions of the reviewed studies with insights from the network perspective, and adding insights that we have gained both through first-hand experience and by following the Russian business media, we develop a model that links personal networking and Russian multinationals’ internationalization. We outline four functions that personal networking plays – access to information and knowledge, resource commitment, development of marketing and sales capabilities, and further network expansion.

Originality/value

This paper challenges established views of how firm internationalization occurs. It combines two previously unrelated streams of literature, the network model of internationalization and the role of personal networking within the Russian business environment, and argues that personal networking plays a much larger role in how Russian MNCs internationalize than has the International Business literature has acknowledged.

Details

Emerging Market Firms in the Global Economy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-066-7

Keywords

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