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Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2019

Irina Turgel and Elizaveta Ulyanova

The study reveals how the role of the largest cities – regional capitals in the urban settlement system – and the economy of the country changed during the period of…

Abstract

The study reveals how the role of the largest cities – regional capitals in the urban settlement system – and the economy of the country changed during the period of social and economic transformations at the turn of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. The object of the study is the largest cities with a population of over 1 million people, the administrative centers of the regions. Unlike Moscow and St. Petersburg, these are administrative centers or “capitals” of large territories that have the status of a constituent entity of the Russian Federation. The authors emphasize the special role of cities – regional capitals in post-socialist and developing countries – where there are significant and rapid changes in the distribution of functions between the center and the regions. At the same time, cities – regional capitals – are not considered as isolated objects, but as elements of a national settlement system, the leaders among Russian second-tier cities. The common features of the evolution of the largest regional capitals, the continuity of the factors of city formation, are revealed. Considerable attention is paid to assessing the consequences of the collapse of the Soviet Union for the development of the urban settlement system. It was concluded that the “compensatory” nature of the accelerated growth of the largest regional capitals in post-Soviet Russia. “Compensatory” growth is considered as a form of adaptation of the urban settlement system to the weakening of links between its essential links. A methodical approach is proposed that allows a comparative analysis of the role of the largest regional capitals and the capital of the state in the economy of the country. In the process of testing it, an assessment was made of population dynamics, as well as key economic indicators, such as the volume of products shipped, retail turnover, investments, the volume of work in the construction of major regional pages, as well as Moscow and St. Petersburg. The evaluation results allowed the classification of the largest regional capitals in terms of their role in the economic development of the country, as well as in terms of the extent of the gap between the indicators; on the one hand, the largest regional capitals, and on the other, Moscow and St. Petersburg.

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Tech, Smart Cities, and Regional Development in Contemporary Russia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-881-0

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2019

Daniel J. McCarthy, Sheila M. Puffer and Daniel M. Satinsky

The purpose of this paper is to examine the dramatically changed role of Russia in the global economy since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, as the Soviet…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the dramatically changed role of Russia in the global economy since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, as the Soviet institutions collapsed and were either reformed or replaced in a new Russian institutional landscape. The paper presents a fact-based and balanced view of Russia’s evolving role in the global economy, as distinguished from the sometimes one-sided view presented by some Western commentators. The authors establish that the two countervailing views are fundamentally based on different cultural perspectives about institutions, primarily the roles of business and government.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is developed as a perspectives article drawing upon the decades of academic and business experience of all three authors with Russian business, management and the economy. The paper focuses on the structure of Russian institutional change and places it within the historical context of the challenges of various periods of time from the late 1980s to the present. The authors posit that cultural foundations complicate that institutional evolution.

Findings

Russia will remain a major player in world markets for energy, raw materials and armaments for the near future at least. Principal institutional questions facing Russia have to do with how to reduce the country’s overall dependence on raw material exports, with its vulnerability to world market fluctuations, and how to modernize Russian economic and political institutions. The degree of success in addressing these questions will depend largely upon the ability of the new and reformed economic institutions to show the flexibility to respond to changes in the global order, on whether political considerations will continue to supersede economic issues, and how markedly cultural traditions will continue to impede positive changes.

Research limitations/implications

The entire system of international trade is under question, disrupted by the growing nationalism that is threatening the globalization that became institutionalized over decades in the wake of the Second World War. Russia’s future role is partially dependent upon how new patterns of international trade develop in response to the current disruption of established trade regimes, and by how political conflicts are expressed economically. The authors observe that Russia’s historical and cultural traditions, especially acquiescence to a highly centralized government with a strong autocratic leader, limit the country’s options. The authors explore how Russia’s reactions to Western sanctions have led to a new strategic approach, moving away from full engagement in the global economy to selective economic, and sometimes political, alliances with primarily non-Western countries, most notably China. The authors contrast Russia’s situation with that of China, which has been able to make substantial economic progress while still embracing a strong, centralized political institutional structure.

Originality/value

Many Western analysts have viewed Russian institutional evolution very critically through the lens of Western politics and sanctions, while Russia has continued along its own path of economic and institutional development. Each view, the authors argue, is based upon differing cultural perspectives of the roles of business and government. As a result, a distinct difference exists between the Western and Russian perspectives on Russia’s role in the world. This paper presents both points of view and explores the future of Russia’s position in the world economy based upon its evolving strategy for national economic policy. The authors contrast the situations of Russia and China, highlighting how Western-centric cultural views have affected perceptions of each country, sometimes similarly and at times with decided differences.

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Tatiana Kossova, Elena Kossova and Maria Sheluntcova

The purpose of this paper is to examine macroeconomic factors that are significantly related to consumption of various alcoholic beverages in Russia.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine macroeconomic factors that are significantly related to consumption of various alcoholic beverages in Russia.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors consider 78 Russian regions for the period from 2008 to 2012. Data were collected from the Federal State Statistics Service of Russia. The authors investigate differences in the volume and structure of consuming absolute alcohol in aggregate, vodka, beer, and wine. Estimating fixed effect panel models enables us to reveal the relationship between alcohol consumption and the set of macroeconomic factors that include economic development of regions and living standards, the effect of unemployment, and the degree of urbanization.

Findings

Alcohol consumption is procyclical in Russia. Two main alcoholic beverages in Russia are vodka and beer. Economic development and urbanization of regions are positively related to consuming alcohol. Unemployment rate affects consumption of different types of alcoholic drinks in a different way. For absolute alcohol, vodka and beer, this relationship is negative. However, it is positive for wine. The effect of unemployment on absolute alcohol and vodka increases over time. For beer, it is remained unchanged. For wine, this effect weakens over time.

Originality/value

To the authors knowledge, the paper is the first one to analyze macro-level factors of consumption of different alcoholic beverages in Russia. Conclusions made on aggregate macroeconomic data add to understanding of drinking patterns in Russia as a country with the large territory and great regional variations. Findings can be used for correcting the alcohol policy at the national and regional level.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1995

Christa L. Walck

Since the break‐up of the Soviet Union, the Western media andWestern academics have used the benign rhetorical frames of“democratization”, “privatization”,“transition to a…

Abstract

Since the break‐up of the Soviet Union, the Western media and Western academics have used the benign rhetorical frames of “democratization”, “privatization”, “transition to a market economy” and “the management revolution” to explain events in post‐Soviet Russia. Reframes the rhetoric from these global ideals to the local reality of the “development project” in Russia, interpreting events as a continuing pattern of Western violence in which Americans are implicated as “missionary managers”.

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Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1996

Robert D. Hisrich

Market reforms have resulted in dramatic changes in the Russian business climate. Since 1991, when nearly all small shops were owned by the state, nearly 70,000, or…

Abstract

Market reforms have resulted in dramatic changes in the Russian business climate. Since 1991, when nearly all small shops were owned by the state, nearly 70,000, or one‐half of these shops, have been transferred into public hands. Similarly, about 3,500 medium and large firms have been privatised with the goal being to privatise one‐third of this size firms by the end of 1995. In addition to this massive transfer of ownership, foreign investment has surged with currently over 18,000 operating joint ventures having an investment value of over $10 billion (Kvint, 1994).

Details

Management Research News, vol. 19 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Expert briefing
Publication date: 20 May 2021

Positive signs are still thin on the ground, but a modest recovery in demand is apparent. Oil export figures are less bad than they could have been, and natural gas sales…

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Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Lyudmila Y. Bogachkova, Lidiya S. Guryanova and Shamam G. Khurshudyan

The energy efficiency policy is a priority component of the overall economic policy of different countries striving to ensure the competitiveness and sustainability of…

Abstract

The energy efficiency policy is a priority component of the overall economic policy of different countries striving to ensure the competitiveness and sustainability of national economic development. The improvement of energy efficiency represents an important economic task for the post-Soviet countries, characterized by excessive energy intensity of the economy, and the solution of this task requires proper information and analytical support: a system for accounting and analyzing energy consumption indicators. The present research is aimed at developing the tools to support decision-making in the sphere of evaluation and estimation of performance of the State energy efficiency policy of territories and testing these tools on the example of Russian regions. The study has been carried out using the methods of statistics, economic, mathematical and econometric modeling, structural, dynamic and comparative analyses. The following tools have been proposed: the method for differentiated accounting of various factors’ influence on the dynamics of energy consumption in the regions and for estimating the index of technological efficiency of electricity consumption; the method for the empirical classification of territories by types of their energy and economic development. We’ve revealed the general trend and typological features in the dynamics of electricity consumption efficiency indicators in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation and carried out the decomposition factor and comparative analysis of energy consumption patterns of the Volgograd region over 2005–2014 on the basis of the proposed tools.

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Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2020

Dmitry V. Didenko

This chapter sheds light on long-term trends in the level and structural dynamics of investments in Russian human capital formation from government, corporations, and…

Abstract

This chapter sheds light on long-term trends in the level and structural dynamics of investments in Russian human capital formation from government, corporations, and households. It contributes to the literature discussing theoretical issues and empirical patterns of modernization, human development, as well as the transition from a centralized to a market economy. The empirical evidence is based on extensive utilization of the dataset introduced in Didenko, Földvári, and Van Leeuwen (2013). Our findings provide support for the view expressed in Gerschenkron (1962) that in late industrializers the government tended to substitute for the lack of capital and infrastructure by direct interventions. At least from the late nineteenth century the central government's and local authorities' budgets played the primary role. However, the role of nongovernment sources increased significantly since the mid-1950s, i.e., after the crucial breakthrough to an industrial society had been made. During the transition to a market economy in the 1990s and 2000s the level of government contributions decreased somewhat in education, and more significantly in research and development, but its share in overall financing expanded. In education corporate funds were largely replaced by those from households. In health care, Russia is characterized by an increasing share of out-of-pocket payments of households and slow development of organized forms of nonstate financing. These trends reinforce obstacles to Russia's future transition, as regards institutional change toward a more significant and sound role of the corporate sector in such branches as R&D, health care, and, to a lesser extent, education.

Details

Research in Economic History
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-179-7

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Book part
Publication date: 23 May 2019

Zoya A. Pilipenko

The chapter contains a methodology for formalized evaluation of the role of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation (Bank of Russia) in ensuring monetary and financial…

Abstract

The chapter contains a methodology for formalized evaluation of the role of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation (Bank of Russia) in ensuring monetary and financial sustainability with the help of the monetary policy transmission mechanism and its inflation target regime. The significance of the research of the Bank of Russia operations to ensure financial sustainability is due to a number of circumstances: the uniqueness of the Bank of Russia that appeared only 27 years ago and experienced several devastating events related to the 1998 financial crisis, the global financial crisis of 2008–2009, and the stagnation of the Russian economy in 2014–2016, as well as high volatility of world prices for Russian commodity exports and the latest contra-Russian sanctions that significantly affected the volatility of the Russian ruble. Taking into account all the above, the issue of the Bank of Russia’s effective activities in the long run is aggravated by the fact that there are still more open questions than proven relationships of causes and effects regarding the potential of specific monetary policy instruments in the context of low-growth and high-volatility environment. The modeling of the Bank of Russia strategic and operational targets has been based on the parameters’ dependencies presented by the money (credit) multiplier in the interpretation of G. Schinasi (2006) and on the instability of stable economy hypothesis of H. Minsky (2008). As a result, there have been established the marginal levels of definite indicators of the banking system performance that could allow the Bank of Russia to ensure financial sustainability in the low-growth and high-volatility environment.

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2021

Asset Mukhtarkhan

The purpose of this paper is to study debt sustainability of countries with a resource-based economy on the example of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study debt sustainability of countries with a resource-based economy on the example of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation.

Design/methodology/approach

Macroeconomic indicators and data on external and internal public debt of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation for the period from 2007 to 2019 were analyzed using quantitative, qualitative, comparative, descriptive and graphical methods. Based on the collected data, the indicators were calculated, analyzed and compared, taking into account the threshold values, using The Debt Sustainability Framework for Low-Income Countries of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.

Findings

The results of the study showed that the indicators of the public debt of both the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation, during the period covered by the study, were in the zone of reduced risk and were stable. In addition, the study revealed a slight shift in the structure of the public debt of the Republic of Kazakhstan toward a decrease in the share of domestic borrowing (from 67% to 55%), whereas in the structure of the Russian public debt, the share of domestic borrowing increased significantly (from 52% to 74%).

Originality/value

The results of this study can be applied by scientists to analyze the sustainability of public debt in various countries and regions, as well as by officials to determine the fiscal and budgetary policies of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation, as well as other states.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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