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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2020

Russell Ashmore

The purpose of this paper is to report on the content of local policies on engagement and observation written by National Health Service (NHS) organisations in England and Wales.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on the content of local policies on engagement and observation written by National Health Service (NHS) organisations in England and Wales.

Design/methodology/approach

Engagement and observation policies were obtained from all (n = 61) NHS mental health trusts in England and health boards in Wales via a Freedom of Information Act 2000 request. Data were analysed using content analysis.

Findings

All organisations had a specific policy referring to either “observation and engagement” or “observation”. The policies varied considerably in quality, length, breadth and depth of the information provided. Significant variations existed in the terminology used to describe the different types of enhanced observation. Inconsistencies were also noted between organisations regarding: which members of the clinical team could initiate, increase, decrease and terminate observation; who could undertake the intervention (for example students); and the reasons for using it. Finally, despite rhetoric to the contrary, the emphasis of policies was on observation and not engagement.

Research limitations/implications

This research has demonstrated the value of examining local policies for identifying inconsistencies in guidance given to practitioners on the implementation of engagement and observation. Further research should be undertaken to explore the impact of local policies on practice.

Practical implications

Local policies remain variable in content and quality and do not reflect contemporary research. There is a need to produce evidence-based national standards that organisations are required to comply with.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first research in 20 years examining the local policy framework for the implementation of engagement and observation.

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Russell Ashmore and Neil Carver

The purpose of this paper is to determine what written information is given to informally admitted patients in England and Wales regarding their legal rights in relation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine what written information is given to informally admitted patients in England and Wales regarding their legal rights in relation to freedom of movement and treatment.

Design/methodology/approach

Information leaflets were obtained by a search of all National Health Service mental health trust websites in England and health boards in Wales and via a Freedom of Information Act 2000 request. Data were analysed using content analysis.

Findings

Of the 61 organisations providing inpatient care, 27 provided written information in the form of a leaflet. Six provided public access to the information leaflets via their website prior to admission. Although the majority of leaflets were accurate the breadth and depth of the information varied considerably. Despite a common legal background there was confusion and inconsistency in the use of the terms informal and voluntary as well as inconsistency regarding freedom of movement, the right to refuse treatment and discharge against medical advice.

Research limitations/implications

The research has demonstrated the value of Freedom of Information Act 2000 requests in obtaining data. Further research should explore the effectiveness of informing patients of their rights from their perspective.

Practical implications

Work should be undertaken to establish a consensus of good practice in this area. Information should be consistent, accurate and understandable.

Originality/value

This is the only research reporting on the availability and content of written information given to informal patients about their legal rights.

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Russell Ashmore and Neil Carver

– The purpose of this paper is to review policy or guidance on the implementation of Section 5(4) written by NHS mental health trusts in England and health boards in Wales.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review policy or guidance on the implementation of Section 5(4) written by NHS mental health trusts in England and health boards in Wales.

Design/methodology/approach

A Freedom of Information request was submitted to all trusts in England (n=57) and health boards in Wales (n=7) asking them to provide a copy of any policy or guidance on the implementation of Section 5(4). Documents were analysed using content analysis. Specific attention was given to any deviations from the national Mental Health Act Codes of Practice.

Findings

In total, 41 (67.2 per cent) organisations had a policy on the implementation of Section 5(4). There was a high level of consistency between local guidance and the Mental Health Act Codes of Practice. There were however; different interpretations of the guidance and errors that could lead to misuse of the section. Some policies contained useful guidance that could be adopted by future versions of the national Codes of Practice.

Research limitations/implications

The research has demonstrated the value of examining the relationship between national and local guidance. Further research should be undertaken on the frequency and reasons for any reuse of the section.

Practical implications

Greater attention should be given to considering the necessity of local policy, given the existence of national Codes of Practice.

Originality/value

This is the only research examining the policy framework for the implementation of Section 5(4).

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Tracy Flanagan, Russell Ashmore, David Banks and Doug MacInnes

– The purpose of this paper is to describe how the classic Delphi method can be adapted and structured to ensure that specific research questions are clearly addressed.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe how the classic Delphi method can be adapted and structured to ensure that specific research questions are clearly addressed.

Design/methodology/approach

As part of a larger mixed method project, a modified Delphi study was undertaken to explore factors influencing publication and non-publication of mental health nursing research.

Findings

This paper reports brief findings from the Delphi study. However, its main focus is the methodological issues arising from the Delphi method.

Research limitations/implications

The paper argues that the classic Delphi method can be adapted and structured to ensure that specific research questions are able to be clearly answered. The adaptations are pragmatic in approach and in keeping with the general principles underpinning the Delphi method, while successfully addressing the problems of attrition and previous criticism of homogenous panels.

Originality/value

This paper offers some practical solutions to issue arising from undertaking research using the Delphi method.

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Robert L. Dipboye

Abstract

Details

The Emerald Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-786-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1968

ALTHOUGH the first Public Libraries (Scotland) Act was placed on the Statute Book in 1853, it was not until 1899 that the Corporation of the City of Glasgow was empowered…

Abstract

ALTHOUGH the first Public Libraries (Scotland) Act was placed on the Statute Book in 1853, it was not until 1899 that the Corporation of the City of Glasgow was empowered to establish and maintain public libraries throughout the city. Between 1876 and 1897 four attempts were made to secure public approval for the adoption of the Public Libraries (Scotland) Acts, but when all these efforts proved unsuccessful, the Corporation decided in June, 1888 to include in a Local Bill for submission to Parliament, certain clauses conferring upon themselves the power to become a library authority. Promoted in 1899, the Bill became known as the Glasgow Corporation (Tramways, Libraries, etc.) Act 1899, and the library clauses passed through Parliament without opposition and received Royal Assent on 1st August, 1899. The powers conferred by this Local Act empowered the Corporation:

Details

New Library World, vol. 69 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1967

I HAVE sometimes been asked whether I am conscious, as the present editor of THE LIBRARY WORLD, of the spirit and influence of its founder, James Duff Brown, and of his…

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Abstract

I HAVE sometimes been asked whether I am conscious, as the present editor of THE LIBRARY WORLD, of the spirit and influence of its founder, James Duff Brown, and of his editorial successors, who included J. D. Stewart and W. C. Berwick Sayers. The answer is that of course I am—how could it be otherwise?

Details

New Library World, vol. 68 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1949

It has often been said that a great part of the strength of Aslib lies in the fact that it brings together those whose experience has been gained in many widely differing…

Abstract

It has often been said that a great part of the strength of Aslib lies in the fact that it brings together those whose experience has been gained in many widely differing fields but who have a common interest in the means by which information may be collected and disseminated to the greatest advantage. Lists of its members have, therefore, a more than ordinary value since they present, in miniature, a cross‐section of institutions and individuals who share this special interest.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2011

Christopher A. (Cal) Lee

This paper sets out to investigate the meaning, role and implications of contextual information associated with digital collections.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper sets out to investigate the meaning, role and implications of contextual information associated with digital collections.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on an extensive review and analysis of both the scholarly literature from many disciplines about the concept of context and the professional literature (including standards) related to the description of information artifacts. The paper provides an analysis of context, distinguishing three main ways in which that term has been used within the scholarly literature. It then discusses contextual information within digital collections, and presents a framework for contextual information. It goes on to discuss existing standards and guidance documents for encoding information related to the nine classes of contextual entities, concluding with a discussion of potential implications for descriptive practices through the lifecycle of digital objects.

Findings

The paper presents a framework for contextual information that is based on nine classes of contextual entities: object, agent, occurrence, purpose, time, place, form of expression, concept/abstraction, and relationship.

Research limitations/implications

Research and development about and in support of digital collections will benefit from a clear articulation of the types, roles, importance and elements of contextual information.

Practical implications

Future users of digital objects will probably have numerous tools for discovering preserved digital objects relevant to their interests, but making meaningful use and sense of the digital objects will also require capture, collection and management of contextual information.

Originality/value

This paper synthesizes and extends a previously diffuse literature, in order to clarify and articulate core concepts in the management of digital collections.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 67 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 December 2021

Yue Wang and Sai Ho Chung

This study is a systematic literature review of the application of artificial intelligence (AI) in safety-critical systems. The authors aim to present the current…

Abstract

Purpose

This study is a systematic literature review of the application of artificial intelligence (AI) in safety-critical systems. The authors aim to present the current application status according to different AI techniques and propose some research directions and insights to promote its wider application.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 92 articles were selected for this review through a systematic literature review along with a thematic analysis.

Findings

The literature is divided into three themes: interpretable method, explain model behavior and reinforcement of safe learning. Among AI techniques, the most widely used are Bayesian networks (BNs) and deep neural networks. In addition, given the huge potential in this field, four future research directions were also proposed.

Practical implications

This study is of vital interest to industry practitioners and regulators in safety-critical domain, as it provided a clear picture of the current status and pointed out that some AI techniques have great application potential. For those that are inherently appropriate for use in safety-critical systems, regulators can conduct in-depth studies to validate and encourage their use in the industry.

Originality/value

This is the first review of the application of AI in safety-critical systems in the literature. It marks the first step toward advancing AI in safety-critical domain. The paper has potential values to promote the use of the term “safety-critical” and to improve the phenomenon of literature fragmentation.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

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