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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2011

Sacha Reid

Changes to the economic and social fabric of rural communities in Australia have resulted in an outmigration of residents, shifting economies and disenfranchisement with…

Abstract

Purpose

Changes to the economic and social fabric of rural communities in Australia have resulted in an outmigration of residents, shifting economies and disenfranchisement with rural life styles. As a result, events provide important social and recreational opportunities for residents. However, rural communities are constrained by limited resources, such as the number of individuals who are willing and able to participate in event organizations; therefore, it is essential for the sustainable organization of events that stakeholders are attracted and retained. This paper aims to apply a stakeholder theoretical approach to the organizing and planning of rural events to identify event stakeholders, monitor satisfaction and ensure stakeholder retention within rural events.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative research design using a multiple case study approach examined event stakeholders in three rural communities of Southwest Queensland, Australia. In total, 54 in‐depth interviews were undertaken with event stakeholders and analyzed using an iterative thematic content analysis.

Findings

The findings reveal that ruralevent stakeholders fulfill multiple roles, differentiated by risk, and fraught with competing or conflicting agendas. The paper identifies strategies that event organizers utilize to manage relationships, and that facilitate stakeholder satisfaction and continued involvement.

Originality/value

There is limited understanding of event stakeholders, particularly in rural communities. Involving rural residents in organizing and planning events develops individual skills, knowledge and capacity. Rural communities benefit from an ability to deal with adverse conditions based on improvements in capacity of individuals and the community.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2019

Julie Clark and Gareth Rice

The purpose of this paper is twofold. It seeks to explore the relationship between place branding in rural areas and community building. Furthermore, the paper advances…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold. It seeks to explore the relationship between place branding in rural areas and community building. Furthermore, the paper advances the growing body of work, that examines the role of events in destination revitalisation and competitiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodological approach stems from the Chicago School of Sociology, and visual methodologies. The ethnographic fieldwork consisted of purposeful conversations with event organisers, social interactions with members of the local community and other event attendees, field notes and photographs.

Findings

The Loch Fyne Food Fair in Argyll and Bute highlights a manifold disjuncture between place marketing and place branding, which, in turn, reflects the different approaches to how cities and rural areas seek to remain competitive. The authenticity of the brand, as signalled through image and language, is a key feature of the event’s success, as is the creation of a welcoming and inclusive “third place” environment. The interdependence between the aesthetic, escapist, educational and entertainment realms of the Fair experience have helped to secure the loyalty of visitors and locals, alike.

Originality/value

The paper offers practical insights into the ways in which place branding can be deployed to sustain a successful rural event and extends knowledge of the status of events and festivals as third places. The case study demonstrates how paying careful attention to the elements of the experience economy can enrich the distinctiveness of a rural event.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2011

Kirstin Hallmann and Christoph Breuer

The purpose of this paper is to analyse quantitative and qualitative image aspects of destinations hosting a small‐scale sport event, as perceived by spectators and participants.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse quantitative and qualitative image aspects of destinations hosting a small‐scale sport event, as perceived by spectators and participants.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was conducted at different sport events hosted by destinations in a rural setting. The data are analysed using confirmatory factor analyses and correspondence analyses.

Findings

The results suggest several differences between the image perception of participants and spectators. These can be attributed to different levels of involvement, which is very high for participants. The perception of the qualitative image aspects showed that unique features were associated with the destination, such as sport themes or organizational aspects of the sport event visited. Further, it is shown that the quantitatively measured indicators of affective destination image have a great influence on the image of rural sport event tourism destinations.

Research limitations/implications

A research limitation could arise due to the sample, as almost all sport tourists were German. A more international sample might have shown different results. Future research should analyse samples of different sports, concluding whether the sport performed also influences behaviour.

Practical implications

For marketing communications it is essential to utilise emotions to promote the destination, as they are a very essential element of destinations hosting sport events.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the understanding of images held by spectators and participants of small‐scale sport events hosted in rural destinations. The value is the large sample, consisting of various rural destinations, which allows for general patterns of the perceived image to be drawn.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2014

Giovanna Bertella

– The purpose of this paper is to develop and illustrate a conceptual tool for the planning of rural sport events.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop and illustrate a conceptual tool for the planning of rural sport events.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed model is elaborated based on theoretical contributions from the tourism and event literature, and illustrated with an empirical case concerning a sport and cultural event arranged in the Chianti countryside in Italy.

Findings

The results suggest that a form of professionalization of the event design process, understood as the search of high-quality experience for the local population and the tourists, is feasible within the socialization style of model typical of small events.

Research limitations/implications

This study is based on selected theoretical contributions, and on a limited empirical investigation. Further research is needed in order to better understand the event design process, and in particular the processes of communication and involvement among the different community members.

Practical implications

The practical implications are related to the possible use of the developed model.

Originality/value

The theoretical contribution of this study is relative to the use of the concept of tourism experience, and more specifically of the embodied tourism experience, within the context of event design.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Joanna Fountain and Michael Mackay

Recent theorising about the globalising countryside highlights the processes of place making, sense of place and the construction of place-based identities in rural

Abstract

Purpose

Recent theorising about the globalising countryside highlights the processes of place making, sense of place and the construction of place-based identities in rural regions, where exogenous forces are utilised, negotiated and contested by local communities as they seek to represent their place. A longitudinal case study of Akaroa’s French Festival shows how this place-based identity has been constructed, promoted and animated over the past two decades at the nexus of globalising and local forces. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is based on qualitative methods utilising documentary analysis, participant observation and key stakeholder interviews undertaken in the township of Akaroa, New Zealand.

Findings

The form this festival has taken, and the version of the place identity represented therein, has shifted over the course of the last two decades. While this is in part due to the energy, personal heritage and agenda of local champions, the influence of the globalising forces, political, economic and cultural, have shaped the place image portrayed through this festival.

Originality/value

There are limited attempts to theorise rural festivals within a “global countryside” framework, and the detailed longitudinal research underpinning this paper provides a unique opportunity to explore the emergent issues in a rural community festival in qualitative detail. The study reinforces the understanding of the role of local agency in the making of places in a globalising world.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

Caroline Westwood, Peter Schofield and Graham Berridge

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the theory concerning visitor motivations, consumer experience and behavioural intentions at rural events; more specifically…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the theory concerning visitor motivations, consumer experience and behavioural intentions at rural events; more specifically, it focusses on agricultural shows, which have hitherto been neglected in the events management literature. These events have successfully broadened their visitor base, but not without the attendant challenges for agricultural events’ designers.

Design/methodology/approach

The research adopts a quantitative design using a questionnaire survey. The analysis, using a range of statistical procedures, centres on consumer motivation, experience and behaviour in relation to show features and their influence on future behaviour.

Findings

The findings of this paper demonstrates the relative importance to the consumer of the show’s various components and their influence on revisitation, which reflect the significance of social, cultural and personal meanings attached to their experiences. This highlights key motivational variables such as appreciating the shows’ traditions and intellectual enrichment.

Research limitations/implications

The study takes a cross-sectional approach, using a non-probability sample at four multi-day royal shows. Future research should establish the external validity of the findings and their applicability to smaller one-day agricultural shows.

Practical implications

The research provides a managerial contribution by informing show designers about the motivations of an increasingly diverse range of visitors. This will facilitate decisions around the engagement of contemporary design while preserving the traditional elements of agricultural shows.

Originality/value

Few studies have looked at rural events and, in particular, agricultural shows. Moreover, previous research in this area has focussed on rural tourism and place making, while consumer behaviour and experience at rural events has been neglected. This paper provides an insight into the consumer experience and perceived importance of various aspects of contemporary agricultural shows.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2010

Kirstin Hallmann, Kyriaki Kaplanidou and Christoph Breuer

Sports events are tourist attractions and their image components can relate to the destination image concept and structure. This study examined sports event images held by…

Abstract

Sports events are tourist attractions and their image components can relate to the destination image concept and structure. This study examined sports event images held by active and passive sports tourists at four marathon races in Germany. Some differences in the perception of event images were found for active and passive sports tourists as well as for different types of destinations. For active sports tourists, emotional, physical and organisational image associations were clustered closer. For passive sports tourists, social and historical image associations were clustered closer. The type of destination elicited different event images among active and passive sports tourists.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2010

Helena Maria Baptista Alves, Ana María Campón Cerro and Ana Vanessa Ferreira Martins

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact that an event such as the Cherry Festival, organized by the municipality of Fundão (Portugal), can have in a rural area.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact that an event such as the Cherry Festival, organized by the municipality of Fundão (Portugal), can have in a rural area.

Design/methodology/approach

To obtain a complete picture of the impact of the Cherry Festival on Fundão, the perspectives of the organizers, suppliers, and the local residents are combined. The impact is evaluated through qualitative economic and social impacts and quantitative economic impact. The information is obtained through primary and secondary data with personal interviews and questionnaires.

Findings

The results suggest that for these kind of small events, there are economic and social impacts, but the social impacts extend beyond the economic benefits.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of this paper is the impossibility of using input‐output tables and multipliers of expenditures in a small area such as the one studied.

Practical implications

The paper shows that even in small events important impacts may occur that justify the investments made on them.

Originality/value

The paper presents a combination of methodologies to measure the impact an event can have in small areas that do not have suitable input‐output tables and multipliers of expenditures.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 10 November 2017

Brian Real and R. Norman Rose

This chapter analyzes major trends in rural public libraries, beginning with a discussion of changes in service offerings since the advent of the Internet. These outlets…

Abstract

This chapter analyzes major trends in rural public libraries, beginning with a discussion of changes in service offerings since the advent of the Internet. These outlets are now better able to help patrons with their employment, education, and civic engagement needs than they have been at any point in the past. However, rural public libraries still lag behind their peers in broadband speeds, technological infrastructure, and various forms of service and training offerings that use these technologies. The difference in public offerings is not only due to problems of technology, but also limited funding for staff, aging and small buildings, and a lack of state and regional support to allow these libraries to achieve economies of scale. As libraries nationwide shift to focus more on public programming and digital offerings, these factors will be barriers to rural outlets keeping up with modern trends in the field.

This study uses Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) and Digital Inclusion Survey data to analyze trends among rural public libraries. The authors returned to the original data sets from these studies to find nuance between types of rural outlets, primarily dividing this information based on libraries’ distances from more densely populated areas. These statistical data are supplemented through qualitative interviews with professionals in the rural library field. Key findings include:

  • Rural public libraries have made major strides in improving broadband quality and increasing related service offerings since the advent of the Internet in the mid-1990s.

  • Rural libraries still lag behind those in more populated areas in terms of technical infrastructure and training offerings, and this becomes more acute among those located farther from population centers.

  • As the public library field places a greater emphasis on public programs, rural libraries’ small and aging buildings will likely be a barrier to them keeping up with their peers.

  • The lack of regional consortia and strong state libraries in some parts of the country limits rural libraries’ abilities to achieve economies of scale and negatively impacts the range of services they can offer their patrons.

Rural public libraries have made major strides in improving broadband quality and increasing related service offerings since the advent of the Internet in the mid-1990s.

Rural libraries still lag behind those in more populated areas in terms of technical infrastructure and training offerings, and this becomes more acute among those located farther from population centers.

As the public library field places a greater emphasis on public programs, rural libraries’ small and aging buildings will likely be a barrier to them keeping up with their peers.

The lack of regional consortia and strong state libraries in some parts of the country limits rural libraries’ abilities to achieve economies of scale and negatively impacts the range of services they can offer their patrons.

Rural libraries have often been combined together in statistical analyses of their service offerings. This chapter shows nuance between these outlets, demonstrating that libraries that are distant and remote from population centers face more difficulties than those on the fringes of cities and suburbs. Likewise, while much of the advocacy surrounding rural libraries has focused on the need for improved broadband and technological infrastructure, this study moves on to study how building infrastructure, low staff funding, and a lack of mechanisms for collaboration will hinder libraries’ abilities to keep up with modern changes in the field.

Details

Rural and Small Public Libraries: Challenges and Opportunities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-112-6

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Anestis Fotiadis, Chris Vassiliadis and Shang-Pao Yeh

The purpose of this paper is to investigate sports participants’ choice behaviour and draw useful conclusions about the ideal features of small-scale sporting events that…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate sports participants’ choice behaviour and draw useful conclusions about the ideal features of small-scale sporting events that maximize attractiveness and desirability among potential competitors to attend and compete.

Design/methodology/approach

Conjoint analysis was used to determine how participants value different elements and features of two small-scale cycling events, one in Taiwan and the other in Greece. A questionnaire was developed and distributed to 195 cyclists during the event in Kaohsiung, Taiwan and to 169 competitors of a similar competition in Sfendami, Greece. It consisted of two basic parts. The first presented 19 alternative scenarios that have been associated with such sporting events while the second assessed the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of participant’s in order to provide an average profile of the participants in each location. The conjoint data collected was analysed using the SPSS “Conjoint Module” at the aggregate level (i.e. pooled data).

Findings

Based on the preferences of these amateur cyclists the most important factors for Taiwanese events are “preferred season to organizing the event”, “registration cost”, and “preferred time period”, while those participating in the Greek event emphasized “registration cost” and “scenery”. Overall, the analysis highlights five differences and five similarities that exist between these two countries.

Research limitations/implications

The study is small-scale and although sample sizes are sufficient to be representative of the participants in each event there are limitations in generalizing these results to larger sports meetings and other countries.

Practical implications

The findings of this study provide event coordinators and sport marketers practical insights into small-scale event planning and the development of effective marketing strategies designed to appeal to a greater range of participants. Furthermore, the comparative nature of the study can facilitate a transfer of know-how which can be used for development of sport events in Mediterranean area, whose sport events’ organizers can, in the future, more effectively approach potential East Asian participants.

Originality/value

This is the first study to use a combination of seven parameters in conjoint analysis to examine amateur cyclists’ preferences and is one on the few studies to examine the differences between Asian and European participants.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

Keywords

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