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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2008

Hisham Zerriffi

To rigorously examine success and failure in the use of small scale technologies for rural electrification.

Abstract

Purpose

To rigorously examine success and failure in the use of small scale technologies for rural electrification.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi‐structured primary field interviews plus secondary sources.

Findings

Business model differences and influence of institutions important are important for understanding success and failure in rural electrification and the contribution rural electrification can play in rural development.

Research limitations/implications

Data on the entire universe of distributed electrification efforts are unavailable. This highlights the need for better documentation of energy activities in rural areas.

Practical implications

The development of new policies to guide rural electrification towards more sustainable and development enhancing outcomes.

Originality/value

Prior studies have taken an ad hoc approach to study previous projects and suffer from case selection bias since their scope is limited in geography (one country, region or even village), technology (only PV or only wind or only renewables), or end‐use (household electrification and productive uses). This study proposes a clear set of independent and dependent (as well as control) variables and looks across a range of cases to draw conclusions.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2008

Zaida Contreras

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate and discuss the implications of the assessment and choice of electricity supply systems for rural communities of less than 500…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate and discuss the implications of the assessment and choice of electricity supply systems for rural communities of less than 500 inhabitants in Senegal. The paper is based on a study produced by Programme pour la Promotion de l'Electrification Rurale et l'Approvisionnement en Combustibles Domestiques, an advising body for the Senegalese Ministry of Energy and Mines.

Design/methodology/approach

The profitability index Taux d'Enrichissement en Capital is used as the main criterion for the economic evaluation of four technologies: diesel mini‐grids, photovoltaic, hybrid (pv‐diesel) generators, and solar home systems. Household demand is derived from real data of socio‐economic studies which serve as the basis for determining market segments defined by the distribution of the willingness to pay and the levels of service.

Findings

The simulations from nine demand cases show that high investment and/or operation expenditure create an insurmountable barrier given the limited payment capacity of rural populations, demonstrating that projects in this context are not profitable without subsidies. However, decentralised PV generation technologies are already demonstrated to be the least cost solution when the village lies further than 5.4 kilometers from the transmission grid.

Originality/value

This paper describes a planning path that could enable a faster implementation of rural electrification programs in remote areas considering three main elements, namely; willingness to pay, reduction of levels of supply service and support of communal management. However, the focus of the present work is mainly devoted to an analysis of the first two elements. Finally, the paper addresses the issue of how these technologies can be better implemented by national agencies and investors, with potential application outside of the Senegalese case study.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2020

Mrigakshi Das

Resulting from large government interventions, India could attain 99% electrification in March 2019. However, the consequences are revenue losses due to lack of real-time…

Abstract

Purpose

Resulting from large government interventions, India could attain 99% electrification in March 2019. However, the consequences are revenue losses due to lack of real-time efforts in bringing operational efficiencies of the power distribution companies (discoms). Distribution franchisees operate as agents to the discoms for performing their contracted functions in smaller high-loss making areas under jurisdiction of a discom. This study aims to explore how rural franchisees help or hinder requisite results.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative embedded multiple-case study was conducted. The case focused on two franchisees engaged in metering, billing and collection functions of a high-loss-making rural area dominated Indian state-owned discom. Data were collected through documents, personal observations and semi-structured in-depth interviews with franchisee employees situated at different levels of the organizational hierarchy. A review of pertinent literature and government documents was utilized in forming the codes for collecting the data.

Findings

It could be argued that franchisees with strong financial capability, human resources support and monitoring and control facilities could contribute effectively in generating revenue from rural and interior electrified mass. The analysis revealed various challenges serving as hindrances in achievement of contracted targeted outcomes. The analysis resulted in highlighting factors that if implemented could result in the needed outcome.

Practical implications

This study could be generalized only to similar socio-economic conditions. The findings could provide policy makers with valuable insights to emphasize on creating win–win situations for all the stakeholders to encourage franchisee participation.

Originality/value

This study is unique, as there is a dearth of empirical evidences relating to operational efficacies of these franchisees.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2019

Kok Yew Soon, Kein Huat Chua, Yun Seng Lim and Li Wang

This paper aims to propose a comprehensive methodology for setting up rural electrifications for indigenous villages with minimum budgets and the lowest possible cost of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a comprehensive methodology for setting up rural electrifications for indigenous villages with minimum budgets and the lowest possible cost of electricity (COE). The electricity accessibility of rural area in Malaysia is not fully covered and the cost of extending the grid to these areas can be high as RM 2.7m per km. Lack of vigorous policies and economic attraction of the rural areas are also the main barriers to rural electrification. Electricity is an essential element of economic activities and the lack of electricity exacerbates poverty and contributes to its perpetuation. Therefore, a hybrid standalone power system can be an alternative solution for the rural electrification. A hybrid standalone power system is studied to investigate the potential of the implementation and the budget required.

Design/methodology/approach

A site survey has been carried out in a village in Peninsular Malaysia, namely, Kampung Ulu Lawin Selatan. A standalone hybrid system is modeled in HOMER Pro software and the data collected from the selected site are used to obtain the system configuration with the lowest COE. The load following and cycle charging energy dispatch methods are compared to identify the optimal system configuration that yields the lowest COE. The diesel generator-only system is chosen as a benchmark for comparisons.

Findings

The results show that the hybrid system constituted from the diesel generator, photovoltaic (PV), micro-hydro and energy storage using the load following energy dispatch method yields the lowest COE of RM 0.519 per kWh. The COE of the hybrid system is 378 per cent lower than that of the diesel generator-only system. The lead-acid energy storage system (ESS) is able to reduce 40 per cent of COE as compared to the system without ESS.

Originality/value

The results indicate that the COE of the diesel-micro hydro-PV-ESS system with load following dispatch strategy is RM 0.519 per kWh, and this value is 35 per cent higher than the average electricity price in Malaysia. However, it is important to note that the costs of extending the grid to the rural area are not taken into account. If this cost is considered into the electricity price, then the standalone hybrid power system proposed by this study is still a competitive alternative for rural electrification.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

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Book part
Publication date: 7 August 2019

Céline Cholez and Pascale Trompette

Over the past three decades, new off-grid electrification infrastructures – as micro-grids and other solar solutions – have moved from innovative initiatives, conducted by…

Abstract

Over the past three decades, new off-grid electrification infrastructures – as micro-grids and other solar solutions – have moved from innovative initiatives, conducted by NGOs and private stakeholders, to a credible model promoted by international organizations for electrification of rural areas in developing countries. Multiple conditions support their spread: major technological advances in the field of renewable energies (panels, batteries), intensive Chinese industrial production allowing lower prices, institutional reforms in Africa including these solutions in major national electrification programmes, and, finally, an opening to the private sector as a supposed guarantee of the projects’ viability. However, while the development of this market calls for significant investments, a vast set of calculations and a strong “micro-capitalist” doctrine, all involved in their design, experts admit that a large proportion of projects hardly survive or even fail.

This chapter investigates these failures by exploring the ecology of such infrastructures, designed for “the poor.” It discusses “thinking infrastructures” in terms of longevity by focusing on economic failures risks. The authors argue that the ecology of the infrastructure integrates various economic conversions and exchanges chains expected to participate in the infrastructure’s functioning. By following energy access solutions for rural Africa in sub-regions of Senegal and Madagascar, from their political and technical design to their ordinary life, the authors examine the tensions and contradictions embedded within the scripts of balance supposed to guarantee their success.

Details

Thinking Infrastructures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-558-0

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Book part
Publication date: 25 September 2017

Shaheen Akter, Xiaolan Fu, Leonardo Bremermann, Mauro Rosa, Valerie Nattrodt, Juha Väätänen, Roman Teplov and Iulduz Khairullina

Access to affordable and sustainable energy is crucial for the improvement of the well-being of modern societies. Most energy technologies require comparatively high…

Abstract

Access to affordable and sustainable energy is crucial for the improvement of the well-being of modern societies. Most energy technologies require comparatively high up-front investment, which adds to the challenge of electrification, despite the recognized multiple benefits. Partnership with multinational enterprises (MNEs) can provide necessary investment in infrastructure, finance, and technology for renewable energy and contribute to improving development indicators. However, remote areas with poor infrastructure do not have access to MNEs that are profit seekers. The Brazil experience with MNEs and “Light for All” (LfA) program shows that people gaining access to electricity invest more in businesses, education, health, and women reduce their drudgery at household chores. However, areas having a poor infrastructure in the north remain out of electricity, and attempts to create universal access were failed until a regulatory incentive framework and particular attention from the government was established. This is a great learning for the developing countries aiming to achieve sustainable development goals. A host country can gain development cooperation from MNEs with rightly formulated and implemented policies and regulatory conditions.

Details

Multinational Enterprises and Sustainable Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-163-8

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2020

Mehdi Jahangiri, Ahmad Haghani, Shahram Heidarian, Ali Mostafaeipour, Heidar Ali Raiesi and Akbar Alidadi Shamsabadi

Rural areas are one of the effective regions in economy and self-sufficiency field especially in agricultural and livestock section. Planning in the rural section and the…

Abstract

Purpose

Rural areas are one of the effective regions in economy and self-sufficiency field especially in agricultural and livestock section. Planning in the rural section and the effort in solving the problems of farmers lead to increase their interest in farming and manufacturing in the villages and decrease their migration to the cities and metropolitans. Therefore, the present study aimed at feasibility of electricity to a rural household in Iran using off-grid solar-based hybrid system.

Design/methodology/approach

In renewable energy projects, a successful evaluation requires suitable criteria so that one can properly analyze the operational behavior of all feasible scenarios. In the present paper, HOMER software has been used for this purpose for a village with no access to electricity grid (Bar Aftab-e Jalaleh, Iran). Due to drastic fluctuation of fossil fuel prices and varied solar radiations in various years because of climate change, sensitivity analysis has been performed using HOMER.

Findings

In the optimum status economically, 70% of needed energy is provided by solar cells at the price 0.792 $/kWh. The comparison between the optimum condition economically and the condition that only use fossil fuels revealed that the return on investment will occur after less than 2 years and have remained profitable over 23 years.

Social implications

The authors hope that the results of this study can be used in planning of the authorities to realize the interests of people in this village.

Originality/value

According to the surveys, despite Iran being the first country in terms of providing solar power to the villages, so far no socio-economic-environmental assessment has been done for a solar cell-based micro-grid in an off-grid mode for a remote village that is deprived of electricity from a national electricity grid. In addition, for the first time in Iran, the effect of the fuel price and solar radiation parameters variability on the performance of system have been investigated.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Energy Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-780-1

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Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2018

Lloyd Levine

Access to high-speed Internet is essential for full and consequential participation in the civic, economic, and education systems of modern life. Yet 30% of Californians…

Abstract

Access to high-speed Internet is essential for full and consequential participation in the civic, economic, and education systems of modern life. Yet 30% of Californians continue to lack “meaningful Internet access” at home. This digital divide is worse among already disadvantaged communities and prevents rural, lower-income, and disabled individuals from fully participating in the civic, economic, and education systems of life in 2018. This chapter establishes the magnitude of the digital divide, examines the factors that contribute to the Divide, and looks at which groups are most affected. Successful government programs that invested in utility infrastructure and adoption, such as the Rural Electrification Act, the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act and the California Advanced Services Fund, are examined to provide a foundation for broadband specific policy recommendations. The chapter sets up a framework for policy recommendations by segmenting the population based upon the concepts of material and motivational access and establishing meaningful Internet access as the goal for policy-makers. The chapter puts forth a number of specific policy recommendations to address the technological disparity and prevent it from furthering the economic and educational divides.

Details

The M in CITAMS@30
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-669-3

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Energy Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-780-1

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